American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, advancing the common good. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition and election process and has been considered a high honor of scholarly and societal merit since the academy was founded during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, others of their contemporaries who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, the United States Constitution. Today the Academy is charged with a dual function: to elect to membership the finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, business, public affairs, the arts, from each generation, to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research and cultural studies and technological advances, politics and the environment, the welfare of children.
Dædalus, the Academy's quarterly journal, is regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy carries out nonpartisan policy research by bringing together scientists, artists, business leaders, other experts to make multidisciplinary analyses of complex social and intellectual topics; the Academy's current areas of work are Arts & Humanities, Democracy & Justice, Energy & Environment, Global Affairs, Science & Technology. David W. Oxtoby began his term as the organization’s President in January 2019. A chemist by training, he served as President of Pomona College from 2003 to 2017, he was elected a member of the American Academy in 2012. The Academy is headquartered in Massachusetts; the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4, 1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people." The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political and commercial sectors of the state.
The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several international honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, the Proceedings followed in 1846. In the 1950s, the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. Since the second half of the twentieth century, independent research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as one of its signature concerns; the Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science and global security. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 75 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program and other Academy initiatives.
The Academy has sponsored a number of awards and prizes, now numbering 11, throughout its history and has offered opportunities for fellowships and visiting scholars at the Academy. Charter members of the Academy are John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clarke, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Nathan Cushing, Thomas Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, John Lowell, Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, David Sewall, Stephen Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth, Joseph Willard, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, Samuel Williams, James Winthrop.
From the beginning, the membership and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars, but writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy's history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, Duke Ellington. International honorary members have included Jose Antonio Pantoja Hernandez, Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Otto Hahn, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pablo Picasso, Liu Kuo-Sung, Lucian Michael Freud, Galina Ulanova, Werner Heisenberg, Alec Guinness and Sebastião Salgado. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman elected to the Academy, in 1848; the current membership encompasses over 5,700 members based across the United States and around the world.
Academy members include more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twen
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as revealed by God on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted since. Orthodox Judaism therefore advocates a strict observance of Jewish Law, or Halakha, to be interpreted and determined only according to traditional methods and in adherence to the continuum of received precedent through the ages, it regards the entire halakhic system as grounded in immutable revelation beyond external and historical influence. More than any theoretical issue, obeying the dietary, purity and other laws of Halakha is the hallmark of Orthodoxy. Other key doctrines include belief in a future resurrection of the dead, divine reward and punishment for the righteous and the sinners, the Election of Israel, an eventual restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem under the Messiah. Orthodox Judaism is not a centralized denomination. Relations between its different subgroups are sometimes strained, the exact limits of Orthodoxy are subject to intense debate.
It may be divided between Ultra-Orthodox or "Haredi", more conservative and reclusive, Modern Orthodox Judaism, open to outer society. Each of those is itself formed of independent streams, they are uniformly exclusionist, regarding Orthodoxy as the only authentic form of Judaism and rejecting all competing non-Orthodox philosophies as illegitimate. While adhering to traditional beliefs, the movement is a modern phenomenon, it arose as a result of the breakdown of the autonomous Jewish community since the 18th century, was much shaped by a conscious struggle against the pressures of secularization and rival alternatives. The observant and theologically aware Orthodox are a definite minority among all Jews, but there are numerous semi- and non-practicing persons who are affiliated or identifying with the movement. In total, Orthodox Judaism is the largest Jewish religious group, estimated to have over 2 million practicing adherents and at least an equal number of nominal members or self-identifying supporters.
The earliest known mentioning of the term "Orthodox Jews" was made in the Berlinische Monatsschrift in 1795. The word "Orthodox" was borrowed from the general German Enlightenment discourse, used not to denote a specific religious group, but rather those Jews who opposed Enlightenment. During the early and mid-19th century, with the advent of the progressive movements among German Jews and early Reform Judaism, the title "Orthodox" became the epithet of the traditionalists who espoused conservative positions on the issues raised by modernization, they themselves disliked the alien, name, preferring titles like "Torah-true", declared they used it only for the sake of convenience. The Orthodox leader Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch referred to "the conviction designated as Orthodox Judaism". By the 1920s, the term became common and accepted in Eastern Europe, remains as such. Orthodoxy perceives itself ideologically as the only authentic continuation of Judaism throughout the ages, as it was until the crisis of modernity.
