St Ives, New South Wales
St Ives is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia 18 kilometres north of the Sydney Central Business District in the local government area of Ku-ring-gai Council. St Ives Chase is a separate suburb, to the north; the St Ives area was first explored by Governor Arthur Phillip and a party of men in 1788 where they set up a campsite at Bungaroo, close to what is now Hunter Avenue. The area produced a small scale timber felling industry. There are still some examples of the thirty metre and higher trees in nearby Pymble in the Dalrymple Hay forest and near Canisius College. Native turpentine trees were once abundant and provided useful timber for cabinet making, it was once known for its apple orchards but due to residential demand, there is no longer any commercial fruit growing in the area. During the Second World War there were significant numbers of troops barracked in the area, which provided the impetus to build Archbold Road as a supplementary and emergency route to the city.
Since 1950 the suburb has expanded from the central shopping areas and the arterial main roads to include hilltop and valley areas bordering on the surrounding Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park to the north, now the area known as St Ives Chase, Garigal National Park to the east and the south east. St Ives Post Office opened on 10 November 1885 and the first public school opened on 6 May 1889; the school was formally opened by Mr. J. P. Burns, M. L. A. on Saturday 8 June. After inspecting the "neat and well-designed school and teacher's residence" the party had a luncheon to mark the occasion. St Ives was slow to develop due to the perceived remoteness from the city. Settlement increased in the late 1890s, when St Ives was populated by market gardeners, a small dairy, orchard workers and related industries; the suburb since the end of the Second World War has seen its most rapid period of expansion and a steady growth in families moving to the area. St Ives Shopping Village is a medium-sized shopping centre opened in the 1960s.
The centre has over 110 stores, its main tenants are Harris Farm Markets, Romeo's IGA and Woolworths. Village Green is a popular park in St Ives. Village Green is directly opposite of St Ives Shopping Village; the park is bordered on Memorial Avenue, Village Green Parade and Cowan Road. The park includes sporting baseball fields, tennis courts and a skate park. Sydney Grammar School St Ives Public School St Ives Park Public School St Ives North Public School St Ives High School Corpus Christi Catholic Primary School Brigidine College Masada College St Ives Rugby Club, who play at Hassell Park or'Fortress Hassall'. St Ives Wahroonga Cricket Club. Pymble Golf Club, Cowan Road, St Ives. St Ives Soccer Club, who play at Warrimoo Oval, St Ives Chase. St Ives Saints Australian Football Club. Northside Monash Soccer Club, who play at Mimosa Oval. North St Ives Scouts whose hall lies adjacent to St Ives Chase. St Ives Radio Control Car Club, racing at St Ives Showgrounds. Dalrymple-Hay Nature Reserve is situated on the east side of Mona Vale Road and covers 10.7 hectares.
It consists of a blackbutt open forest and is used as a recreation area by locals, in spite of having problems with weeds and die-back. It is listed on the Register of the National Estate. St Ives Netball Club. St Ives Softball Club. Ku-ring-gai Wildflower Garden is located on the north side of Mona Vale Road, it includes a Senses Track and extensive walking tracks. At the 2016 census, St Ives recorded a population of 17,300. Of these: The median age was 42 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 20.8% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 19.7% of the population. 51.8% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were South Africa 8.6%, China 7.1%, England 6.3%, Hong Kong 2.0% and New Zealand 2.0%. 69.0% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 8.7%, Cantonese 3.7%, Korean 2.4%, Persian 1.7% and Spanish 0.9%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 28.6%, Anglican 17.6%, Catholic 17.3% and Judaism 9.7%.
82.9% of households were family households and 16.2% were single person households. Of occupied private dwellings in St Ives, 70.1% were separate houses, 20.2% were flats or apartments and 9.5% were semi-detached. Andrew Denton, television presenter Georgie Parker, television personality Kimberley Starr, novelist Karl Stefanovic, television presenter Wayne Pearce, former Rugby league great Basil van Rooyen, former South-African F1 racecar driver Paula Duncan, actress Andy Harper, football commentator Adam Kellerman, paralympic wheelchair tennis player Slim Dusty, singer-songwriter, guitarist Megan Connolly, actress St Ives High School St Ives North Public School St Ives Park Public School St Ives Football Club Joan Rowland. "St Ives". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 29 September 2015. Zeny Edwards. "St Ives Boundary Tree". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 6 October 2015
Australian Recording Industry Association
The Australian Recording Industry Association is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry, established in 1983 by six major record companies, EMI, Festival, CBS, RCA, WEA and Universal replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers, formed in 1956. It oversees the collection and distribution of music licenses and royalties; the association has more than 100 members, including small labels run by one to five people, medium size organisations and large companies with international affiliates. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. In 1956, the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers was formed by Australia's major record companies, it was replaced in 1983 by the Australian Recording Industry Association, established by the six major record companies operating in Australia, EMI, Festival Records, CBS, RCA, WEA and Polygram.
