The Barbican Centre is a performing arts centre in the Barbican Estate of the City of London and the largest of its kind in Europe. The Centre hosts classical and contemporary music concerts, theatre performances, film screenings and art exhibitions, it houses a library, three restaurants, a conservatory. The Barbican Centre is member of the Global Cultural Districts Network; the London Symphony Orchestra and the BBC Symphony Orchestra are based in the Centre's Concert Hall. In 2013, it once again became the London-based venue of the Royal Shakespeare Company following the company's departure in 2001; the Barbican Centre is owned and managed by the City of London Corporation, the third-largest arts funder in the United Kingdom. It was built as The City's gift to the nation at a cost of £161 million and was opened to the public by Queen Elizabeth II on 3 March 1982; the Barbican Centre is known for its brutalist architecture. Barbican Hall: capacity 1,943. Barbican Theatre: capacity 1,156, it is one of the largest public libraries in London and has a separate arts library, a large music library and a children's library which conducts free events.
The Barbican Library houses the'London Collection' of historical books and resources, some of which date back 300 years, all being available on loan. The library has an art exhibition space for hire; the music library has two free practice pianos for public use. The Barbican Centre had a long development period, only opening long after the surrounding Barbican Estate housing complex had been built, it is situated in an area, badly bombed during World War II. The Barbican Centre, designed by Peter Chamberlin, Geoffry Powell and Christoph Bon of Chamberlin and Bon in the Brutalist style, has a complex multi-level layout with numerous entrances. Lines painted on the ground help would-be audience members avoid getting lost on the walkways of the Barbican Housing Estate on the way to the centre; the Barbican Centre's design – a concrete ziggurat – has always been controversial and divides opinion. It was voted "London's ugliest building" in a Grey London poll in September 2003. In September 2001, arts minister Tessa Blackstone announced that the Barbican Centre complex was to be a Grade II listed building.
It has been designated a site of special architectural interest for its scale, its cohesion and the ambition of the project. The same architectural practice designed the Barbican Housing Estate and the nearby Golden Lane Estate. Project architect John Honer worked on the British Library at St Pancras – a red brick ziggurat. In the mid-1990s, a cosmetic improvement scheme by Theo Crosby, of the Pentagram design studio, added statues and decorative features reminiscent of the Arts and Crafts movement. In 2005–2006, the centre underwent a more significant refurbishment, designed by architects Allford Hall Monaghan Morris and Roger Westman, which improved circulation and introduced bold signage in a style in keeping with the centre's original 1970s Brutalist architecture; that improvement scheme added an internal bridge linking the Silk Street foyer area with the lakeside foyer area. The centre's Silk Street entrance dominated by an access for vehicles, was modified to give better pedestrian access.
The scheme included removing most of the mid-1990s embellishments. Outside, the main focal point of the centre is its neighbouring terrace; the theatre's fly tower has been made into a high-level conservatory. The Barbican Hall's acoustic has been controversial: some praised it as attractively warm, but others found it too dry for large-scale orchestral performance. In 1994, Chicago acoustician Larry Kirkegaard oversaw a £500,000 acoustic re-engineering of the hall "producing a perceptible improvement in echo control and sound absorption", music critic Norman Lebrecht wrote in October 2000 – and returned in 2001 to rip out the stage canopy and drop adjustable acoustic reflectors, designed by Caruso St John, from the ceiling, as part of a £7.5 mn refurbishment of the hall. Art music magazine Gramophone still complained about "the relative dryness of the Barbican acoustic" in August 2007; the theatre was built as the London home of the Royal Shakespeare Company, involved in the design, but decided not to renew its contract in 2002 after claiming a lack of performing space, plus the artistic director, Adrian Noble, wanting to develop the company's touring performances.
