Doctor of Medicine
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States and other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who hold a professional degree in medicine. In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine. University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century.
The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB. Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Harvard, McGill; these first few North American medical schools that were established were founded by physicians and surgeons, trained in England and Scotland. A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. A doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction. In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country.
Entry to medical school is competitive, only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum, during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they begin to practice, they may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency; the MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine".
After the civil wars, medical education has changed, the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor". In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation. Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's degrees which permits the use of the term'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have renamed their previous medical research doctorates; the University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science. In French-speaking Belgium, the medical degree awarded after six years of study is "Docteur en Médecine". Physicians would have to register with the Ordre des Medicins to practice medicine in the country. At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine.
After 6 years of general medical education, all students will graduate with
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
Columbine High School massacre
The Columbine High School massacre was a school shooting that occurred on April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School in Columbine, United States. The perpetrators, twelfth grade students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, murdered 12 students and one teacher. Ten students were killed in the library. At the time, it was the deadliest shooting at a high school in United States history; the crime has inspired several copycats, "Columbine" has become a byword for a school shooting. The two perpetrators injured 21 additional people with gunshots and exchanged gunfire with the police. Another three people were injured trying to escape the school. In addition to the shootings, the attack involved several homemade bombs; the largest of these were placed in the cafeteria. The motive remains unclear, but the pair planned the crime for about a year and wished for the massacre to rival the Oklahoma City bombing and cause the most deaths in United States history. USA Today referred to the attack as "planned as a grand, if badly implemented, terrorist bombing."The police were slow to enter the school, they were criticized for not intervening during the shooting.
The incident resulted in the introduction of the Immediate Action Rapid Deployment tactic, used in situations where an active shooter is trying to kill people rather than take hostages. Columbine resulted in an increased emphasis on school security with zero tolerance policies. Debates were sparked over gun control laws and gun culture, high school cliques and bullying. Discussed were the moral panic over goths, social outcasts, the use of pharmaceutical antidepressants by teenagers, teenage Internet use and violence in video games. In 1996, 15-year old Eric Harris created a private website on America Online, it was to host levels Harris created for use in the first-person shooter video games Doom and Doom II, as well as Quake. On the site, Harris began a blog, which included jokes and his thoughts on parents and friends, it detailed Harris sneaking out of the house to cause mischief and vandalism, such as lighting fireworks with his friend Dylan Klebold and others. The mascot of Columbine High School is the Rebels, he called these "Rebel Missions".
Harris and Klebold adopted the nicknames "Reb" and "Vodka" respectively. Beginning in early 1997, the blog postings began to show the first signs of Harris's anger against society. By the end of the year, the site contained instructions on. Harris wrote "the first true pipe bombs created from scratch by the rebels... Now our only problem is to find the place that will be'ground zero.'"Harris's site attracted few visitors, caused no concern until March 1998. Harris ended a blog post detailing murderous fantasies with "All I want to do is kill and injure as many of you as I can a few people. Like Brooks Brown. Brown claims Klebold gave him the web address, in an effort to warn him of Harris's threats of violence against him. Others suggest it was in fact discovered by Brooks' brother Aaron Brown in 1997. After Brown's parents viewed the site, they contacted the Jefferson County Sheriff's Office; when investigator Michael Guerra accessed the website, he discovered numerous violent threats directed against the students and teachers of CHS.
Guerra wrote a draft affidavit. The affidavit mentioned the discovery of an exploded pipe bomb in February 1998, a suspicion of Harris being involved in the unsolved case; the affidavit was never filed. On January 30, 1998, Harris and Klebold broke into a van, parked near Littleton and stole tools and computer equipment. Shortly afterwards, they were arrested by a police officer and subsequently attended a joint court hearing, where they pled guilty to the felony theft; the judge sentenced them to a juvenile diversion program. As a result, both delinquents attended mandatory classes such as anger management and talked with diversion officers. Harris began therapy with a psychologist and was prescribed antidepressants by a psychiatrist, they both were released from diversion several weeks early because of positive actions in the program and put on probation. Harris continued his scheduled meetings with his psychologist until a few months before the massacre. Nearly a year before the massacre, Klebold wrote a message in Harris's 1998 yearbook: "killing enemies, blowing up stuff, killing cops!!
My wrath for January's incident will be godlike. Not to mention our revenge in the commons." The commons was another term for the school cafeteria. Harris and Klebold kept journals, which were released to the public in 2006. In the journals, the pair would document their arsenal and plan of attack. Shortly after the court hearing for the van break-in, Harris reverted his website back to just posting user-created levels of Doom, he began to write his thoughts down in a journal instead. It shows a long period of methodical preparation for the massacre. Harris wrote on his computer about escaping to a foreign country after the attack, or hijacking an aircraft at Denver International Airport and crashing it into New York City. Klebold had been writing down his thoughts since March 1997; as early as November 1997, Klebold mentioned going on a killing spree. Harris and Klebold used their schoolwork to foreshadow the massacre, they both displayed themes of violence in their creative writing projects. Harris wrote a paper on school shootings, a poem from the perspective of a bullet.
