London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. The city had a population of 383,822 according to the 2016 Canadian census. London is at the confluence of the Thames River 200 km from both Toronto and Detroit; the city of London is a separated municipality, politically separate from Middlesex County, though it remains the county seat. London and the Thames were named in 1793 by John Graves Simcoe, who proposed the site for the capital city of Upper Canada; the first European settlement was between 1804 by Peter Hagerman. The village was founded in 1826 and incorporated in 1855. Since London has grown to be the largest Southwestern Ontario municipality and Canada's 11th largest metropolitan area, having annexed many of the smaller communities that surrounded it. London is a regional centre of healthcare and education, being home to the University of Western Ontario, Fanshawe College, several hospitals; the city hosts a number of musical and artistic exhibits and festivals, which contribute to its tourism industry, but its economic activity is centred on education, medical research and information technology.
London's university and hospitals are among its top ten employers. London lies at the junction of Highway 401 and 402, connecting it to Toronto and Sarnia, it has an international airport and bus station. Prior to European contact in the 18th century, the present site of London was occupied by several Neutral and Ojibwe villages. Archaeological investigations in the region show aboriginal people have resided in the area for at least the past 10,000 years; the current location of London was selected as the site of the future capital of Upper Canada in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe, who named the village, founded in 1826. It did not become the capital Simcoe envisioned. Rather, it was an administrative seat for the area west of York. Locally, it was part of the Talbot Settlement, named for Colonel Thomas Talbot, the chief coloniser of the area, who oversaw the land surveying and built the first government buildings for the administration of the Western Ontario peninsular region.
Together with the rest of Southwestern Ontario, the village benefited from Talbot's provisions, not only for building and maintaining roads but for assignment of access priorities to main routes to productive land. At the time and clergy reserves were receiving preference in the rest of Ontario. In 1814, there was a skirmish during the War of 1812 in what is now southwest London at Reservoir Hill Hungerford Hill. In 1832, the new settlement suffered an outbreak of cholera. London proved a centre of strong Tory support during the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, notwithstanding a brief rebellion led by Charles Duncombe; the British government located its Ontario peninsular garrison there in 1838, increasing its population with soldiers and their dependents, the business support populations they required. London was incorporated as a town in 1840. On 13 April 1845, fire destroyed much of London, at the time constructed of wooden buildings. One of the first casualties was the town's only fire engine.
The fire burned nearly 30 acres of land, destroying 150 buildings, before burning itself out the same day. One-fifth of London was destroyed and this was the province's first million dollar fire. Sir John Carling, Tory MP for London, gave three events to explain the development of London in a 1901 speech, they were: the location of the court and administration in London in 1826. The population in 1846 was 3,500. Brick buildings included a jail and court house, large barracks. London had a fire company, a theatre, a large Gothic church, nine other churches or chapels, two market buildings. In 1845, a fire destroyed 150 buildings but most had been rebuilt by 1846. Connection with other communities was by road using stages that ran daily. A weekly newspaper was published and mail was received daily by the post office. On 1 January 1855, London was incorporated as a "city". In the 1860s, a sulphur spring was discovered at the forks of the Thames River while industrialists were drilling for oil; the springs became a popular destination for wealthy Ontarians, until the turn of the 20th century when a textile factory was built at the site, replacing the spa.
Records from 1869 indicate a population of about 18,000 served by three newspapers, churches of all major denominations and offices of all the major banks. Industry included several tanneries, oil refineries and foundries, four flour mills, the Labatt Brewing Company and the Carling brewery in addition to other manufacturing. Both the Great Western and Grand Trunk railways had stops here. Several insurance companies had offices in the city; the Crystal Palace Barracks, built in 1861, an octagonal brick building with eight doors and forty-eight windows, was used for events such the Provincial Agricultural Fair of Canada West held in London that year. It was visited by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Governor-General John Young, 1st Baron Lisgar and Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald.. Long before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, there were proposals for military colleges in Canada. Staffed by British Regulars, adult male students underwent a 3 month long military courses from 1865 at the School of Military Instruction in London.
Established by Militia General Order in 1865, the school enabled Officers of Militia or Candidates for Commission or promotion in the M
Two Solitudes (novel)
Two Solitudes is a 1945 novel by Hugh MacLennan. It popularized the term two solitudes to refer to the perceived lack of communication between English- and French-speaking Canadians; the novel's plot revolves around the life and times of the fictional character Paul Tallard and this character's struggles in reconciling the differences between his English and French Canadian identities. Two Solitudes was selected as one of the five novels to be discussed in the 2013 Canada Reads "battle of the books", broadcast by CBC Radio, it was defended by Canadian actor Jay Baruchel but it lost to Lisa Moore's February. In 1978 it was made into a motion picture and directed by Lionel Chetwynd. "Book Profile: Two Solitudes". CBC. Retrieved January 22, 2013
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
A Perfect Night to Go to China
A Perfect Night to Go to China is a novel by David Gilmour, published in 2005. It won the 2005 Governor General's Award for English language fiction
The Canadian Encyclopedia
The Canadian Encyclopedia is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto. Articles appear in French, it is available at no cost. The Canadian Encyclopedia includes 14,000 articles in each language on numerous subjects including history, popular culture, people, politics, First Nations and science; the website provides access to the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, The Canadian Encyclopedia Junior Edition, Maclean's magazine articles and Timelines of Canadian history. Canada had been without a national encyclopedia since the 1957 Encyclopedia Canadiana; when looking through the Canadian entries in existing encyclopedias such as Random House, Canadian nationalist and book publisher Mel Hurtig found blatant errors and omissions. In response, in the 1980s he launched a project to create a wholly new Canadian encyclopedia with support from Alberta Premier Peter Lougheed; the Editor-in-Chief James Harley Marsh recruited more than 3,000 authors to write for it. They made index cards for every fact in the encyclopedia, signed off by the researcher, sourced from three sources.