The theatre's response was to extend its existing six-month season of international productions, "Barbican International Theatre Event", to the whole year. On 23 January 2013 Greg Doran, RSC artistic director, announced the Company's return to the Barbican Centre in a three-year season of Shakespeare's history plays; the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, where the Barbican Centre theatrical performances are staged, the City of London's Barbican Library, neither part of the centre, are on the site. The Museum of London is nearby at Aldersgate, is within the Barbican Estate; the Barbican Centre features in Michael Paraskos's novel In Search of Sixpence as the home of the lead character, a bar call
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
The Bacchae is an ancient Greek tragedy, written by the Athenian playwright Euripides during his final years in Macedonia, at the court of Archelaus I of Macedon. It premiered posthumously at the Theatre of Dionysus in 405 BC as part of a tetralogy that included Iphigeneia at Aulis and Alcmaeon in Corinth, which Euripides' son or nephew is assumed to have directed, it won first prize in the City Dionysia festival competition. The tragedy is based on the Greek myth of King Pentheus of Thebes and his mother Agave, their punishment by the god Dionysus; the god Dionysus appears at the beginning of the play and proclaims that he has arrived in Thebes to avenge the slander, repeated by his aunts, that he is not the son of Zeus. In response, he intends to introduce Dionysian rites into the city, he intends to demonstrate to the king, to Thebes that he was indeed born a god. At the end of the play, Pentheus is torn apart by the women of Thebes and his mother Agave bears his head on a pike to her father Cadmus.
The Bacchae is considered to be not only one of Euripides's greatest tragedies, but one of the greatest written, modern or ancient. The Bacchae is distinctive for the facts that the chorus is integrated into the plot and the god is not a distant presence, but a character in the play, the protagonist; the Bacchae has been the subject of varying interpretations regarding what the play as a whole means, or indeed whether there is a “moral” to the story. The extraordinary beauty and passion of the poetic choral descriptions indicate that the author knew what attracted those who followed Dionysus, and the vivid gruesomeness of the punishment of Pentheus suggests that he could understand those who were troubled by the religion. At one time the interpretation that prevailed was that the play was an expression of Euripides’ religious devotion, as though after a life of being critical of the Greek gods and their followers, the author repented of his cynicism, wrote a play that honors Dionysus and that carries a dire warning to anyone who doesn’t believe.
At the end of the 19th century the opposite idea began to take hold. The Dionysus in Euripides' tale is a young god, angry that his mortal family, the royal house of Cadmus, has denied him a place of honor as a deity, his mortal mother, was a mistress of Zeus who while pregnant, was killed by Hera, jealous of her husband's affair. When Semele died, her sisters accused her of lying. Most of Semele's family refuse to believe Dionysus is the son of Zeus, the young god is spurned in his home, he has traveled throughout other foreign lands, gathering a cult of female worshipers. At the play's start he has returned, disguised as a stranger, to take revenge on the house of Cadmus, he has driven the women of Thebes, including his aunts, into an ecstatic frenzy, sending them dancing and hunting on Mount Cithaeron, much to the horror of their families. Complicating matters, his cousin, the young king Pentheus, has declared a ban on the worship of Dionysus throughout Thebes; the play begins before the palace at Thebes, with Dionysus telling the story of his birth and his reasons for visiting the city.
Dionysus explains he is the son of a mortal woman, a god, Zeus. Some in Thebes, don't believe this story. In fact, Semele’s sisters—Autonoe and Ino—claim it is a lie intended to cover up the fact that Semele became pregnant by some mortal. Dionysus reveals that he has driven the women of the city mad, including his three aunts, has led them into the mountains to observe his ritual festivities, he has disguised himself as a mortal for the time being, but he plans to vindicate his mother by appearing before all of Thebes as a god, the son of Zeus, establishing his permanent cult of followers. Dionysus exits to the mountains, the chorus enters, they perform a choral ode in praise of Dionysus. Tiresias, the blind and elderly seer, appears, he calls for the founder and former king of Thebes. The two old men start out to join the revelry in the mountains when Cadmus’ petulant young grandson Pentheus, the current king, enters. Disgusted to find the two old men in festival dress, he scolds them and orders his soldiers to arrest anyone engaging in Dionysian worship, including the mysterious "foreigner" who has introduced this worship.
