Chief Obafemi Jeremiah Oyeniyi Awolowo, GCFR, was a Nigerian nationalist and statesman who played a key role in Nigeria's independence movement, the First and Second Republics and the Civil War. The son of a Yoruba farmer, he was one of the self-made men among his contemporaries in Nigeria, he was the first premier of the Western Region and federal commissioner for finance, vice chairman of the Federal Executive Council during the Civil War. He was thrice a major contender for his country's highest office. A native of Ikenne in Ogun State of south-western Nigeria, he started his career, like some of his well-known contemporaries, as a nationalist in the Nigerian Youth Movement in which he rose to become Western Provincial Secretary. Awolowo was responsible for much of the progressive social legislation that has made Nigeria a modern nation, he was the first Leader of Government Business and Minister of Local Government and Finance, first Premier of the Western Region under Nigeria's parliamentary system, from 1952 to 1959.
He was the official Leader of the Opposition in the federal parliament to the Balewa government from 1959 to 1963. In recognition of all these, Awolowo was the first individual in the modern era to be named Leader of the Yorubas. Obafemi Awolowo was born on 6 March 1909 in present-day Ogun State of Nigeria, his father was a sawyer who died when Obafemi was about ten years old. He attended various schools, including Abeokuta. Subsequently, he served as a clerk at the Wesley College Ibadan, as well as a correspondent for the Nigerian Times, it was after this that he embarked on various business ventures to help raise funds to travel to the UK for further studies. Following his education at Wesley College, Ibadan, in 1927, he enrolled at the University of London as an External Student and graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Commerce, he went to the UK in 1944 to study law at the University of London and was called to the Bar by the Honorable Society of the Inner Temple on 19 November 1946. In 1949 Awolowo founded the Nigerian Tribune, a private Nigerian newspaper, which he used to spread nationalist consciousness among Nigerians.
Awolowo was Nigeria's foremost federalist. In his Path to Nigerian Freedom – the first systematic federalist manifesto by a Nigerian politician – he advocated federalism as the only basis for equitable national integration and, as head of the Action Group, he led demands for a federal constitution, introduced in the 1954 Lyttleton Constitution, following the model proposed by the Western Region delegation led by him; as premier, he was viewed as a man of vision and a dynamic administrator. Awolowo was the country's leading social democratic politician, he supported limited central planning in government. He believed that the state should channel Nigeria's resources into education and state-led infrastructural development. Controversially, at considerable expense, he introduced free primary education for all and free health care for children in the Western Region, established the first television service in Africa in 1959, the Oduduwa Group, all of which were financed from the lucrative cocoa industry, the mainstay of the regional economy.
From the eve of independence, he led the Action Group as the Leader of the Opposition in the federal parliament, leaving Samuel Ladoke Akintola as the Western Region Premier. Disagreements between Awolowo and Akintola on how to run the Western region led the latter to an alliance with the Tafawa Balewa-led NPC federal government. A constitutional crisis led to the declaration of a state of emergency in the Western Region resulting in a widespread breakdown of law and order. Excluded from national government and his party faced an precarious position. Akintola's followers, angered at their exclusion from power, formed the Nigerian National Democratic Party under Akintola's leadership. Having suspended the elected Western Regional Assembly, the federal government reconstituted the body after manoeuvres that brought Akintola's NNDP into power without an election. Shortly afterwards Awolowo and several disciples were arrested, charged and jailed for conspiring with the Ghanaian authorities under Kwame Nkrumah to overthrow the federal government.
In 1992, the Obafemi Awolowo Foundation was founded as an independent, non-profit, non-partisan organisation committed to furthering the symbiotic interaction of public policy and relevant scholarship with a view to promoting the overall development of the Nigerian nation. The Foundation was launched by the President of Nigeria at that time, General Ibrahim Babangida, at the Liberty Stadium, Ibadan. However, his most important bequests are his exemplary integrity, his welfarism, his contributions to hastening the process of decolonisation and his consistent and reasoned advocacy of federalism-based on ethno-linguistic self-determination and uniting politically strong states-as the best basis for Nigerian unity. Awolowo died peacefully at his Ikenne home, the Efunyela Hall, on 9 May 1987, at the age of 78 and was laid to rest in Ikenne, amid tributes across political and ethno-religious divides. Path to Nigerian Freedom Awo – Autobiography of Chief Obafemi Awolowo My Early Life Thoughts on the Nigerian Constitution The People’s Republic The Strategy & Tactics of the People's Republic of Nigeria The Problems of Africa – The Need for Ideological Appraisa
Sani Abacha was a Nigerian Army officer and dictator who served as the de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 until his death in 1998. He is the first Nigerian soldier to attain the rank of a full star General without skipping a single rank, he is accredited for his economic reforms and achievements, after he died allegations surrounding his administration use of government funds marred the unprecedented growth rates and indices recorded by his administration. He is seen as the most enigmatic leader the country has had. Sani is popular the Northern region of Nigeria Kano State, Borno State, Kaduna State and Sokoto State, many still decorate their vehicles with his posters and praise him for the various establishments he laid around the country and for bringing back security to the region. Further south of the country, there is still a disdain for the late military ruler; this can be attributed to the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa after being found guilty of killing four Ogoni leaders. A Kanuri from Borno, Abacha was brought up in Kano, Nigeria.
