The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Jeremiah Smith (lawyer)
Jeremiah Smith was an American lawyer and politician from Exeter, New Hampshire. Born in Peterborough in the Province of New Hampshire, Smith attended Harvard University before graduating from Queens College in New Brunswick, New Jersey in 1780, he served in the Continental Army, read law to enter the bar in 1786. He was in private practice in Peterborough from 1786 to 1796, he was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1798 to 1799, the United States House of Representatives from 1791 to 1797. He was United States Attorney for the District of New Hampshire from 1797 to 1800, he was a probate judge of Rockingham County, New Hampshire from 1800 to 1801. On February 18, 1801, Smith was nominated by President John Adams to a new seat as a federal judge on the United States circuit court for the First Circuit, created by 2 Stat. 89. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on February 20, 1801, received his commission the same day. Smith's federal judicial service was terminated on July 1802, due to abolition of the court.
He became Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of New Hampshire, served from 1802 to 1809. Smith was elected Governor of New Hampshire in 1809, defeating incumbent Governor John Langdon by only 319 votes. However, Langdon defeated Smith in the following election, in 1810. Smith returned to the private practice of law from 1810 until 1813, when he again became Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of New Hampshire, this time until 1816, when he was removed by the elimination of the court by the legislature, he again returned to private practice New Hampshire from 1816 to 1820. Smith was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814, he was a trustee and the treasurer at Phillips Exeter Academy from 1828 to 1842, served as the president of trustees from 1830 to 1842. Jeremiah Smith Hall at the academy is named for him. Smith died in 1842 in Dover, New Hampshire, is buried at the Winter Street Cemetery in Exeter. "Jeremiah Smith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
Jeremiah Smith at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Jeremiah Smith at National Governors Association Jeremiah Smith at Find a Grave
John Sullivan (general)
John Sullivan was an Irish-American General in the Revolutionary War, a delegate in the Continental Congress, Governor of New Hampshire and a United States federal judge. Sullivan, the third son of American settlers, served as a major general in the Continental Army and as Governor of New Hampshire, he commanded the Sullivan Expedition in 1779, a scorched earth campaign against the Iroquois towns that had taken up arms against the American revolutionaries. As a member of Congress, Sullivan worked with the French Ambassador to the US, the Chevalier de la Luzerne. Born in Somersworth in the Province of New Hampshire, Sullivan was the third son of Irish settlers from the Beara Peninsula in County Cork. One of his brothers, James Sullivan, became Governor of Massachusetts. Another brother, who served in the Royal Navy died before the American Revolution. A landing party from HMS Allegiance on February 14, 1781 kidnapped another brother, Captain David Sullivan, who died of disease; the father, John Owen O'Sullivan was the son of Philip O'Sullivan of Beare of Ardea, minor gentry in Penal Ireland and a scion of the O'Sullivan Beare Clan, Ardea Castle line.
The Penal Laws reduced them to the status of peasants. After emigrating to York, Maine, in 1723, the elder John became a Protestant. In 1760, Sullivan married Lydia Remick Worster of Kittery, now in Maine. John and Lydia Sullivan had six children, who died in infancy, John, James and another Margery, who lived only two years. Sullivan read law with Samuel Livermore of Portsmouth, New Hampshire between 1758 and 1760, he began the practice of law in 1763 at Berwick, now in Maine, continued in the practice when he moved to Durham, New Hampshire in 1764. He annoyed many neighbors in his early career, when he was the only lawyer in town, with numerous suits over foreclosures and was threatened with violence at least twice in 1766, but by 1772, he was established and began work to improve his relations with the community. He expanded his interests into milling from which he made a substantial income. In 1773 Alexander Scammell joined John Sullivan's law practice. Sullivan built a friendship with the royal governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, who had assumed the office in 1767.