They had to have every article read by three outside readers. The whole thing was proofread by an independent source. There were over 3,000 people who contributed to the content and accuracy of the encyclopedia's entries; the first edition of The Canadian Encyclopedia was published in three volumes in 1985 for $125/set and sold out within days of publication – a Canadian bestseller. A revised and expanded edition was sold out as well, it was the first encyclopedia in the world to use a computer to help compile, typeset and print it. It was encoded in a markup language precursor of HTML. In September 1990, Hurtig published the five-volume Junior Encyclopedia of Canada, the first encyclopedia for young Canadians. Hurtig sold his publishing company with it the encyclopedia. In 1995, the first edition of The Canadian Encyclopedia Plus was published as a digital CD-ROM. In 1999, the Historica Foundation, made a full version of The Canadian Encyclopedia available online. List of online encyclopedias Marsh, James H..
The Canadian Encyclopedia. The Canadian Encyclopedia. ISBN 978-0-7710-2099-5. Official website
Execution is a 1958 war novel by Canadian novelist and Second World War veteran Colin McDougall. Although it won McDougall the 1958 Governor General's Award for English language fiction, it was his only novel, after publishing it to wide acclaim he retreated into a quiet life as Registrar of McGill University in Montreal. Execution stands with Timothy Findley's The Wars and Hugh MacLennan's Barometer Rising as one of the most read and studied Canadian war novels of the twentieth century. Based in part on McDougall's experience as an officer with Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, Execution follows the fictional Canadian 2nd Rifles Brigade during the Italian Campaign of 1943. Led by the flamboyant Brigadier Ian Kildare, the Canadians invade Sicily where they meet with little resistance from the Italian Army, composed of hapless conscripts who want no part in the war. Despite Kildare's strict orders for his men to shoot Italian deserters on sight, the Canadians take kindly to a pair of buffoonish Italian deserters, more notable for their culinary skills than military prowess.
Impetuously, Kildare orders the Canadians to execute the Italians. The Canadians are caught between the obligation to follow orders and the sense that executing the two Italians in cold blood is ethically unjustifiable—not to mention it being a violation of the Geneva Convention; the brutal execution of the two Italians forces the Canadians to confront the ethics of warfare, now that "the enemy" is no longer a distant and faceless target. Major Bunny Bazin, the most battle-hardened and philosophical of the Canadians, voices the novel's central theme when he states that "execution is... the ultimate degradation of man." Here the term "execution" works both and as a metaphor. The novel's main protagonist, Lieutenant John Adam, is an efficient soldier and leader, who finds "the vulture fear" inhabiting his soul after the execution of the Italians. Bound to protect and lead his men as they march through Italy, from Ortona to the Hitler Line near Monte Cassino, Adam finds himself struggling to maintain the composure fitting a commander, as an inner "horror" gnaws at his conscience.
Adam and his men stumble on a chance to redeem themselves when one of their own comrades, Rifleman Jones, a mildly retarded but efficient infantryman, is sentenced to be executed for treason by his own army, after he falls in with a ring of corrupt soldiers who murder an American. Although everyone, including a newly promoted General Kildare, knows that "Jonesy" is a scapegoat for the real murderers, the execution must go ahead out of political expediency. Led by Adam, the men wage a tenacious campaign to have Jonesy freed, but all efforts fail; when Jonesy is led out to be executed, the officer in charge of the execution faints, Adam is forced to command the firing squad himself. Execution ends with Adam and the other men regaining a measure of their lost confidence, although Major Bazin dies on the battlefield; the novel espouses McDougall's thesis that although the Canadians inhabit a brutal and unforgiving world, they are not intrinsically immoral. War makes men act brutally and inhumanely, but at their root is an essential goodness that war cannot subsume completely.
As Warren Cariou shows in his afterword to the New Canadian Library edition of Execution, the novel is not a realist novel, but an existential meditation on the ethics of war. Like Herman Wouk's The Caine Mutiny or Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace, both of which were key models for McDougall, Execution is a novel that combines visceral depictions of combat with philosophical questions about the blurred boundaries between good and evil. Jones is considered to be a scapegoat. Other important themes include the abuse of military power in one scene involving Allied generals planning an attack against the Germans, bound to fail, the isolation and alienation of front-line soldiers from mainstream society; the second execution scene establishes Jonesy as a Christ-like figure, his death is a symbolic atonement for the Canadians' "sin" of murdering the two Italians. Jonesy's execution is based in part on the real-life execution of Private Harold Pringle, a Canadian soldier executed by his own army in Italy and given a full historical treatment in Andrew Clark's book, A Keen Soldier.
There have been at least two dramatic presentations of the novel on television. Episode 87 of Four Star Playhouse featured a story called "The Firing Squad" and was televised on 6 October 1955; the play was directed by Robert Florey, writing credits went to Frederick Brady and Colin McDougall. A made-for-television movie inspired by the novel titled Firing Squad aired in 1991; the film differed from the book taking place in France in the winter of 1944. A fictional unit, the Alberta Fusiliers, is depicted, as part of a fictional formation - a "Sixth Division" wearing black formation patches. Like the book, the film seems inspired by the real-life story of Private Pringle, yet focuses not on the alleged criminal but on the other men of his unit. Unlike the book, there are no combat scenes, as the action takes place during the winter stalemate, in fact given the French location, lack of front line positions, other evidence given in dialogue, the soldiers in the film are lo