Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and relationship of the mind to the body. The mind–body problem is a paradigm issue in philosophy of mind, although other issues are addressed, such as the hard problem of consciousness, the nature of particular mental states. Aspects of the mind that are studied include mental events, mental functions, mental properties, the ontology of the mind, the nature of thought, the relationship of the mind to the body. Dualism and monism are the two central schools of thought on the mind–body problem, although nuanced views have arisen that do not fit one or the other category neatly. Dualism finds its entry into Western philosophy thanks to René Descartes in the 17th century. Substance dualists like Descartes argue that the mind is an independently existing substance, whereas property dualists maintain that the mind is a group of independent properties that emerge from and cannot be reduced to the brain, but that it is not a distinct substance.
Monism is the position that body are not ontologically distinct entities. This view was first advocated in Western philosophy by Parmenides in the 5th century BCE and was espoused by the 17th-century rationalist Baruch Spinoza. Physicalists argue that only entities postulated by physical theory exist, that mental processes will be explained in terms of these entities as physical theory continues to evolve. Physicalists maintain various positions on the prospects of reducing mental properties to physical properties, the ontological status of such mental properties remains unclear. Idealists maintain that the mind is all that exists and that the external world is either mental itself, or an illusion created by the mind. Neutral monists such as Ernst Mach and William James argue that events in the world can be thought of as either mental or physical depending on the network of relationships into which they enter, dual-aspect monists such as Spinoza adhere to the position that there is some other, neutral substance, that both matter and mind are properties of this unknown substance.
The most common monisms in the 20th and 21st centuries have all been variations of physicalism. Most modern philosophers of mind adopt either a reductive physicalist or non-reductive physicalist position, maintaining in their different ways that the mind is not something separate from the body; these approaches have been influential in the sciences in the fields of sociobiology, computer science, evolutionary psychology and the various neurosciences. Reductive physicalists assert that all mental states and properties will be explained by scientific accounts of physiological processes and states. Non-reductive physicalists argue that although the mind is not a separate substance, mental properties supervene on physical properties, or that the predicates and vocabulary used in mental descriptions and explanations are indispensable, cannot be reduced to the language and lower-level explanations of physical science. Continued neuroscientific progress has helped to clarify some of these issues. Modern philosophers of mind continue to ask how the subjective qualities and the intentionality of mental states and properties can be explained in naturalistic terms.
The mind–body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between minds, or mental processes, bodily states or processes. The main aim of philosophers working in this area is to determine the nature of the mind and mental states/processes, how—or if—minds are affected by and can affect the body. Our perceptual experiences depend on stimuli that arrive at our various sensory organs from the external world, these stimuli cause changes in our mental states causing us to feel a sensation, which may be pleasant or unpleasant. Someone's desire for a slice of pizza, for example, will tend to cause that person to move his or her body in a specific manner and in a specific direction to obtain what he or she wants; the question is how it can be possible for conscious experiences to arise out of a lump of gray matter endowed with nothing but electrochemical properties. A related problem is how someone's propositional attitudes cause that individual's neurons to fire and muscles to contract.
These comprise some of the puzzles that have confronted epistemologists and philosophers of mind from at least the time of René Descartes. Dualism is a set of views about the relationship between matter, it begins with the claim. One of the earliest known formulations of mind–body dualism was expressed in the eastern Sankhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy, which divided the world into purusha and prakriti; the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali presents an analytical approach to the nature of the mind. In Western Philosophy, the earliest discussions of dualist ideas are in the writings of Plato who maintained that humans' "intelligence" could not be identified with, or explained in terms of, their physical body. However, the best-known version of dualism is due to René Descartes, holds that the mind is a non-extended, non-physical substance, a "res cogitans". Descartes was the first to identify the mind with consciousness and self-awareness, to distinguish this from the brain, the seat of intelligence.
He was therefore th
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The British Academy
The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and the social sciences. It received its Royal Charter in the same year, it is now a fellowship of more than 1,000 leading scholars spanning all disciplines across the humanities and social sciences and a funding body for research projects across the United Kingdom. The academy is a self-governing and independent registered charity, based at 10–11 Carlton House Terrace in London; the British Academy is funded with an annual grant from the Department for Business and Skills. In 2014/15 the British Academy's total income was £33,100,000, including £27,000,000 from BIS. £32,900,000 was distributed during the year in research grants and charitable activities. The academy states that it has five fundamental purposes: To speak up for the humanities and the social sciences To invest in the best researchers and research To inform and enrich debate around society’s greatest questions To ensure sustained international engagement and collaboration To make the most of the Academy’s assets to secure the Academy for the future.