Its progressive opponents shared this view, regarding it as a fossilized remnant of the past and lending credit to their own rivals' ideology. Thus, the term "Orthodox" is used generically to refer to traditional synagogues, prayer rites, so forth. However, academic research has taken a more nuanced approach, noting that the formation of Orthodox ideology and organizational frameworks was itself a product of modernity, it was brought about by the need to defend and buttress the concept of tradition, in a world where it was not self-evident anymore. When deep secularization and the dismantlement of communal structures uprooted the old order of Jewish life, traditionalist elements united to form groups which had a distinct self-understanding. This, all that it entailed, constituted a great change, for the Orthodox had to adapt to the new circumstances no less than anyone else. "Orthodoxization" was a contingent process, drawing from local circumstances and dependent on the extent of threat sensed by its proponents: a sharply-delineated Orthodox identity appeared in Central Europe, in Germany and Hungary, by the 1860s.
Among the Jews of the Muslim lands, similar processes on a large scale only occurred around the 1970s, after they immigrated to Israel. Orthodoxy is described as conservative, ossifying a once-dynamic tradition due to the fear of legitimizing change. While this was not true, its defining feature was not the forbidding of change and "freezing" Jewish heritage in its tracks, but rather the need to adapt to being but one segment of Judaism in a modern world inhospitable to traditional practice. Orthodoxy developed as a variegated "spectrum of reactions" – as termed by Benjamin Brown – involving in many cases much accommodation and leniency. Scholars nowadays since the mid-1980s, research Orthodox Judaism as a field in i
Israel Moiseevich Gelfand written Israïl Moyseyovich Gel'fand, or Izrail M. Gelfand was a prominent Soviet mathematician, he made significant contributions to many branches of mathematics, including group theory, representation theory and functional analysis. The recipient of many awards, including the Order of Lenin and the Wolf Prize, he was a Fellow of the Royal Society and professor at Moscow State University and, after immigrating to the United States shortly before his 76th birthday, at Rutgers University, his legacy continues through his students, who include Endre Szemerédi, Alexandre Kirillov, Edward Frenkel, Joseph Bernstein, as well as his own son, Sergei Gelfand. A native of Kherson Governorate of the Russian Empire, Gelfand was born into a Jewish family in the small southern Ukrainian town of Okny. According to his own account, Gelfand was expelled from high school because his father had been a mill owner. Bypassing both high school and college, he proceeded to postgraduate study at the age of 19 at Moscow State University, where his advisor was the preeminent mathematician Andrei Kolmogorov.
Gelfand is known for many developments including: the book Calculus of Variations, which he co-authored with Sergei Fomin the Gelfand representation in Banach algebra theory. I. M. Gelfand's seminar at Moscow State University was running from 1945 until May 1989, covered a wide range of topics, was an important school for many mathematicians; the Gelfand–Tsetlin basis is a used tool in theoretical physics and the result of Gelfand's work on the representation theory of the unitary group and Lie groups in general. Gelfand published works on biology and medicine. For a long time he organized a research seminar on the subject, he worked extensively in mathematics education with correspondence education. In 1994, he was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship for this work. Gelfand was married to Zorya Shapiro, their two sons and Vladimir both live in the United States; the third son, died of leukemia. Following the divorce from his first wife, Gelfand married Tatiana; the family includes four grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.
The memories about I. Gelfand are collected at the special site handled by his family. Gelfand held several honorary degrees and was awarded the Order of Lenin three times for his research. In 1977 he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society, he won the Wolf Prize in 1978, Kyoto Prize in 1989 and MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in 1994. He held the presidency of the Moscow Mathematical Society between 1968 and 1970, was elected a foreign member of the U. S. National Academy of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Royal Irish Academy, the American Mathematical Society and the London Mathematical Society. In an October 2003 article in The New York Times, written on the occasion of his 90th birthday, Gelfand is described as a scholar, considered "among the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century", having exerted a tremendous influence on the field both through his own works and those of his students. Israel Gelfand died at the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital near his home in Highland Park, New Jersey.