Pentheus intends to have him stoned to death. The guards soon return with Dionysus himself in tow. Pentheus skeptical of and fascinated by the Dionysian rites. Dionysus's answers are cryptic. Infuriated, Pentheus has Dionysus taken chained to an angry bull in the palace stable, but the god now shows his power. He razes the palace with an earthquake and fire. Dionysus and Pentheus are once again at odds when a herdsman arrives from the top of Mount Cithaeron, where he had been herding his grazing cattle, he reports that he found women on the mountain behaving strangely: wandering the forest, suckling animals, twining snakes in their hair, performing miraculous feats. The herdsmen and the shepherds made a plan to capture Pentheus' mother, but when they jumped out of hiding to grab her, the Bacchae pursued the men. The men escaped, but their cattle were not so fortunate, as the women fell upon the animals, ripping them to shreds with their bare hands; the women carried on, plun
J. M. Barrie
Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, was a Scottish novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan. He was born and educated in Scotland and moved to London, where he wrote a number of successful novels and plays. There he met the Llewelyn Davies boys, who inspired him to write about a baby boy who has magical adventures in Kensington Gardens to write Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, a "fairy play" about an ageless boy and an ordinary girl named Wendy who have adventures in the fantasy setting of Neverland. Although he continued to write Peter Pan overshadowed his other work, is credited with popularising the name Wendy. Barrie unofficially adopted the Davies boys following the deaths of their parents. Barrie was made a baronet by George V on 14 June 1913, a member of the Order of Merit in the 1922 New Year Honours. Before his death, he gave the rights to the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London, which continues to benefit from them.
James Matthew Barrie was born in Angus, to a conservative Calvinist family. His father David Barrie was a modestly successful weaver, his mother Margaret Ogilvy assumed her deceased mother's household responsibilities at the age of eight. Barrie was the ninth child of ten, all of whom were schooled in at least the three Rs in preparation for possible professional careers, his siblings were: Alexander, Mary Ann, Elizabeth, David Ogilvy, Sarah and Margaret. He drew attention to himself with storytelling, he only grew to 5 ft 31⁄2 in. According to his 1934 passport; when he was 6 years old, Barrie's next-older brother David died the day before his 14th birthday in an ice-skating accident. This left his mother devastated, Barrie tried to fill David's place in his mother's attentions wearing David's clothes and whistling in the manner that he did. One time, Barrie entered her room and heard her say, "Is that you?" "I thought it was the dead boy she was speaking to", wrote Barrie in his biographical account of his mother Margaret Ogilvy "and I said in a little lonely voice,'No, it's no' him, it's just me.'"
Barrie's mother found comfort in the fact that her dead son would remain a boy forever, never to grow up and leave her. Barrie and his mother entertained each other with stories of her brief childhood and books such as Robinson Crusoe, works by fellow Scotsman Walter Scott, The Pilgrim's Progress. At the age of 8, Barrie was sent to the Glasgow Academy in the care of his eldest siblings Alexander and Mary Ann, who taught at the school; when he was 10, he continued his education at the Forfar Academy. At 14, he left home for Dumfries Academy, again under the watch of Mary Ann, he became a voracious reader, was fond of Penny Dreadfuls and the works of Robert Michael Ballantyne and James Fenimore Cooper. At Dumfries, he and his friends spent time in the garden of Moat Brae house, playing pirates "in a sort of Odyssey, long afterwards to become the play of Peter Pan", they formed a drama club, producing his first play Bandelero the Bandit, which provoked a minor controversy following a scathing moral denunciation from a clergyman on the school's governing board.
Barrie knew. However, his family attempted to persuade him to choose a profession such as the ministry. With advice from Alexander, he was able to work out a compromise: he would attend a university, but would study literature. Barrie enrolled at the University of Edinburgh where he wrote drama reviews for the Edinburgh Evening Courant, he graduated and obtained an M. A. on 21 April 1882. Following a job advertisement found by his sister in The Scotsman, he worked for a year and a half as a staff journalist on the Nottingham Journal, he returned to Kirriemuir. He submitted a piece to the St. James's Gazette, a London newspaper, using his mother's stories about the town where she grew up; the editor "liked that Scotch thing" so well. They served as the basis for his first novels: Auld Licht Idylls, A Window in Thrums, The Little Minister; the stories depicted the "Auld Lichts", a strict religious sect to which his grandfather had once belonged. Modern literary criticism of these early works has been unfavourable, tending to disparage them as sentimental and nostalgic depictions of a parochial Scotland, far from the realities of the industrialised nineteenth century, seen as characteristic of what became known as the Kailyard School.