The creation of a "British Academy for the Promotion of Historical and Philological Studies" was first proposed in 1899 in order that Britain could be represented at meetings of European and American academies. The organisation, which has since become "the British Academy", was initiated as an unincorporated society on 17 December 1901, received its Royal Charter from King Edward VII on 8 August 1902. Since many of Britain's most distinguished scholars in the humanities and social sciences have been involved in the life of the academy, including John Maynard Keynes, Isaiah Berlin, C. S. Lewis and Henry Moore; until 1927–28 the academy had no premises. It moved to some rooms in No. 6 Burlington Gardens. In 1968 it moved the short distance to Burlington House, it subsequently moved to headquarters near Regent's Park. In 1998 the Academy moved to its present headquarters in Carlton House Terrace. Overlooking St James's Park, the terrace was built in the 1820s and 1830s. Number 10 was the London residence of the Ridley family and number 11 was from 1856 to 1875 the home of Prime Minister William Gladstone.
In March 2010, the academy embarked on a £2.75m project to renovate and restore the public rooms in No. 11, following the departure of former tenant the Foreign Press Association, link the two buildings together. The work was completed in January 2011 and the new spaces include a new 150-seat Wolfson Auditorium are available for public hire; the history and achievements of the academy have been recorded in works by two of its secretaries. Sir Frederic Kenyon's volume of 37 pages covers the years up to 1951. Election as a Fellow of the British Academy recognises high scholarly distinction in the humanities or social sciences, evidenced by published work. Fellows may use the letters FBA after their names. Fellows are elected into one of the following disciplinary sections: HumanitiesClassical Antiquity Theology and Religious Studies African and Oriental Studies Linguistics and Philology Early Modern Languages and Literatures Modern Languages and other Media Archaeology Medieval Studies Early Modern History to c1800 Modern History from c1800 History of Art and Music Philosophy Culture and PerformanceSocial SciencesLaw Economics and Economic History Anthropology and Geography Sociology and Social Statistics Political Studies: Political Theory and International Relations Psychology Management and Business StudiesThere is an Education'ginger group'.
The British Academy channels substantial public funding into support for individuals and organisations pursuing humanities and social sciences research and scholarship in the UK and overseas. These funding schemes are designed to aid scholars at different stages of their academic career and include postdoctoral fellowships, Wolfson Research Professorships, Leverhulme Senior Research Fellowships, small research grants and British Academy Research Projects. In addition to its main public funds supported by the Department for Business and Skills, the academy draws on private funds arising from gifts, contributions made by fellows and grants from research foundations to support a further range of research activities. In 2014/15, the academy received around £30m to support research and researchers across the humanities and social sciences. Funds available to the academy were invested in the following main areas: research career development; the demand and quality of applications submitted for academy funding remains high.
This year the academy received around 3,600 applications and made 588 awards to scholars based in around 100 different universities across the UK – a success rate of 16%. In order to promote the interests of UK research and learning around the world, the Academy works to create frameworks to support international networking and collaboration and develop the role of humanities and social sciences research in tackling global challenges, it draws on expertise from a wide range of sources from within the fellowship and on specialist advice from its seven Area Panels for Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Latin America/Caribbean. The Academy funds and coordinates a network of overseas institutes which provide local expertise, logistical support and a working base for UK scholars; these include research institutes in Amman, Athens, Nairobi and Tehran, as well as UK-based specialist learned societies which run strategic research programmes in o
Darwin College, Cambridge
Darwin College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. Founded on 28 July 1964, Darwin was Cambridge University's first graduate-only college, the first to admit both men and women; the college is named after one of that of Charles Darwin. The Darwin family owned some of the land, Newnham Grange, on which the college now stands; the college has between 600 and 700 students studying for PhD or MPhil degrees. About half the students come from outside the United Kingdom, representing 80 nationalities as of 2016. Darwin is the largest graduate college of Cambridge. A significant increase in the number of postgraduate students at Cambridge University in the post-war period led to a growing realisation that a graduate college was becoming a necessity. In 1963, three of the university's older colleges – Trinity College, St John's College, Gonville and Caius College – announced their intention to jointly form a new, wholly graduate college; the college was established in located on the bank of the River Cam, opposite Queens' College.