He attended the Nigerian Military Training College and Mons Officer Cadet School before being commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in 1963. Abacha was commissioned in 1963 after he had attended Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot, England. Before he had attended the Nigerian Military Training College in Kaduna; the military career of Abacha was marked by involvement by a string of successful coups. When he was still a Second Lieutenant with the 3rd Battalion in Kaduna, he took part in the July 1966 Nigerian counter-coup from the conceptual stage, he could well have been a participant in the Lagos or Abeokuta phases of the coup the previous January as well. In addition, Abacha took a prominent role in the 1983 Nigerian coup d'état which brought General Muhammadu Buhari to power in 1983, the August 1985 coup which removed Buhari from power; when General Ibrahim Babangida was named President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1985, Abacha was named Chief of Army Staff.
He was appointed Minister of Defence in 1990. Abacha became in 1993 the first Nigerian soldier to attain the rank of a full General without skipping a single rank. On 17 November 1993, Abacha took over from the transitional government - being the Minister of Defence and most senior official - after Chief Ernest Shonekan resigned. In his nationwide broadcast, Abacha cited the stagnant nature of Chief Ernest Shonekan's government, being unable to manage the democratic process in the country as a cause of his resignation. In September 1994, he issued a decree that placed his government above the jurisdiction of the courts giving him absolute power. Another decree gave him the right to detain anyone for up to three months without trial. During Abacha's regime, he established The Petroleum Trust Fund under Decree 25, of which Muhammadu Buhari, it was inaugurated on the 25th March 1995. The PTF was formed to undertake major economic issues. Between 25-100km of urban road in major cities such as Kano, Benin, Zaria, Kaduna, Lagos and Port Harcourt each.
A N27.3bn contract was awarded for road rehabilitation in the first quarter of 1996. Before the disestablishment of the PTF in 1999 by Olusegun Obasanjo, the PTF had undertaken a holistic stance to support the sum of N1.328bn, awarded to 53 pharmaceutical companies for the supply of drugs, while the importation of vaccines cost N229.9m. As at December 31, 1997, funds available to PTF stood at N115.1bn. They oversaw the restructuring of major insurance companies that supported SME's across the entire country. Contrary to many views that the Abacha administration was financially shrouded in secrecy, Abacha had mandated the PTF to publicise its accounts as it was the second largest public corporation at the time. In 1997, the account of PTF showed that it disbursed N24.3bn on roads, N21.2bn on security, N7.8bn on health, N3bn on other projects. Other disbursements include N936m on food supply and N476m on education, it realised a total of N1.049bn from various investment activities. The Abacha administration became the first to record unprecedented economic achievements: he oversaw an increase in the country's foreign exchange reserves from $494 million in 1993 to $9.6 billion by the middle of 1997, reduced the external debt of Nigeria from $36 billion in 1993 to $27 billion by 1997.
He is revered for achieving this, in comparison no other administration before or after the inception of the Fourth Nigerian Republic had been able to achieve this. Sani Abacha brought all the controversial privatization programs of the Ibrahim Babangida administration to a halt, reduced an inflation rate of 54% inherited from IBB to 8.5% between 1993 and 1998, all while the nation's primary commodity, oil was at an average of $15 per barrel. Between 1993 and 1998, during his presidency, the country cracked-down on insecurity. Abacha, being a military man disincentivized crime on the streets or the formation of any insurgent groups; the Nigeria Police Force underwent a large scale retraining, The term'Abacha boy' emerged after the success and efficiency of security implementation by security agents of the Abacha administration. In 2013, The Goodluck Jonathan administration launched a recall of able'Abacha boy' to rejoin the security apparatus of the country but was unsuccessful because a large portion had been retired at the time.