It included smaller record companies representing independent acts/labels and has over 100 members. By 1997, the six major labels provided 90% of all recordings made in Australia. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. Australian TV pop music show Countdown presented its own annual awards ceremony, Countdown Music and Video Awards, co-produced by Carolyn James during 1981–1984 in collaboration with ARIA. ARIA provided peer voting for some awards, while Countdown provided coupons in the related Countdown Magazine for viewers to vote for populist awards. At the 1985 Countdown awards ceremony, held on 14 April 1986, fans of INXS and Uncanny X-Men scuffled during the broadcast and as a result ARIA decided to hold their own awards. Since 2 March 1987, ARIA administered its own peer-voted ARIA Music Awards, to "recognise excellence and innovation in all genres of Australian music" with an annual ceremony.
Included in the same awards ceremonies, it established the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988 and has held separate annual ceremonies since 2005. The ARIA Hall of Fame "honours Australian musicians' achievements have had a significant impact in Australia or around the world". In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association announced its own legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 February 2005, the homes of two Sharman Networks executives and the offices of Sharman Networks in Australia were raided under a court order by ARIA to gather evidence for the trial. In 2006, ARIA formed sponsorship deals with Motorola and Nova and changed the appearance and conduct of the charting. Motorola took naming-rights sponsorship seeing the charts referred to in the media as the Motorola ARIA Charts. ARIA, have commented that as part of the same marketing printed charts would be reintroduced into media retailing shops and their website would be redesigned.
As part of the deal Nova began broadcasting the charted singles in reverse order on a Sunday afternoon show before it was released on the ARIA charts website. The ARIA Charts is the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association; the charts are a record of albums in various genres. All charts are compiled from data of both digital sales from retailers in Australia. A music single or album qualifies for a platinum certification if it exceeds 70,000 copies shipped to retailers and a gold certification for 35,000 copies shipped; the diamond certification was created for albums in November 2015 to mark 500,000 sales/shipments. For music DVDs, a gold accreditation represented 7,500 copies shipped, with a platinum accreditation representing 15,000 units shipped. Prior to ARIA taking on the role of certification authority in 1983, the music industry used the following certification levels: The ARIA No. 1 Chart Awards were established in 2002 to recognise Australian recording artists, who reached number one on the ARIA albums and music DVDs charts.
The ARIA Music Awards is an annual series of awards nights celebrating the Australian music industry. The event has been held annually since 1987. Like most recording industry associations, ARIA has been criticised for fighting copyright infringement matters aggressively, although in Australia this has taken the form of aggressive advertising campaigns in cinemas directly preceding movies; this criticism is stauncher in Australia due to the absence of an equivalent Digital Millennium Copyright Act or state crimes acts which establish copyright infringement as a crime. In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association took legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 Febr
EMI Group Limited was a British Transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, was one of the big four record companies; the company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional, it is owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing.
Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound. The new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment; the company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering. In 1934, the company developed the electronic Marconi-EMI system for television broadcasting, which replaced Baird's electro-mechanical system following its introduction in 1936. After the war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield, it manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC. The commercial television ITV companies used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi.
Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, EMI left this area of product manufacture. Alan Blumlein, an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s, he was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set. During and after World War II, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment, microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator, electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, guided missiles employing analogue computers; the company was for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers. This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd.
The EMI Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll. In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100, the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield, an electrical engineer at EMI. In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner, a device which revolutionised medical imaging. In 1973 EMI was awarded a prestigious Queen's Award for Technological Innovation for what was called the EMI scanner, in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment. After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn. Subsequently and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells.
Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft, of California, US, 49% by EMI. It manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name. Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth, including India and New Zealand. Gramophone's Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon's Records. In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London. During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Arturo
Pymble, New South Wales
Pymble is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Pymble is 16 kilometres north-west of the Sydney Central Business District in the local government area of Ku-ring-gai Council. West Pymble is a separate suburb, surrounded by the Lane Cove National Park. Based on settlers' accounts the land that came to be known as Pymble was traversed by, at least periodically inhabited by, what was by that time the "remains" of the Cammeraigal clan or tribe of the Kuringai Aborigines; the Cammeraigal had occupied the land between the Lane Cove River and east to the coast. They would travel from grounds at Cowan Creek to the Parramatta River via Pymble - passing west through the land where Pymble Ladies' College now stands, through the Lane Cove Valley and North Ryde. En route they would hold corroborees at the current site of the Pymble Reservoir on Telegraph Rd and "camped on the hill...at the junction of Merrivale Rd and Selwyn St." Pymble is named after Robert Pymble, an influential early settler whose 1823 land grant comprised some 600 acres, around half the land of the region.
The other half was granted to Daniel der Matthew's, another influential settler who established the first sawmill in the area. The region was important to the early Sydney colony as a major supplier of timber for a wide variety of uses; the main timber varieties were blackbutt, iron bark and blue gum. In years it was an important supplier of agricultural produce, it became known for the high quality of its produce and for its oranges, introduced to the area by Robert Pymble sometime around 1828 and which by years were grown extensively throughout the region by numerous different growers following land sub-divisions. Agriculture and small farming gave way to residential development with residential sub-divisions commencing around 1879; the first bank - the Australian Joint Stock Bank - was established in 1888 in a prominent house known as Grandview built on Pymble Hill ca 1883 by the son of local hotelier Richard Porter. Porter had opened the Gardener's Arms Hotel on Pymble Hill, in 1866. From this time the centre of commercial activity came to be at the top of the hill around the Pacific Highway and Bannockburn Road area, but with the railway station being located by necessity at the bottom of the hill development began to shift towards the new railway station at the foot of the hill.
Pymble Post Office opened there on 6 August 1890. Today Pymble is a predominantly residential area with tree-lined streets, many substantial homes and gardens, numerous parks, nature reserves, active pockets of commercial activity. Pymble has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Pacific Highway: Pymble Reservoirs No. 1 and No. 2 982-984 Pacific Highway: Pymble Substation 29 Telegraph Road: Eric Pratten House Prominent landmarks include Pymble Station and Pymble Hill. The station is the centre of transport and social activities whilst Pymble Hill affords a view of the distant Chatswood skyline. Significant buildings include: Ku-ring-gai Town Hall is situated at the top of Pymble Hill on the Pacific Highway, it was the Sacred Heart Catholic Church, built in 1934, is an example of the Inter-War Spanish Mission architectural style. Along with the presbytery next door it is heritage-listed. Pymble Chapel, on the corner of Mona Vale Road and Bromley Avenue, was built in 1879, it was the second church is the oldest remaining building in the suburb.
St Swithun's Anglican Church, on Telegraph Road, was built c. 1938 and is an example of the Inter-War Gothic style. It is the only church in Australia named after St Swithun. Significant houses include: Grandview is a two-storey, Georgian structure made of sandstone, it is now used as a home. It has a federal heritage listing. Merrivale is a local stately home in the Regency style and is considered one of the finest examples of its kind in Ku-ring-gai, it has a state heritage listing. Coppins, sometimes known as the Eric Pratten House, was designed by Walter Burley Griffin and built c. 1936. It is one of three large houses designed by Griffin in Ku-ring-gai and is significant because most of his residential buildings were single-storey, it has a state heritage listing. Macquarie Cottage, in Avon Road, was designed by William Hardy Wilson and built in 1918, it is considered a typical example of Wilson's work and has both state and federal heritage listings. Sacred Heart Presbytery is a two-storey house in the Federation Arts and Crafts style, with Gothic touches to the windows.