Klebold wrote a s
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Ann Arbor is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934. Ann Arbor is home to the University of Michigan; the university shapes Ann Arbor's economy as it employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center. The city's economy is centered on high technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the university's research and development infrastructure. Ann Arbor was founded in 1824, named for wives of the village's founders, both named Ann, the stands of bur oak trees; the University of Michigan moved from Detroit to Ann Arbor in 1837, the city grew at a rapid rate in the early to mid-20th century. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as a center for left-wing politics. Ann Arbor became a focal point for political activism, such as opposition to the Vietnam War and support for the legalization of cannabis. In about 1774, the Potawatomi founded two villages in the area of.
Ann Arbor was founded in 1824 by land speculators John Elisha Walker Rumsey. On May 25, 1824, the town plat was registered with Wayne County as "Annarbour", the earliest known use of the town's name. Allen and Rumsey decided to name it for their wives, both named Ann, for the stands of bur oak in the 640 acres of land they purchased for $800 from the federal government at $1.25 per acre. The local Ojibwa named the settlement kaw-goosh-kaw-nick, after the sound of Allen's sawmill. Ann Arbor became the seat of Washtenaw County in 1827, was incorporated as a village in 1833; the Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside 40 acres of undeveloped land and offered it to the state of Michigan as the site of the state capital, but lost the bid to Lansing. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the University of Michigan, which moved from Detroit. Since the university's establishment in the city in 1837, the histories of the University of Michigan and Ann Arbor have been linked.
The town became a regional transportation hub in 1839 with the arrival of the Michigan Central Railroad, a north–south railway connecting Ann Arbor to Toledo and other markets to the south was established in 1878. Throughout the 1840s and the 1850s settlers continued to come to Ann Arbor. While the earlier settlers were of British ancestry, the newer settlers consisted of Germans and African-Americans. In 1851, Ann Arbor was chartered as a city, though the city showed a drop in population during the Depression of 1873, it was not until the early 1880s that Ann Arbor again saw robust growth, with new emigrants from Greece, Italy and Poland. Ann Arbor saw increased growth in manufacturing in milling. Ann Arbor's Jewish community grew after the turn of the 20th century, its first and oldest synagogue, Beth Israel Congregation, was established in 1916. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Ann Arbor became a locus for left-wing activism and anti-Vietnam War movement, as well as the student movement.
The first major meetings of the national left-wing campus group Students for a Democratic Society took place in Ann Arbor in 1960. S. teach-in against the Vietnam War. During the ensuing 15 years, many countercultural and New Left enterprises sprang up and developed large constituencies within the city; these influences washed into municipal politics during the early and mid-1970s when three members of the Human Rights Party won city council seats on the strength of the student vote. During their time on the council, HRP representatives fought for measures including pioneering antidiscrimination ordinances, measures decriminalizing marijuana possession, a rent-control ordinance. Alongside these liberal and left-wing efforts, a small group of conservative institutions were born in Ann Arbor; these include Word of a charismatic inter-denominational movement. Following a 1956 vote, the city of East Ann Arbor merged with Ann Arbor to encompass the eastern sections of the city. In the past several decades, Ann Arbor has grappled with the effects of rising land values and urban sprawl stretching into outlying countryside.
On November 4, 2003, voters approved a greenbelt plan under which the city government bought development rights on agricultural parcels of land adjacent to Ann Arbor to preserve them from sprawling development. Since a vociferous local debate has hinged on how and whether to accommodate and guide development within city limits. Ann Arbor ranks in the "top places to live" lists published by various mainstream media outlets every year. In 2008, it was ranked by CNNMoney.com 27th out of 100 "America's best small cities". And in 2010, Forbes listed Ann Arbor as one of the most liveable cities in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.70 square miles, of which, 27.83 square miles of it is land and 0.87 square miles is water, much of, part of the Huron River. Ann Arbor is about 35 miles west of Detroit. Ann Arbor Charter Township adjoins the city's north and east sides. Ann Arbor is situated on the Huron River in a productive fruit-growing region.