The 1994-1995 National Constitutional Conference, which sat for one year had reasonable time to discuss and ponder over many thorny issues that concerned the Nige
Olusegun Mathew Okikiola Aremu Obasanjo, GCFR, Ph. D. is a former Nigerian Army general, President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007. Obasanjo was a career soldier before serving twice as his nation's head of state: He served as a military ruler from 13 February 1976 to 1 October 1979, as a democratically elected president from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2007. From July 2004 to January 2006, Obasanjo served as Chairperson of the African Union. Olusegun Obasanjo was born on 5 March 1937 to his father Amos Adigun Obaluayesanjo "Obasanjo" Bankole and his mother Ashabi in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, his mother died in 1958 and his father died in 1959. He became an orphan at the age of 22. In 1948, Obasanjo enrolled into Saint David Ebenezer School at Ibogun, for his primary school education. From 1952 to 1957, he attended Baptist Boys' High School, for his secondary school education. In 1958, Olusegun Obasanjo joined the Nigerian Army; some of his studies and training included Mons Cadet School, England. Obasanjo served in the 5th Battalion of the Nigerian Army in Kaduna and in Cameroon between 1958 and 1959.
He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Nigerian Army in 1959 and promoted to a lieutenant in 1960. As lieutenant, Obasanjo served in the Nigerian contingent of the United Nations Force in the Congo in 1960, he joined the only engineering unit of the Nigerian Army and became its unit commander in 1963. In 1963, Obasanjo was promoted to the rank of captain in the Nigerian Army, he was attached to the College of Military Engineering at Kirkee, India in 1965. That year, he was promoted to the rank of major. In 1965, he attended India. Obasanjo was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1967, appointed commander Second Area command of the Nigerian Army, he was made Commander, Ibadan, between 1967 and 1969. Obasanjo’s colonel promotion came in 1969, he was appointed from general officer commanding 3rd Infantry Division, Nigerian Army. He was made the commander, Third Marine Commando Division, South-Eastern State, during the Nigerian Biafran Civil War. On 12 January 1970, Obasanjo accepted the Biafran surrender ending the Nigerian Civil War.
From 1970 to 1975, he was the commander of Nigerian Army. Earlier in 1972, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. In January 1975 the head of state for the federal republic of Nigeria, General Yakubu Gowon, made Obasanjo the Federal commissioner for works and housing. On 29 July 1975, when General Murtala Mohammed took power as head of state via a military coup, Obasanjo was appointed as the chief of staff supreme headquarters. In January 1976 he was promoted to lieutenant general. Following a failed coup by Lt. Col. Buka Suka Dimka in which General Murtala Mohammed was killed, Obasanjo was chosen as head of state by the supreme military council on 13 February 1976. Obasanjo resigned as head of state and resigned from the army on 1 October 1979, handing over power to the newly elected civilian president of Shehu Shagari. In January 1975, General Yakubu Gowon appointed Obasanjo as the Federal commissioner for works and housing to oversee the development of housing, roads, bridges and street lighting in the country following the oil boom.
In July 1975, General Murtala Mohammed took power as head of state via a military coup, Obasanjo was appointed as the chief of staff supreme headquarters. On 13 February 1976, coup plotters, led by Army Col. Dimka, marked him and other senior military personnel for assassination. Murtala was killed during the attempted coup; the low profile security policy adopted by Murtala had allowed the plotters easy access to their targets. The coup was foiled because the plotters missed Obasanjo and General Theophilus Danjuma, chief of army staff and de facto number three man in the country; the plotters failed to monopolize communications, although they were able to take over the radio station to announce the coup attempt. Obasanjo and Danjuma established a chain of command and re-established security in Lagos, thereby regaining control. Obasanjo was appointed as head of state by the Supreme Military Council. Keeping the chain of command established by Murtala, Obasanjo pledged to continue the programme for the restoration of civilian government in 1979 and to carry forward the reform programme to improve the quality of public service.
The military regime of Obasanjo benefited from oil revenues. Increased oil revenues permitted government spending for infrastructure and improvements on a large scale; the oil boom was marred by a minor recession in 1978–79. The government planned to relocate the federal capital from Lagos to Abuja, a more central location in the interior of the country, it intended to relieve the congestion in the Lagos area. Abuja was chosen. However, as head of state
United States Army Command and General Staff College
The United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, international military officers. The college was established in 1881 by William Tecumseh Sherman as the School of Application for Infantry and Cavalry, a training school for infantry and cavalry officers. In 1907 it changed its title to the School of the Line; the curriculum expanded throughout World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and continues to adapt to include lessons learned from current conflicts. In addition to the main campus at Fort Leavenworth, the college has satellite campuses at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; the satellite campuses provide non-residential distance learning opportunities. The United States Army Command and General Staff College educates and develops leaders for full spectrum joint and multinational operations; the college consists of four schools: Command and General Staff School provides Intermediate Level Education for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, international military officers.