Despite, or because of, they were popular enough at the time to establish Barrie as a successful writer. Following that success, he published Better Dead and at his own expense, but it failed to sell, his two "Tommy" novels, Sentimental Tommy and Tommy and Grizel, were about a boy and young man who clings to childish fantasy, with an unhappy ending. The late nineteenth century English novelist George Gissing read the former in November 1896 and wrote that he "thoroughly dislike". Meanwhile, Barrie's attention turned to works for the theatre, beginning with a biography of Richard Savage, written by Barrie and H. B. Marriott Watson, he followed this with Ibsen's Ghost
2014 Scottish independence referendum
A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom took place on Thursday 18 September 2014. The referendum question was "Should Scotland be an independent country?", which voters answered with "Yes" or "No". The "No" side won, with 2,001,926 voting against 1,617,989 voting in favour; the turnout of 84.6% was the highest recorded for an election or referendum in the United Kingdom since the introduction of universal suffrage. The Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013, setting out the arrangements for the referendum, was passed by the Scottish Parliament in November 2013, following an agreement between the devolved Scottish government and the Government of the United Kingdom. To pass, the independence proposal required a simple majority. With some exceptions, all European Union or Commonwealth citizens resident in Scotland aged sixteen years or over could vote, which produced a total electorate of 4,300,000 people; this was the first time that the electoral franchise was extended to include sixteen and seventeen-year-olds in Scotland.
Yes Scotland was the main campaign group for independence, while Better Together was the main campaign group in favour of maintaining the union. Many other campaign groups, political parties, businesses and prominent individuals were involved. Prominent issues raised during the referendum included the currency an independent Scotland would use, public expenditure, EU membership, North Sea oil. An exit poll of voters revealed that for "No"-voters, the retention of the pound sterling was the deciding factor, while for "yes"-voters, the biggest single motivation was "disaffection with Westminster politics"; the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England were established as independent countries during the Middle Ages. After fighting a series of wars during the 14th century, the two monarchies entered a personal union in 1603 when James VI of Scotland became James I of England; the two nations were temporarily united under one government when Oliver Cromwell was declared Lord Protector of a Commonwealth in 1653, but this was dissolved when the monarchy was restored in 1660.
Scotland and England united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Factors in favour of union were, on the Scottish side, the economic problems caused by the failure of the Darien scheme and, on the English, securing the Hanoverian line of succession. Great Britain in turn united with the Kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Most of Ireland left the Union in 1922 to form the Irish Free State; the Labour Party was committed to home rule for Scotland in the 1920s, but it slipped down its agenda in the following years. The Scottish National Party was founded in 1934, but did not achieve significant electoral success until the 1960s. A document calling for home rule, the Scottish Covenant, was signed by 2,000,000 people in the late-1940s. Home rule, now known as Scottish devolution, did not become a serious proposal until the late 1970s as the Labour Government of James Callaghan came under electoral pressure from the SNP. A proposal for a devolved Scottish Assembly was put to a referendum in 1979.
A narrow majority of votes were cast in favour of change, but this had no effect due to a requirement that the number voting'Yes' had to exceed 40% of the total electorate. No further constitutional reform was proposed until Labour returned to power in a landslide electoral victory in May 1997. A second Scottish devolution referendum was held that year, as promised in the Labour election manifesto. Clear majorities expressed support for both a devolved Scottish Parliament and that Parliament having the power to vary the basic rate of income tax; the Scotland Act 1998 established the new Scottish Parliament, first elected on 6 May 1999, with power to legislate on unreserved matters within Scotland. A commitment to hold an independence referendum in 2010 was part of the SNP's election manifesto when it contested the 2007 Scottish Parliament election; the press were hostile towards the SNP, with a headline for The Scottish Sun in May 2007 stating – along with an image of a hangman's noose – "Vote SNP today and you put Scotland's head in the noose".
As a result of that election, the SNP became the largest party in the Scottish Parliament and formed a minority government led by the First Minister, Alex Salmond. The SNP administration launched a'National Conversation' as a consultation exercise in August 2007, part of which included a draft referendum bill, the Referendum Bill. After this, a white paper for the proposed Referendum Bill was published, on 30 November 2009, it detailed 4 possible scenarios, with the text of the Referendum to be revealed later. The scenarios were: no change; the Scottish government published a draft version of the bill on 25 February 2010 for public consultation. The consultation paper set out the proposed ballot papers, the mechanics of the proposed referendum, how the proposed referendum was to be regulated. Public responses were invited; the bill outlined three proposals: the first was full devolution or'devolution max', suggesting that the Scottish Parliament should be responsible for "all laws and duties in Scotland", with the exception of "defence and foreign affairs.