He was less than five weeks past his 96th birthday. His death was first reported on the blog of his former collaborator Andrei Zelevinsky and confirmed a few hours by an obituary in the Russian online newspaper Polit.ru. Gelfand, I. M. Lectures on linear algebra, Courier Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-66082-0 Gelfand, I. M.. J.: Prentice-Hall Inc. ISBN 978-0-486-41448-5, MR 0160139 Gelfand, I.. ISBN 978-0-8218-2022-3, MR 0205105 Gel'fand, I. M.. Vol. I: Properties and operations, Translated by Eugene Saletan, Boston, MA: Academic Press, ISBN 978-0-12-279501-5, MR 0166596 Gelfand, I. M.. Vol. 2. Spaces of fundamental and generalized functions, Translated from the Russian by Morris D. Friedman, Amiel Feinstein and Christian P. Peltzer, Boston, MA: Academic Press, ISBN 978-0-12-279502-2, MR 0230128 Gelfand, I. M.. Vol. 3: Theory of differential equations, Translated from the
Pavel Ilyich Etingof is an American mathematician of Russian-Ukrainian origin. Etingof was born in Kyiv, Ukrainian SSR, studied in the Kyiv Natural Science Lyceum No. 145 in 1981-1984, at the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv in 1984-1986. He received his M. S. in applied mathematics from the Oil and Gas Institute in Moscow in 1989 and went to the USA in 1990. In 1994 he received his PhD in mathematics at Yale University under Igor Frenkel with thesis Representation Theory and Holonomic Systems. After his PhD, he became Benjamin Peirce Assistant Professor at Harvard University and in 1998 an Assistant Professor at MIT. Since 2005 he is a Professor at MIT, he has two daughters. Etingof does research on the intersection of mathematical physics and representation theory, e.g. quantum groups. In 1999 he was a Fellow of the Clay Mathematics Institute. In 2002 he was an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Beijing.
He is a Fellow of the American Mathematical Society. In 2010, together with Slava Gerovitch he co-founded the MIT Program for Research In Mathematics and Science for high school students, has since served as its Chief Research Advisor. In 2016 he became a fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. Quantum fields and strings: a course for mathematicians. Vol. 1, 2. Material from the Special Year on Quantum Field Theory held at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, 1996–1997. Edited by Pierre Deligne, Pavel Etingof, Daniel S. Freed, Lisa C. Jeffrey, David Kazhdan, John W. Morgan, David R. Morrison and Edward Witten. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI. Vol. 1: xxii+723 pp.. ISBN 0-8218-1198-3, 81-06 with Frédéric Latour: The dynamical Yang–Baxter equation, representation theory, quantum integrable systems, Oxford University Press 2005 with Igor Frenkel, Alexander Kirillov, Jr.: Lectures on representation theory and Knizhnik–Zamolodchikov equations, American Mathematical Society 1998 with Alexander Varchenko: Why the boundary of a round drop becomes a curve of order four, American Mathematical Society 1992 Calogero–Moser Systems and Representation Theory, European Mathematical Society 2007 with co-authors: Introduction to Representation theory, Student Mathematical Library, American Mathematical Society 2011 editor with co-editors: The unity of mathematics: in honor of the ninetieth birthday of I. M. Gelfand, Birkhäuser 2006 editor with Shlomo Gelaki and Steven Shnider: Quantum Groups, American Mathematical Society 2007 Tensor Categories.
American Mathematical Society. 2015. ISBN 978-1-4704-2024-6.. Profile at MIT website
Gregori Aleksandrovich Margulis is a Russian-American mathematician known for his work on lattices in Lie groups, the introduction of methods from ergodic theory into diophantine approximation. He was awarded a Fields Medal in 1978 and a Wolf Prize in Mathematics in 2005, becoming the seventh mathematician to receive both prizes. In 1991, he joined the faculty of Yale University, where he is the Erastus L. De Forest Professor of Mathematics. Margulis was born to a Russian Jewish family in Moscow, Soviet Union. At age 16 in 1962 he won the silver medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad, he received his PhD in 1970 from the Moscow State University, starting research in ergodic theory under the supervision of Yakov Sinai. Early work with David Kazhdan produced the Kazhdan–Margulis theorem, a basic result on discrete groups, his superrigidity theorem from 1975 clarified an area of classical conjectures about the characterisation of arithmetic groups amongst lattices in Lie groups. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1978, but was not permitted to travel to Helsinki to accept it in person due to anti-semitism against Jewish mathematicians in the Soviet Union.