ILE is a ten-month graduate-level program. There is one ILE class per year. About 1,200 US military and international officers make up the class. In addition to the ILE curriculum, a graduate masters program exists for students who may qualify to complete a thesis-level research paper and receive a Master of Military Arts and Sciences degree at the School of Advanced Military Studies; the Masters program is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the accrediting body for collegiate institutions in the midwestern United States. ILE students are mid-career field-grade officers preparing for battalion command or staff positions at the division, brigade, or battalion level. In addition to CGSS at Fort Leavenworth, the school operates satellite campuses at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Students at the satellite campuses complete the ILE Common Core, a condensed ninety-day program without the MMAS option, in lieu of the traditional ten-month program. School of Advanced Military Studies provides post-ILE instruction on complex military issues at the strategic and operational levels.
Students who complete the curriculum receive a Master of Military Arts and Sciences and are assigned as high-level military planners. The Masters program is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the accrediting body for collegiate institutions in the midwestern United States. School for Command Preparation provides instruction for colonels, lieutenant colonels, command sergeants major who have been selected for brigade or battalion command. Courses are three to four weeks and focus on special topics unique to assumption of command at the levels indicated. School of Advanced Leadership and Tactics provides officer continuing education towards developing the Scholar-Warrior-Leader from first lieutenant to selection for major; the result is mastery of branch-specific technical and tactical skills, staff processes in battalions and brigades, direct leadership and command competencies, initial broadening opportunities. During World War I, the CGSC at Ft. Leavenworth was closed, from 1916 until 1920.
Most of the school staff was sent to Langres, France, to open and conduct the Army General Staff College, which operated from November 1917 to December 1918. This compressed-curriculum school was needed to provide command and staff officers for the exponentially growing number of Army units; the college reports that 7,000 international students representing 155 countries have attended CGSC since 1894 and that more than 50 percent of CGSC International Military Student graduates attain the rank of general. Prime Minister and General Kriangsak Chomanan of Thailand General Alfredo M. Santos of the Philippines Lieutenant General Rafael Ileto of the Philippines Major General Edmund E. Dillon of Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force Prime Minister and General Tran Thien Khiem of South Vietnam General Do Cao Tri of South Vietnam Colonel Le Huy Luyen of South Vietnam General Hau Pei-tsun of the Republic of China President Paul Kagame of Rwanda General Katumba Wamala of Uganda Brigadier General Muhoozi Kainerugaba son of Ugandan president, 2007–08.
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan General Rahimuddin Khan of Pakistan General Jehangir Karamat of Pakistan General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani of Pakistan Brigadier Abdul Shakur Malik, Force Commander for the Northern Areas, Acting Director-General Military Training, of Pakistan General Eiji Kimizuka of Japan General Hisham Jaber of Lebanon General Krishnaswamy Sundarji of Indian Army Prime Minister and Brigadier-General Lee Hsien Loong of Singapore General Dieudonné Kayembe Mbandakulu of the Democratic Republic of the Congo President Gaafar Nimeiry of Sudan Lt. Col Anastasio Somoza Portocarrero of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua General Nguyễn Hợp Đoàn of South Vietnam General Nguyễn Khánh of South Vietnam General Phạm Văn Đồng of South Vietnam Ministry/Chief of Army General Staff and General Ahmad Yani of Indonesia President and General Susilo
Kogi, is a state in the central region of Nigeria. It is popularly called the Confluence State because of the confluence of River Niger and River Benue at its capital, the first administrative capital of modern-day Nigeria. Agriculture is a main part of the state economy with fishing in the riverine areas like Lokoja, Baji,etc, the state has coal, petroleum and other mineral industries; the main ethnic groups are Igala and Okun. Federal Capital Territory – to the north Nasarawa State – to the north east Benue State – to the east Enugu State – to the south east Anambra State – to the south Edo State – to the south west Ondo State – to the west Ekiti State – to the west Kwara State – to the west Niger State – to the northKogi state is the only state in Nigeria which shares a boundary with ten other states; the state was created in 1991 from parts of Benue State. The state as presently constituted, comprises the people of the Kabba Province of Northern Nigeria. One of the first Qadi in the Kogi State was Faruk Imam.