The landscape of Ann Arbor consists of hills and valleys, with the terrain becoming steeper near the Huron River. The elevation ranges from about 750 feet along the Huron River to 1,015 feet (309
Brewton is a city in Escambia County, United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 5,408; the city is the county seat of Escambia County. Brewton is located in south central Alabama, just north of the Florida Panhandle. Brewton was ranked as one of the 100 best small towns in America in Norman Crampton's book, The 100 Best Small Towns in America. In May 1861, the city of Brewton began as a train station under Edmund Troupe Bruton; the settlement was known as Newport when barges made runs to and from Pensacola, Florida on Murder Creek and Burnt Corn Creek before the installation of rail. During the Civil War rail lines were severed, small lumber mills were damaged or destroyed. However, after the war those who returned or arrived rebuilt the Brewton economy, began a school, established small businesses. Into the 1870s a new European demand for lumber stimulated the founding of numerous timber and lumber operations; the Conecuh-Escambia river system became a timber artery to the Gulf. Brewton became a town on February 13, 1885, was designated as the seat of Escambia County, Alabama.
Brewton was known in past times as "the richest little town in the South." Brewton's high per capita income was based on the profits enjoyed by a small number of "timber barons," as they are remembered. They had come at the end of the last century to harvest the pine forests, with their profits, stayed to build extraordinary homes along Belleville and Evergreen avenues; these families include the McMillans and the Millers, many of whose descendants still reside in the town. Over time the county erected a series of courthouses. Brewton developed an education system that included public and private institutions, including Jefferson Davis Community College and T. R. Miller High School; the latter was named for Thomas Richard Miller, a local timber baron and town father who donated money toward the building and opening of the school. In October 1934, Claude Neal, a 23-year-old African-American man arrested for the murder of a local young white woman in Greenwood, was moved to the jail in Brewton for safekeeping.
After a lynch mob learned where he was being held, about 100 men came to Brewton in 30 cars and kidnapped him from the jail. He was smuggled back into Jackson County, where announcements of his planned lynching were broadcast on the radio. Neal was tortured and hanged by a small group near the Chattahoochee River before his body was taken before a crowd of thousands, his body was hanged from a tree in the Marianna courthouse square. Whites rioted in Marianna, prompting the Florida governor to order more than 100 troops to town to put down the violence. More than 200 people were injured black, but including two police officers. Black-owned houses were burned in the riots. Brewton is located at 31°7′4″N 87°4′16″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.5 square miles, of which 11.3 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Climate is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Cfa".
The hottest temperature recorded in the city was 109 °F on June 18, 1933, the coldest temperature recorded was 3 °F on January 21, 1985. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,498 people, 2,216 households, 1,471 families residing in the city; the population density was 485.2 people per square mile. There were 2,543 housing units at an average density of 224.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 57.60% White or Caucasian, 40.23% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.53% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. 1.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,216 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the city, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,234, the median income for a family was $43,548. Males had a median income of $37,348 versus $20,212 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,185. About 12.6% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 18.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,408 people, 2,171 households, 1,412 families residing in the city; the population density was 474.9 people per square mile. There were 2,522 housing units at an average density of 221.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 54.1% White or Caucasian, 42.6% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 1.1% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
2.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,171 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 19.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness. Most societies consider murder to be an serious crime, thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder faces a long-term prison sentence a life sentence; the modern English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die". The Middle English mordre is a noun from Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from the Middle English noun.
The eighteenth-century English jurist William Blackstone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England set out the common law definition of murder, which by this definition occurs when a person, of sound memory and discretion, unlawfully kills any reasonable creature in being and under the king's peace, with malice aforethought, either express or implied. The elements of common law murder are: Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought; the Unlawful – This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defence, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation and respiration. With advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life.Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission.of a human – This element presents the issue of when life begins.
At common law, a fetus was not a human being. Life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath.by another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder. The requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate and premeditated killing of another motivated by ill will. Murder required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill; the courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice. All, required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes "malice"; the four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Under state of mind, intent to kill, the deadly weapon rule applies. Thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill.
In other words, "intent follows the bullet". Examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. Under state of mind, an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. In Australian jurisdictions, the unreasonable risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death, as opposed to possibility. Under state of mind, the felony-murder doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape, robbery or kidnapping; the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, otherwise all criminal homicides would be murder as all are felonies. As with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is codified in some form of legislation.
When the legal distinction between murder and manslaughter is clear, it is not unknown for a jury to find a murder defendant guilty of the lesser offence. The jury might sympathise with the defendant, the jury may wish to protect the defendant from a sentence of life imprisonment or execution. Many jurisdictions divide murder by degrees; the distinction between first- and second-degree murder exists, for example, in Canadian murder law and U. S. murder law. The most common division is between first- and second-degree murder. Second-degree murder is common law murder, first-degree is an aggravated form; the aggravating factors of first-degree murder depend on the jurisdiction, but may include a specific intent to kill, premeditation, or deliberation. In some, murder committed by acts such as strangulation, poisoning, or lying in wait are treated as first-degree murder. A few states in the U. S. further distinguish third-degree murder, but they differ in which kinds of murders they classify as second-degree versus third-degree.
For example, Minnesota defines third-degree murder as depraved-heart murder, whereas Flori