His position improved, in 1979 he visited Bonn, was able to travel though he still worked in the Institute of Problems of Information Transmission, a research institute rather than a university. In 1991, Margulis accepted a professorial position at Yale University. Margulis was elected a member of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences in 2001. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society. In 2005, Margulis received the Wolf Prize for his contributions to theory of lattices and applications to ergodic theory, representation theory, number theory and measure theory. Margulis's early work dealt with Kazhdan's property and the questions of rigidity and arithmeticity of lattices in semisimple algebraic groups of higher rank over a local field, it had been known since the 1950s that a certain simple-minded way of constructing subgroups of semisimple Lie groups produces examples of lattices, called arithmetic lattices. It is analogous to considering the subgroup SL of the real special linear group SL that consists of matrices with integer entries.
Margulis proved that under suitable assumptions on G, any lattice Γ in it is arithmetic, i.e. can be obtained in this way. Thus Γ is commensurable with the subgroup G of G, i.e. they agree on subgroups of finite index in both. Unlike general lattices, which are defined by their properties, arithmetic lattices are defined by a construction. Therefore, these results of Margulis pave a way for classification of lattices. Arithmeticity turned out to be related to another remarkable property of lattices discovered by Margulis. Superrigidity for a lattice Γ in G means that any homomorphism of Γ into the group of real invertible n × n matrices extends to the whole G; the name derives from the following variant: If G and G' are semisimple algebraic groups over a local field without compact factors and whose split rank is at least two and Γ and Γ ′ are irreducible lattices in them any homomorphism f: Γ → Γ ′ between the lattices agrees on a finite index subgroup of Γ with a homomorphism between the algebraic groups themselves.
While certain rigidity phenomena had been known, the approach of Margulis was at the same time novel and elegant. Margulis solved the Banach–Ruziewicz problem that asks whether the Lebesgue measure is the only normalized rotationally invariant finitely additive measure on the n-dimensional sphere; the affirmative solution for n ≥ 4, independently and simultaneously obtained by Dennis Sullivan, follows from a construction of a certain dense subgroup of the orthogonal group that has property. Margulis gave the first construction of expander graphs, generalized in the theory of Ramanujan graphs. In 1986, Margulis gave a complete resolution of the Oppenheim conjecture on quadratic forms and diophantine approximation; this was a question, open for half a century, on which considerable progress had been made by the Hardy–Littlewood circle method. He has formulated a further program of research in the same direction, that includes the Littlewood conjecture. Discrete subgroups of semisimple Lie groups, Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete, 17.
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991. X+388 pp. ISBN 3-540-12179-X MR1090825 On some aspects of the theory of Anosov systems. With a survey by Richard Sharp: Periodic orbits of hyperbolic flows. Translated from the Russian by Valentina Vladimirovna Szulikowska. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004. Vi+139 pp. ISBN 3-540-40121-0 MR2035655 Oppenheim conjecture. Fields Medallists' lectures, 272–327, World Sci. Ser. 20th Century Math. 5, World Sci. Publ. River Edge, NJ, 1997 MR1622909 Dynamical and ergodic properties of subgroup actions on homogeneous spaces with applications to number theory. Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, Vol. I, II, 193–215, Math. Soc. Japan, Tokyo, 1991 MR1159213 Explicit group-theoretic constructions of combinatorial schemes and their applications in the construction of expanders and concentrators. Problemy Peredachi I
Pierre René, Viscount Deligne is a Belgian mathematician. He is known for work on the Weil conjectures, leading to a complete proof in 1973, he is the winner of the 2013 Abel Prize, 2008 Wolf Prize, 1988 Crafoord Prize, 1978 Fields Medal. Deligne was born in Etterbeek, attended school at Athénée Adolphe Max and studied at the Université libre de Bruxelles, writing a dissertation titled Théorème de Lefschetz et critères de dégénérescence de suites spectrales, he completed his doctorate at the University of Paris-Sud in Orsay 1972 under the supervision of Alexander Grothendieck, with a thesis titled Théorie de Hodge. Starting in 1972, Deligne worked with Grothendieck at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques near Paris on the generalization within scheme theory of Zariski's main theorem. In 1968, he worked with Jean-Pierre Serre. Deligne's focused on topics in Hodge theory, he tested them on objects in complex geometry. He collaborated with David Mumford on a new description of the moduli spaces for curves.