Paines Plough is a touring theatre company founded in 1974 by writer David Pownall and director John Adams. The company specialises in commissioning and producing new plays and helping playwrights develop their craft. Over the past four decades, Paines Plough has established itself as a leading new writing company producing work by a wide range of playwrights across the UK and abroad. Collaboration with other theatre organisations is a vital feature of the company’s work as since 2010 the company has co-produced every show they've worked on with either a venue or a touring partner. In 2005, Paines Plough launched Future Perfect in conjunction with Channel 4; the scheme is a year-long attachment for emerging playwrights. Writers who have taken part include Tom Morton-Smith and Duncan Macmillan. In October 2010, the company won a TMA award for special achievement in regional theatre. Paines Plough was formed in 1974 over a pint of Paines bitter in the Plough pub by playwright David Pownall and director John Adams.
For over 40 years the company has commissioned and toured new plays all over Britain and internationally. Roundabout is Paines Plough's touring in-the-round auditorium. Roundabout was designed by Lucy Osborne and Emma Chapman in collaboration with Charcoalblue and Howard Eaton, it was developed by Factory Settings. In 2010, Roundabout was commissioned, with a prototype built in 2011 with Sheffield Theatres; the opening season of Roundabout consisted of three new plays performed in repertory One Day When We Were Young by Nick Payne, Lungs by Duncan Macmillan and The Sound of Heavy Rain by Penelope Skinner. In 2014, Roundabout was re-imagined to allow for touring; as part of Paines Plough's 40th anniversary celebrations a new season was commissioned for Roundabout. The plays debuted at Edinburgh Festival Fringe at Summerhall: Our Teacher's A Troll by Dennis Kelly, The Initiate by Alexandra Wood and Lungs and Every Brilliant Thing by Duncan Macmillan. After the run in Edinburgh Roundabout toured nationally to: Corn Exchange, Margate Theatre Royal, Hackney Showroom and The Civic in Barnsley.
Roundabout won the Theatre Building of the Year award at The Stage Awards. In 2015, Roundabout toured with the same programme but added one new play to the repertory The Human Ear by Alexandra Wood; the auditorium once again took up residency at Summerhall for Edinburgh Festival Fringe before touring nationally to: Corn Exchange, Margate Theatre Royal, Southbank Centre, The Lowry, Lincoln Performing Arts Centre, Brewery Arts Centre in Kendal and Appetite in Stoke. At the end of 2015, Paines Plough were granted money as part of Arts Council England's Strategic Touring Fund to tour Roundabout from 2016 to 2018 with seven nationwide partner venues: The Civic in Barnsley, Margate Theatre Royal, RevoLuton, Hall For Cornwall, The Lowry, Lincoln Performing Arts Centre, Brewery Arts Centre in Kendal and Appetite in Stoke, they will each receive a repertory of three new plays commissioned and produced by Paines Plough and partners. The Roundabout plays for 2016 are Love and Taxidermy by Alan Harris, Growth by Luke Norris and I Got Superpowers for My Birthday by Katie Douglas.
With a Little Bit of Luck by Sabrina Mahfouz, directed by Stef O'Driscoll and co-produced with Latitude Festival Broken Biscuits by Tom Wells, directed by James Grieve and co-produced with Live Theatre Ten Weeks by Elinor Cook, directed by Kate Wasserberg and co-produced with Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama Growth by Luke Norris, directed by George Perrin Love and Taxidermy by Alan Harris, directed by George Perrin and co-produced by Sherman Cymru and Theatr Clwyd I Got Superpowers for My Birthday by Katie Douglas, directed by George Perrin and co-produced with Halfmoon Theatre Bilal's Birthday by Nathan Bryon, directed by Liz Carlson and co-produced by Naked Angels 322 Days by Lucy Gillespie, directed by Sean Linnen and co-produced by Naked Angels Come To Where I'm From Official website