On 29 January 1965, the Privy Council gave formal approval to the college as an Approved Foundation. It received its Royal Charter as an independent college within the university in 1976; the college is named after the Darwin family, Charles Darwin's second son, George Darwin, having owned some of the property which the college now occupies. He bought Newnham Grange, the oldest part of the college, in 1885, together with the adjacent building known as The Old Granary, Small Island. Following the death of George's son, Sir Charles Galton Darwin, in 1962, those concerned with the foundation of the new college learned that the property was to become available. Katherine, Lady Darwin, her family were receptive to the idea of their home becoming the nucleus of a new college, to the suggestion that it should bear the family's name. Family portraits of the Darwin family are on loan to the college from the Darwin Heirloom Trust and can be found on the walls of several of the college's main rooms. In the book Period Piece: A Cambridge Childhood, the granddaughter of Charles Darwin, Gwen Raverat describes how she grew up at Newnham Grange.
In 1966 the college acquired the Hermitage from St John's College. Work to convert and extend the college's buildings was funded by the founding colleges and through substantial donations from the Rayne Foundation. In 1994 Darwin College completed construction of a new library and study centre along the side of The Old Granary; the centre is built on a narrow strip of land alongside the millpond in Cambridge, uses a structure of green oak and lime mortar brickwork. The building uses high-level automatically opening windows and a chimney to control natural ventilation. In 2010 the College acquired No 4 Newnham Terrace, the former Rectory for the Church of St Mary the Less, Cambridge thereby establishing an entire boundary for the College from Queen's Bridge to Newnham Road and to the River Granta; the long boundary returns to Queen's Bridge and is formed by the two islands in the middle of the river. The college organises the annual Darwin Lecture Series, eight talks over eight weeks structured around a single theme examined from different perspectives, given by eminent speakers who are leading international authorities in their fields.
The lectures have been hosted for over twenty-five years and form one of the key events in the Cambridge calendar. Most of the series of lectures have been published as books. In sports, Darwin College Boat Club is a popular student society at Darwin College, as well as Darwin College Football Club who play in the long established Cambridge University Association Football League, representing the only graduate college within CUAFL; the club plays throughout the year out of term. Every Darwinian is automatically a member of the Darwin College Student Association; the DCSA committee comprises 20 students, organising events and parties, supporting societies, helping students make the most of their time in Cambridge. Elizabeth Blackburn, the 2009 Nobel laureate in medicine, studied for her PhD at Darwin. Jane Goodall, the primatologist and anthropologist, graduated from Darwin with a PhD in ethology in 1964. Eric Maskin, the 2007 Nobel laureate in economics, was a visiting student in 1975–76. Dian Fossey, Brian Gibson, Seamus O'Regan and Sir Ian Wilmut are alumni/ae.
Paul Clement, the former United States Solicitor General, read for an MPhil in Politics and Economics at Darwin in 1988–89. Paul Kalanithi, the Pulitzer Prize nominated Stanford neurosurgeon and author of the New York Times Best Seller'When Breath Becomes Air', was an MPhil student at Darwin; the philosopher Huw Price, current Bertrand Russell Professor of Philosophy at Cambridge, studied for his PhD in philosophy at Darwin under the philosopher Hugh Mellor, an erstwhile fellow of the college. The philosopher Nigel Warburton studied for his PhD at Darwin. Three current masters of Cambridge colleges are Darwin alumnae: Professor Mary Fowler, Nicola Padfield, Professor Dame Jean Thomas. César Milstein, who received the 1984 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, was a Fellow of Darwin College from 1980 to 2002. Richard Henderson, winner of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, has been a Fellow since 1981. Sir Karl Popper and the Nobel Prize winner Max Perutz were Honorary Fellows, as are Amartya Sen and Martin Rees.