Their work came to be seen as an introduction to one form of the theory of algebraic stacks, has been applied to questions arising from string theory. Deligne's most famous contribution was his proof of the third and last of the Weil conjectures; this proof completed a programme initiated and developed by Alexander Grothendieck. As a corollary he proved the celebrated Ramanujan–Petersson conjecture for modular forms of weight greater than one. Deligne's 1974 paper contains the first proof of the Weil conjectures, Deligne's contribution being to supply the estimate of the eigenvalues of the Frobenius endomorphism, considered the geometric analogue of the Riemann hypothesis. Deligne's 1980 paper contains a much more general version of the Riemann hypothesis. From 1970 until 1984, Deligne was a permanent member of the IHÉS staff. During this time he did much important work outside of his work on algebraic geometry. In joint work with George Lusztig, Deligne applied étale cohomology to construct representations of finite groups of Lie type.
He received a Fields Medal in 1978. In 1984, Deligne moved to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. In terms of the completion of some of the underlying Grothendieck program of research, he defined absolute Hodge cycles, as a surrogate for the missing and still conjectural theory of motives; this idea allows one to get around the lack of knowledge of the Hodge conjecture, for some applications. He reworked the Tannakian category theory in his 1990 paper for the Grothendieck Festschrift, employing Beck's theorem – the Tannakian category concept being the categorical expression of the linearity of the theory of motives as the ultimate Weil cohomology. All this is part of the yoga of uniting Hodge theory and the l-adic Galois representations; the Shimura variety theory is related, by the idea that such varieties should parametrize not just good families of Hodge structures, but actual motives. This theory is not yet a finished product, more recent trends have used K-theory approaches, he was awarded the Fields Medal in 1978, the Crafoord Prize in 1988, the Balzan Prize in 2004, the Wolf Prize in 2008, the Abel Prize in 2013.
In 2006 he was ennobled by the Belgian king as viscount. In 2009, Deligne was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, he is a member of the Norwegian Academy of Letters. Deligne, Pierre. "La conjecture de Weil: I". Publications Mathématiques de l'IHÉS. 43: 273–307. Doi:10.1007/bf02684373. Deligne, Pierre. "La conjecture de Weil: II". Publications Mathématiques de l'IHÉS. 52: 137–252. Doi:10.1007/BF02684780. Deligne, Pierre. "Catégories tannakiennes". Grothendieck Festschrift vol II. Progress in Mathematics. 87: 111–195. Deligne, Pierre. "Real homotopy theory of Kähler manifolds". Inventiones Mathematicae. 29: 245–274. Doi:10.1007/BF01389853. MR 0382702. Deligne, Pierre. Commensurabilities among Lattices in PU. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00096-4. Quantum fields and strings: a course for mathematicians. Vols. 1, 2. Material from the Special Year on Quantum Field Theory held at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, 1996–1997. Edited by Pierre Deligne, Pavel Etingof, Daniel S. Freed, Lisa C.
Jeffrey, David Kazhdan, John W. Morgan, David R. Morrison and Edward Witten. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI. Vol. 1: xxii+723 pp.. ISBN 0-8218-1198-3. Deligne wrote multiple hand-written letters to other mathematicians in the 1970s; these include "Deligne's letter to Piatetskii-Shapiro". Archived from the original on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012. "Deligne's letter to Jean-Pierre Serre". 2012-12-15. "Deligne's letter to Looijenga". Retrieved 15 December 2012; the following mathematical concepts are named after Deligne: Deligne–Lusztig theory Deligne–Mumford moduli space of curves Deligne–Mumford stacks Fourier–Deligne transform Deligne cohomology Deligne motive Deligne tensor product of abelian categories Langlands–Deligne local constantAdditionally, many different conjectures in mathematics have been called the De
The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. The Fields Medal is regarded as one of the highest honors a mathematician can receive, has been described as the mathematician's Nobel Prize, although there are several key differences, including frequency of award, number of awards, age limits. According to the annual Academic Excellence Survey by ARWU, the Fields Medal is regarded as the top award in the field of mathematics worldwide, in another reputation survey conducted by IREG in 2013-14, the Fields Medal came after the Abel Prize as the second most prestigious international award in mathematics; the prize comes with a monetary award which, since 2006, has been CA$15,000. The name of the award is in honour of Canadian mathematician John Charles Fields. Fields was instrumental in establishing the award, designing the medal itself, funding the monetary component.