It has a state heritage listing. Colinroobie, a two-storey Federation mansion built in the early 20th Century, situated at the corner of the Pacific Highway and Clydesdale Place, it has a state heritage listing. Pymble railway station is on the Sydney Trains North Northern & Western Line. Transdev NSW buses operate route 579 from Pymble Station to East Turramurra and route 560 from Gordon Station to West Pymble. Route 575 operates along the pacific highway past the railway station, it goes to West Macquarie southbound & to Turramurra & Hornsby northbound. There is a taxi stand on the eastern side of the station in Grandview Street. At the 2011 census, 24% of employed people travelled to work on public transport and 54% by car – a typical reflection of the Sydney area mode of transport. Pymble Shopping Village - Grandview Street, adjacent to Pymble ra
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
A barcode is a visual, machine-readable representation of data. Traditional barcodes systematically represent data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines, may be referred to as linear or one-dimensional. Two-dimensional variants were developed, using rectangles, dots and other geometric patterns, called matrix codes or 2D barcodes, although they do not use bars as such. Barcodes were only scanned by special optical scanners called barcode readers. Application software became available for devices that could read images, such as smartphones with cameras; the barcode was invented by Norman Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver and patented in the US in 1952. The invention was based on Morse code, extended to thin and thick bars. However, it took over twenty years. An early use of one type of barcode in an industrial context was sponsored by the Association of American Railroads in the late 1960s. Developed by General Telephone and Electronics and called KarTrak ACI, this scheme involved placing colored stripes in various combinations on steel plates which were affixed to the sides of railroad rolling stock.
Two plates were used per car, one on each side, with the arrangement of the colored stripes encoding information such as ownership, type of equipment, identification number. The plates were read by a trackside scanner, located for instance, at the entrance to a classification yard, while the car was moving past; the project was abandoned after about ten years because the system proved unreliable after long-term use. Barcodes became commercially successful when they were used to automate supermarket checkout systems, a task for which they have become universal, their use has spread to many other tasks that are generically referred to as automatic identification and data capture. The first scanning of the now-ubiquitous Universal Product Code barcode was on a pack of Wrigley Company chewing gum in June 1974. QR codes, a specific type of 2D barcode, have become popular. Other systems have made inroads in the AIDC market, but the simplicity and low cost of barcodes has limited the role of these other systems before technologies such as radio-frequency identification became available after 2000.
In 1948 Bernard Silver, a graduate student at Drexel Institute of Technology in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US overheard the president of the local food chain, Food Fair, asking one of the deans to research a system to automatically read product information during checkout. Silver told his friend Norman Joseph Woodland about the request, they started working on a variety of systems, their first working system used ultraviolet ink, but the ink faded too and was expensive. Convinced that the system was workable with further development, Woodland left Drexel, moved into his father's apartment in Florida, continued working on the system, his next inspiration came from Morse code, he formed his first barcode from sand on the beach. "I just extended the dots and dashes downwards and made narrow lines and wide lines out of them." To read them, he adapted technology from optical soundtracks in movies, using a 500-watt incandescent light bulb shining through the paper onto an RCA935 photomultiplier tube on the far side.
He decided that the system would work better if it were printed as a circle instead of a line, allowing it to be scanned in any direction. On 20 October 1949, Woodland and Silver filed a patent application for "Classifying Apparatus and Method", in which they described both the linear and bull's eye printing patterns, as well as the mechanical and electronic systems needed to read the code; the patent was issued on 7 October 1952 as US Patent 2,612,994. In 1951, Woodland continually tried to interest IBM in developing the system; the company commissioned a report on the idea, which concluded that it was both feasible and interesting, but that processing the resulting information would require equipment, some time off in the future. IBM offered to buy the patent. Philco purchased the patent in 1962 and sold it to RCA sometime later. During his time as an undergraduate, David Collins worked at the Pennsylvania Railroad and became aware of the need to automatically identify railroad cars. After receiving his master's degree from MIT in 1959, he started work at GTE Sylvania and began addressing the problem.
He developed a system called KarTrak using blue and red reflective stripes attached to the side of the cars, encoding a six-digit company identifier and a four-digit car number. Light reflected off the stripes was fed into one of two photomultipliers, filtered for red; the Boston and Maine Railroad tested the KarTrak system on their gravel cars in 1961. The tests continued until 1967, when the Association of American Railroads selected it as a standard, Automatic Car Identification, across the entire North American fleet; the installations began on 10 October 1967. However, the economic downturn and rash of bankruptcies in the industry in the early 1970s slowed the rollout, it was not until 1974 that 95% of the fleet was labeled. To add to its woes, the system was found to be fooled by dirt in certain applications, which affected accuracy; the AAR abandoned the system in the late 1970s, it was not until the mid-1980s that they introduced a similar system, this time based on radio tags. The railway project had failed, but a toll bridge in New Jersey requested a similar syst
William John Clifton Haley was an American rock and roll musician. He is credited by many with first popularizing this form of music in the early 1950s with his group Bill Haley & His Comets and million-selling hits such as "Rock Around the Clock", "See You Later, Alligator", "Shake and Roll", "Rocket 88", "Skinny Minnie", "Razzle Dazzle", he has sold over 60 million records worldwide and has been described as the greatest musical pioneer of the 20th century. Bill Haley was born July 1925 in Highland Park, Michigan, as William John Clifton Haley. In 1929, the four-year-old Haley underwent an inner-ear mastoid operation which accidentally severed an optic nerve, leaving him blind in his left eye for the rest of his life, it is said that he adopted his trademark kiss curl over his right eye to draw attention from his left, but it became his "gimmick", added to his popularity. As a result of the effects of the Great Depression on the Detroit area, his father moved the family to Bethel, when Bill was seven years old.