In November 1772, Wentworth appointed Sullivan a major in the militia. As the American Revolution grew nearer, Sullivan turned away from Wentworth and began to side more with the radicals. On May 28, 1773, at the urging of the Virginia House of Burgesses, the New Hampshire Assembly established a Committee of Correspondence. Hoping to thwart the committee, Wentworth adjourned the Assembly the next day. On December 16, 1773, colonists in Massachusetts destroyed tea worth 15,000 pounds at the Boston Tea Party to protest taxes under the Tea Act; the British Parliament responded with the Boston Port Act, effective March 21, 1774, which closed the Port of Boston until restitution for the destroyed tea was made to the East India Company. Parliament went on to pass the Massachusetts Government Act, which removed many functions of government from local control, the Quartering Act, which permitted quartering of troops in towns where there was disorder, the Quebec Act, which established the Catholic religion and French civil law in that province.
Wentworth called a new Assembly, which began meeting on April 7, 1774. On May 13, news of the Boston Port Act reached the Assembly. On May 27, the Assembly provided for only five men and an officer to guard Fort William and Mary at Portsmouth harbor. A new committee of correspondence was selected the next day. By the time Wentworth dissolved the Assembly on June 8, 1774 in an unsuccessful effort to prevent the Assembly from sending delegates to a continental congress, Sullivan was in favor of supporting the Massachusetts radicals. In response to Wentworth's action dismissing the Assembly and the call for a continental congress to support Boston after the British sanctions against it, on July 21, 1774 the first Provincial Congress of New Hampshire met at Exeter, New Hampshire, with John Sullivan as Durham's delegate; that assembly sent Nathaniel Folsom as delegates to the First Continental Congress. The assembly adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances on October 14, 1774. By November 8, Sullivan and Folsom were back in New Hampshire to work for acceptance of the Declaration and the Association of the colonies to support economic measures to achieve their objectives.
On October 19, 1774, a royal order in council prohibited the export of powder and arms to America and Lord Dartmouth secretly wrote to the colonial governors to secure gunpowder and ammunition in the provinces. After Paul Revere was sent by the Massachusetts committee to warn the Portsmouth militia of a rumored British movement toward Fort William and Mary, that militia raided the fort and seized gunpowder on December 14, 1774. Sullivan, not present on this first raid, was one of the leaders of the militia force who made the second raid on the fort for its cannon and munitions on December 15. Sullivan and his men took 16 cannons, about 60 muskets and other stores but were prevented from returning for other cannon and supplies by the arrival of the man-of-war Canceaux, followed two days by the frigate Scarborough. Wentworth refrained from seeking to arrest Sullivan and others because he thought he had little popular support and the militia would not act. In January 1775, a second Provincial Congress at Exeter voted to send Sullivan and John Langdon to the Second Continental Congress.
Sullivan, supported by Folsom and Langdon, persuaded the assembly to petition Wentworth to call a New Hampshire Assembly that he would not dissolve. Wentworth responded by dis
John Hardy Steele
John Hardy Steele served as Governor of New Hampshire from 1844 to 1846. John H. Steele was born in Salisbury, North Carolina on January 4, 1789, his mother, Elizabeth Taylor, was unmarried. His father, John Steele was married to another woman, was the father of several children with his wife; as a result of the circumstances of his parentage and the early death of his mother, John Hardy Steele was raised by his maternal grandfather, Absalom Taylor. Steele was educated in Salisbury, at age 14 was apprenticed as a cabinetmaker and chair maker. At age 22 Steele settled in Fayetteville, where he worked at his trade for Nathaniel Morrison, a native of Peterborough, New Hampshire. Morrison was impressed with Steele's mechanical aptitude, asked Steele to accompany him to New Hampshire to establish a textile manufacturing business. Steele designed and constructed the spinning mules and looms for Morrison's mills, one of, the first to weave cotton cloth by waterpower. In 1824 Steele joined several partners to establish the Union Manufacturing Company, a cloth production factory which operated with Steele as manager.