There are three main ethnic groups and languages in Kogi: Igala and Okun with other such as Bassa-Nge, a people of Nupe extraction in Lokoja and Bassa Local Government Area, Bassa-Komo of Bassa Local Government Area, Kakanda, Oworo people, Magongo and the pure NUPE people of Eggan community under Lokoja Local Government. The name Nigeria, was coined in Lokoja by Flora Shaw, the future wife of Baron Lugard, a British colonial administrator, while gazing out at the river Niger. Kogi State consists of twenty-one local government areas. Which are: Adavi Ajaokuta Ankpa Bassa Dekina Ibaji Idah Igalamela-Odolu Ijumu Kabba/Bunu Koton Karfe Lokoja Mopa-Muro Ofu Ogori/Magongo Okehi Okene Olamaboro Omala Yagba East Yagba West Tourist attractions in Kogi State include the colonial relics, the confluence of Rivers Niger and Benue and natural land features. Being a 2-hour drive from Abuja some tourists come for day trips. Kogi State connects the Federal Capital Territory with 22 Southern States. Being in close proximity to the federal capital territory, Abuja International Airport serves as the national and international gateway for air travelers from and to the state.
Good telecommunications services are available in the state. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. There are many Farm produce from the state notably coffee, palm oil, groundnuts, cassava, yam and melon. Mineral resources include coal, iron and tin; the state is home to the largest iron and steel industry in Nigeria known as Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited and one of the largest cement factories in Africa, the Obajana Cement Factory. Kogi state is home to the Federal University, Kogi State University Anyigba, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State Polytechnic, Federal College of Education, College of Education, College of Agriculture Kabba, Kogi state college of education and the Private Salem University, Lokoja. There are a college of nursing and midwifery in Obangede, School of health tech in Idah and ECWA School of Nursing in Egbe. Kogi State has produced sprinters such as Sunday Bada and other sportsmen, who have contributed to the growth of sports worldwide. Kogi United and Babanawa F.
C. are football teams based in the state. Other sports, such as swimming and table tennis are promoted in the state; the Kogi state Sports Council had a track record of Directors and great personnel team Who at one time or the other had worked with the vision of putting the State on the world map. Among them are personalities like Mr. Francis Umoru, Mr. Mohammed Emeje, Mr. Benjamin O. Ameje, Mr. A. Ogido, Mr. Joel J. Abu and others. Among other sportsmen produce by the state is Shola Ameobi, an Ayetoro Gbede born Ijumu, English footballer playing for Bolton Wanderers as a striker, late Sunday Bada 400 Metres Olympic Champion from Ogidi in Ijumu Local Govt. of the state. Three Senators have always represented Kogi state since the return of democracy in 1999 at Senate with Kogi East, Kogi West and Kogi Central producing one each. Rt. Hon. Chief S A Ajayi OFRDarey- Darey Art Alade Joseph Benjamin Halima Abubakar Praiz Mercy Johnson Jummai Joseph Debie Rise Jaywon Website
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Francis Adekunle Fajuyi. MC, BEM was a Nigerian soldier of Yoruba origin, and the first military governor of the former Western Region, Nigeria. A clerk, Fajuyi of Ado Ekiti joined the army in 1943 and as a sergeant in the Nigeria Signal Squadron, Royal West African Frontier Force, was awarded the British Empire Medal in 1951 for helping to contain a mutiny in his unit over food rations, he was trained at the Eaton Hall Officer Candidate School in the United Kingdom from July 1954 until November 1954, when he was short-service commissioned. In 1961, as the'C' Company commander with the 4 battalion, Queen's Own Nigeria Regiment under Lt. Col. Price, Major Fajuyi was awarded the Military Cross for actions in North Katanga and extricating his unit from an ambush. On completion of Congo operations, Fajuyi became the first indigenous commander of the 1st battalion in Enugu, a position he held until just before the first coup of January 1966, when he was posted to Abeokuta as garrison commander; when Major General Ironsi emerged as the new C-in-C on 17 January 1966, he appointed Fajuyi the first military governor of the Western Region.
He was assassinated by the revenge seeking counter-coupists led by Major T. Y Danjuma on July 29, 1966, at Ibadan, along with General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, the Head of State and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; the bloody overthrow of the civilian regime of Prime Minister Sir Tafawa Balewa's government had taken place six months earlier in which the Prime Minister and other top government functionaries of northern Nigerian extraction, were killed