Oliver Letwin was a research Fellow fr
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Manchester Grammar School
Manchester Grammar School is the largest independent day school for boys in the United Kingdom and is located in Manchester, England. Founded in 1515 as a free grammar school, it was adjacent to Manchester Parish Church until 1931 when it moved to its present 28-acre site at Fallowfield. In accordance with its founder's wishes, MGS has remained a predominantly academic school and belongs to the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. In the post-war period, MGS was a direct-grant grammar school, it chose to become an independent school in 1976 after the Labour government abolished the Direct Grant System. Fees for 2016–2017 were £11,970 per annum; the school's motto is Sapere Aude, the motto of the council of the former County Borough of Oldham, granted on 7 November 1894. Sapere aude is a quotation from Horace, famously used by Immanuel Kant and the motto of the Enlightenment; the Senior School badge is an outline of an owl. This is a heraldic "canting" reference to its founder, Hugh Oldham, the badge should be read as "owl-dom".
This suggests that he pronounced his name, as the local accent in Oldham still tends to do, as "Owdem". Owls are to be seen in the shield of the Borough of Oldham. There is a second significance to the "dom" of which Hugh Oldham, as a bishop, would have been well aware. D. O. M. was and is a standard abbreviation for Deo Optimo Maximo meaning "To God, the Best and the Greatest", a phrase of dedication required to be written by schoolboys before the Reformation and in Roman Catholic education since, at the head of a new piece of work, a practice continued into adult life by many as they committed a new undertaking into God's hands. This badge replaced the original one when the school colours changed from red and yellow to dark and light blue to reflect its connection with the universities of Oxford and Cambridge; the Junior School badge, which depicts the face of an owl, was introduced to blazers and ties in 2008. The founder, Hugh Oldham, a Manchester-born man, attended Exeter College and Queens' College, after having been tutored in the house of Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby.
Historical accounts suggest that he was not a learned man, but was in Royal service, being a favoured protégé of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII, became recognised for his administrative abilities. He was appointed Bishop of Exeter in 1505, his great wealth came from his water-powered corn mills on the River Irk near Manchester, which were subsequently used to fund the school's endowment. On 2 July 1515 he signed an endowment trust deed establishing the Manchester Free Grammar School for Lancashire Boys. A site was purchased in September 1516 and construction took place between April 1517 and August 1518; the combined cost was £218.13s.5d given by Oldham, but with the help of his and the Bexwyke family who had provided an earlier endowment for a school within the parish church. A more elaborate deed in 1525 set the detailed rules for the school until the late 19th century; the original deed promoted "Godliness and good learning" and established that any boy showing sufficient academic ability, regardless of background, might attend, free of charge.
The school was situated between Manchester Cathedral a collegiate church, the church's domestic quarters, subsequently Chetham's School of Music. Oldham's great friend Richard Foxe, the Bishop of Winchester, wished to found a monastery. Oldham, convinced him instead to found Corpus Christi College in Oxford and contributed 6000 marks. Oldham had a hand in the founding of Brasenose College, Oxford; the original foundation provided a school house in the curtilage of Manchester's Parish Church and two graduates to teach Latin and Greek, to any children who presented themselves. The school was intended to prepare pupils for university and the Church or the legal profession. Pupils would have stayed for 8 to 10 years before leaving for university. There was enough money to fund bursaries or exhibitions for pupils. In 1654, the world's first free public library was formed next door to MGS in what had been the church's living quarters; this was facilitated by a bequest from a wealthy businessman Humphrey Chetham, which served to create a bluecoat orphanage there, schooling 40 poor boys.
By the 18th century, there are thought to have been between 50 and 100 boys in the grammar school at any one time, three or four of whom each year were awarded exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge. An extra room had been built onto the school house for boys who needed instruction in English before they started Latin, another master was employed to teach them; the 1515 building was replaced on the same site in 1776. This was on two levels, an Upper School for the Latin and Greek pupils, a Lower School for the English pupils. Boarding-houses were added and many of the Upper School pupils were boarders from surrounding counties; when De Quincy came as a boarder in 1800, classes were held at 7.00am to 9.00, 9.30 to 12.00 and 3.00pm to 5.00. By 1808 consideration was being given to moving from the site, as it was becoming insalubrious, but this proved impossible as the deed could not be changed except by Act of Parliament. Going from the Old Church to Long Millgate... one is in an undisguised working men's quarter, for the shops and beerhouses hardly take the trouble to exhibit a trifling degree of cleanliness... is a narrow, coal black, foul smel