A Democrat in a town, predominantly Whig in its politics, Steele was popular enough to win election to the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1829. He declined reelection, declined an 1831 nomination for a seat in the New Hampshire State Senate. From 1830 to 1838 Steele served as Peterborough's Town Meeting Moderator. Steele was active in the New Hampshire Militia, attained the rank of Colonel as aide-de-camp to Governor Matthew Harvey. In 1840 Steele won election to the Executive Council of New Hampshire, he was reelected in 1841. Steele was elected Governor in 1844, reelected in 1845, his term was marked by the creation of a state railroad commission. In addition, Steele provided letters of introduction to James Knox Polk and members of Polk's cabinet for his friend Jesse Carter Little, a Mormon pioneer who sought government assistance to enable the Mormons to begin settling in Utah. After leaving office Steele retired to a farm, where he conducted experiments in animal husbandry and other scientific agriculture techniques.
He was President of the Peterborough Savings Bank. He served as a Selectman in 1846, in 1850 he was a delegate to New Hampshire's constitutional convention. Steele was buried in the Village Cemetery. Biography at New Hampshire Historical Resources John Hardy Steele at Find a Grave John Hardy Steele at National Governors Association
Charles H. Sawyer
Charles Henry Sawyer was an American manufacturer and Republican politician. He served as a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives and as the 41st Governor of New Hampshire. Sawyer was born in the son of Jonathan Sawyer and Martha Sawyer; when he was ten, he moved with his family to New Hampshire. Sawyer attended the common schools and Franklin Academy before learning the manufacturing business working at the Sawyer Woolen Mills Company, he became president of the company in 1881. He served in the Dover city council before becoming a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives. Sawyer served in the State House from 1869–1871, from 1876–1878, he served as aide-de-camp to Governor Charles H. Bell in 1881, was a delegate to the 1884 Republican National Conventions, he was elected the 41st Governor of New Hampshire, serving from June 2, 1887 – June 6, 1889. After leaving office, he represented New Hampshire at the Universal Exposition of 1889 at Paris, he served as director of the Dover Gas and Light Company and the Granite State Insurance Company, as president of the Dover Horse Railroad Company.
Sawyer died on January 1908 in Dover, New Hampshire. And is buried at Pine Hill Cemetery. Sawyer married Susan Ellen Cowan on February 8, 1865, they had five children together: William Davis Sawyer, Charles Francis Sawyer, James Cowan Sawyer, Edward Sawyer and Elizabeth Coffin Sawyer. Their son William married Gertrude Hall, daughter of U. S. Congressman Joshua G. Hall, he and his family were members of the Congregational church. Conant-Sawyer Cottage, his summer house in York Beach, Maine Sawyer at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources National Governors Association
Matthew Harvey was an American lawyer and politician from New Hampshire. He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives and as the 13th governor of New Hampshire, he was a long serving United States federal judge. Born in Sutton, New Hampshire, Harvey studied with private tutors, he graduated from Dartmouth College in 1806, read law and was admitted to the bar in 1809. He began the practice of law in Hopkinton, New Hampshire in 1809 and practiced there until 1814. Harvey was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1814 to 1821, serving as Speaker of the State House from 1818 to 1820, he was a member of the New Hampshire Senate and President from 1825 to 1827. Elected as a Democratic-Republican, Harvey represented New Hampshire in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1821 to March 4, 1825, during the Seventeenth U. S. Congress and the Eighteenth U. S. Congress, he was a member of the New Hampshire Senate from 1825 to 1827, a member of the New Hampshire Executive Council from 1828 to 1829.
Harvey served one abbreviated term as Governor of New Hampshire, beginning in 1830. On November 2, 1830, Harvey received a recess appointment from President Andrew Jackson to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire vacated by John Samuel Sherburne. Formally nominated on December 14, 1830, Harvey was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 16, 1830, received his commission the same day. Harvey resigned as governor on February 28, 1831, he remained on the bench until his death in Concord in 1866, is buried there at the Old North Cemetery. Harvey was the son of Hannah Harvey. Harvey's brother, Jonathan Harvey was a member of the US House of Representatives. United States Congress. "Matthew Harvey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Matthew Harvey at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. National Governors Association Matthew Harvey at Find a Grave