The medal was first awarded in 1936 to Finnish mathematician Lars Ahlfors and American mathematician Jesse Douglas, it has been awarded every four years since 1950. Its purpose is to give recognition and support to younger mathematical researchers who have made major contributions. In 2014, the Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani became the first female Fields Medalist. In all, sixty people have been awarded the Fields Medal; the most recent group of Fields Medalists received their awards on 1 August 2018 at the opening ceremony of the IMU International Congress, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The medal belonging to one of the four joint winners, Caucher Birkar, was stolen shortly after the event; the ICM presented Birkar with a replacement medal a few days later. The Fields Medal has for a long time been regarded as the most prestigious award in the field of mathematics and is described as the Nobel Prize of Mathematics. Unlike the Nobel Prize, the Fields Medal is only awarded every four years.
The Fields Medal has an age limit: a recipient must be under age 40 on 1 January of the year in which the medal is awarded. This is similar to restrictions applicable to the Clark Medal in economics; the under-40 rule is based on Fields's desire that "while it was in recognition of work done, it was at the same time intended to be an encouragement for further achievement on the part of the recipients and a stimulus to renewed effort on the part of others." Moreover, an individual can only be awarded one Fields Medal. This is in contrast with the Nobel Prize, awarded to an individual or an entity more than once, whether in the same category, or in different categories; the monetary award is much lower than the 8,000,000 Swedish kronor given with each Nobel prize as of 2014. Other major awards in mathematics, such as the Abel Prize and the Chern Medal, have larger monetary prizes compared to the Fields Medal; the medal was first awarded in 1936 to the Finnish mathematician Lars Ahlfors and the American mathematician Jesse Douglas, it has been awarded every four years since 1950.
Its purpose is to give recognition and support to younger mathematical researchers who have made major contributions. In 1954, Jean-Pierre Serre became the youngest winner of the Fields Medal, at 27, he retains this distinction. In 1966, Alexander Grothendieck boycotted the ICM, held in Moscow, to protest Soviet military actions taking place in Eastern Europe. Léon Motchane and director of the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques and accepted Grothendieck's Fields Medal on his behalf. In 1970, Sergei Novikov, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Nice to receive his medal. In 1978, Grigory Margulis, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Helsinki to receive his medal; the award was accepted on his behalf by Jacques Tits, who said in his address: "I cannot but express my deep disappointment—no doubt shared by many people here—in the absence of Margulis from this ceremony.
In view of the symbolic meaning of this city of Helsinki, I had indeed grounds to hope that I would have a chance at last to meet a mathematician whom I know only through his work and for whom I have the greatest respect and admiration."In 1982, the congress was due to be held in Warsaw but had to be rescheduled to the next year, because of martial law introduced in Poland on 13 December 1981. The awards were announced at the ninth General Assembly of the IMU earlier in the year and awarded at the 1983 Warsaw congress. In 1990, Edward Witten became the first physicist to win the award. In 1998, at the ICM, Andrew Wiles was presented by the chair of the Fields Medal Committee, Yuri I. Manin, with the first-ever IMU silver plaque in recognition of his proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. Don Zagier referred to the plaque as a "quantized Fields Medal". Accounts of this award make reference that at the time of the award Wiles was over the age limit for the Fields medal. Although Wiles was over the age limit in 1994, he was thought to be a favorite to win the medal.
In 2006, Grigori Perelman, who proved the Poincaré conjecture, refused his Fields Medal and did not attend the congress. In 2014, Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman as well as the first Iranian to win the Fields Medal, Artur Avila became the first South American and Manjul Bhargava became the first person of Indian origin to do so. President Rouhani congratulated her for this