Haley's father William Albert Haley was from Kentucky and played the banjo and mandolin, his mother, Maude Green, from Ulverston in Lancashire, was a technically accomplished keyboardist with classical training. Haley told the story that when he made a simulated guitar out of cardboard, his parents bought him a real one. One of his first appearances was in 1938 for a Bethel Junior baseball team entertainment event, performing guitar and songs when he was 13 years old; the anonymous sleeve notes accompanying the 1956 Decca album Rock Around The Clock describe Haley's early life and career: "When Bill Haley was fifteen he left home with his guitar and little else and set out on the hard road to fame and fortune. The next few years, continuing this story in a fairy-tale manner, were hard and poverty-stricken, but crammed full of useful experience. Apart from learning how to exist on one meal a day and other artistic exercises, he worked at an open-air park show and yodelled with any band that would have him, worked with a traveling medicine show.
He got a job with a popular group known as the "Down Homers" while they were in Hartford, Connecticut. Soon after this he decided, as all successful people must decide at some time or another, to be his own boss again – and he has been that since.' These notes fail to account for his early band, known as the Four Aces of Western Swing. During the 1940s Haley was considered one of the top cowboy yodelers in America as "Silver Yodeling Bill Haley"; the sleeve notes conclude: "For six years Bill Haley was a musical director of Radio Station WPWA in Chester and led his own band all through this period. It was known as Bill Haley's Saddlemen, indicating their definite leaning toward the tough Western style, they continued playing in clubs as well as over the radio around Philadelphia, in 1951 made their first recordings on Ed Wilson's Keystone Records in Philadelphia." The group subsequently signed with Dave Miller's Holiday Records and, on June 14, 1951 the Saddlemen recorded a cover of "Rocket 88".
During the Labor Day weekend in 1952, the Saddlemen were renamed Bill Haley with Haley's Comets, in 1953, Haley's recording of "Crazy Man, Crazy" became the first rock and roll song to hit the American charts, peaking at number 15 on Billboard and number 11 on Cash Box. Soon after, the band's name was revised to "Bill Haley & His Comets". In 1954, Haley recorded "Rock Around the Clock", it was successful, peaking at number 23 on the Billboard pop singles chart and staying on the charts for a few weeks. On re-release, the record reached #1 on 9 July 1955. Haley soon had another worldwide hit with "Shake and Roll", which went on to sell a million copies and was the first rock'n' roll song to enter the British singles charts in December 1954, becoming a gold record, he retained elements of the original, but sped it up with some country music aspects into the song and changed up the lyrics. Haley and his band were important in launching the music known as "Rock and Roll" to a wider audience after a period of it being considered an underground genre.
When "Rock Around the Clock" appeared as the theme song of the 1955 film Blackboard Jungle starring Glenn Ford, it soared to the top of the American Billboard chart for eight weeks. The single is used as a convenient line of demarcation between the "rock era" and the music industry that preceded it. Billboard separated its statistical tabulations into 1890–1954 and 1955–present. After the record rose to number one, Haley was given the title "Father of Rock and Roll" by the media, by teenagers who had come to embrace the new style of music. With the song's success, the age of rock music began overnight and ended the dominance of the jazz and pop standards performed by Frank Sinatra, Jo Stafford, Perry Como, Bing Crosby, others. In the United Kingdom, Haley was supported by former Dankworth Seven lead vocalist Frank Holder among others. "Rock Around the Clock" was the first record to sell over one million copies in both Britain and Germany. On in 1957, Haley became the first major American rock singer to tour Europe.
Haley continued to score hits throughout the 1950s such as "See You Later, Alligator" and he starred in the first rock and roll musical films Rock Around the Clock and Don't Knock the Rock, bot