Association of Tennis Professionals
The Association of Tennis Professionals was formed in September 1972 by Donald Dell, Bob Briner, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. Since 1990, the association has organized the worldwide tour for men. In 1990 the organization was called the ATP Tour, which was renamed in 2001 as just ATP, in 2009 the name was changed again and is now known as the ATP World Tour. It is an evolution of the tour competitions previously known as Grand Prix tennis tournaments, the ATPs global headquarters are in London, United Kingdom. ATP Americas is based in Ponte Vedra Beach, United States, ATP Europe is headquartered in Monaco, and ATP International, the counterpart organization in the womens professional game is the Womens Tennis Association. Started in 1972 by Jack Kramer, Donald Dell, and Cliff Drysdale, it was first managed by Jack Kramer, as Executive Director, Jack Kramer created the professional players rankings system, which started the following year and continues to this day.
From 1974 to 1989, the circuit was administered by a sub-committee called the Mens International Professional Tennis Council. It was made up of representatives of the International Tennis Federation, the ATP, the ATP requested and got the MIPTC to introduce a drug testing rule, making tennis the first professional sport to institute a drug-testing program. In response the ATP threatened a boycott, stating that if Pilić was not allowed to compete none should, three ATP players, Ilie Năstase, Roger Taylor and Ray Keldie defied the boycott and were fined by the ATPs disciplinary committee. But the tour was run by the tournament directors and the ITF. This re-organisation ended a lawsuit with Volvo and Donald Dell, on 19 January 1989 the ATP published the Tour calendar for the inaugural 1990 season. By 1991, the men had their first television package to broadcast 19 tournaments to the world, coming on-line with their first website in 1995, was quickly followed by a multi-year agreement with Mercedes-Benz.
Lawsuits in 2008, around virtually the same issues, resulted in a restructured tour, the ATP World Tour comprises ATP World Tour Masters 1000, ATP World Tour 500 series, ATP World Tour 250 series and ATP Challenger Tour. The ATP tour oversees the ATP Champions Tour for seniors, Grand Slams do not fall under the auspices of the ATP. In these events, ranking points are awarded and doubles teams with the most ranking points play in the season-ending ATP World Tour Finals, from 2000-2008, was run jointly with the International Tennis Federation. The week-long introductory level Futures tournaments are ITF events and they count towards ATP Entry Ranking, the four-week ITF Satellite tournaments were discontinued in 2007. Grand Slam tournaments are overseen by the ITF and they count towards the players ATP rankings, the Masters 1000 tournaments are Indian Wells, Monte Carlo, Madrid, Toronto/Montreal, Cincinnati and Paris. The end-of-year event, the World Tour Finals, moved from Shanghai to London, Hamburg has been displaced by the new clay court event at Madrid, which is a new combined mens and womens tournament
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Anthony Tony Dalton Roche, AO MBE is a former professional Australian tennis player, native of Tarcutta. He played junior tennis in the New South Wales regional city of Wagga Wagga and he won one Grand Slam singles title and thirteen Grand Slam doubles titles, and was ranked as high as World No.2 by Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph in 1969. He coached multi-Grand Slam winning World No, 1s, Ivan Lendl, Patrick Rafter, Roger Federer, Lleyton Hewitt and former World No. Roche started to play tennis at school when he was nine and his father, a butcher, and mother were recreational tennis players and encouraged his interest. Roche grew up playing in Australia under the tutelage of Harry Hopman, a left-hander, Roche had a successful singles and double career. He won one singles Grand Slam tournament, the 1966 French Open at Roland Garros, with compatriot John Newcombe, he won 12 Grand Slam mens doubles tournaments. In January 1968, Roche turned professional, signing with World Championship Tennis, joining other pros like Cliff Drysdale, Nikola Pilić, and Roger Taylor to form the Handsome Eight.
Perhaps one of his greatest achievements came in 1977, being called up to play singles in the finals of the Davis Cup tournament versus Italy, nearly 10 years since he had last played for Australia. In the tie, Roche upset top Italian Adriano Panatta, 6–3, 6–4, 6–4, to lead Australia to a 3–1 victory and elbow injuries cut short his career after having finished in the top 10 for six consecutive years. After completing his playing career Roche has developed a successful career as a tennis coach. He was the player-coach of the Denver Racquets who won the first World Team Tennis in competition 1974, Ivan Lendl hired Roche as a full-time coach for Roches advice on volleying. Roche coached world no.1 Patrick Rafter from 1997 to the end of his career in 2002. Roche coached world no.1 Roger Federer from 2005 to 12 May 2007 and it is reputed this was on a handshake agreement with no contract, Roche was paid by the week. Federer hired Roche for the reason that Lendl hired him. He coached two-time Grand Slam singles titlist Lleyton Hewitt, who was aiming to get his career back on track after a number of years on the ATP Tour.
On the day of her first round match against Alisa Kleybanova at the 2010 Australian Open,4, Jelena Dokić, requested an hour-long session from Roche as last minute training. Controversially, Roche sat in Pat Rafters courtside box during the 1998 US Open final versus fellow Australian Davis Cup teammate Philippoussis, Roche was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in 1981 and an Officer of the Order of Australia in 2001. He entered the International Tennis Hall of Fame alongside doubles partner, in 1990 he was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame
Kevin Melvyn Curren is a former professional tennis player. He played in two Grand Slam singles finals and won four Grand Slam doubles titles, reaching a career-high singles ranking of World No.5, Curren became a naturalized American citizen in April 1985. Curren played both tennis and cricket at Glenwood High School in Durban and he quickly rose among the ranks as a junior at Montclair Lawn Tennis Club in Montclair, Durban. At college he played tennis for the University of Texas at Austin in the United States and he turned professional that year, and won his first top-level singles title in 1981 in Johannesburg. It went on to be his only 4th round loss in 35 Grand Slam tournaments appearances. In 1984, Curren powered his way through the draw and played Mats Wilander in the final of the Australian Open, Wilander won the match, played on the grass courts at Kooyong, in four sets, 6–7, 6–4, 7–6, 6–2. In 1985, Curren became an American citizen, and reached the final at Wimbledon with the help of coaching from Tony Roche.
1 John McEnroe in the quarterfinals, 6–2, 6–2, 6–4, Curren was the first player to beat both legends in the same Grand Slam event. In the final, he lost in four sets to Boris Becker, 3–6, 7–6, 6–7, 4–6, the final was very heated and intense, and Becker sent several hostile glares to Curren before and after points. On one of the final change-overs, Becker even bumped Currens shoulder as they passed one another, Curren was the last American man to reach the final at Wimbledon until Andre Agassi did so seven years in 1992. Though he never won a Grand Slam singles title, Curren did win four Grand Slam doubles titles, in 1981, he won the US Open mixed doubles, and in 1982 he won the Wimbledon mixed doubles and both mens doubles and mixed doubles at the US Open. During his career, Curren won five singles titles and 26 doubles titles. His career-high rankings were World No.5 in singles and World No.3 in doubles and his career prize-money earnings totaled $3,055,510. His final career title came in 1989 at Frankfurt.
Curren retired from the tour in 1993. Since retiring from the tour, Curren has served as captain of South Africas Davis Cup team, Kevin Curren at the Association of Tennis Professionals Kevin Curren at the International Tennis Federation
The ATP World Tour Finals is the second highest tier of mens tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments. It is held annually in November at the O2 Arena in London, the ATP World Tour Finals are the season-ending championships of the Association of Tennis Professionals World Tour, featuring the top eight singles players and doubles teams of the ATP Rankings. The tournament was first held in 1970, roger Federer holds the record for the most singles titles, with six, while Peter Fleming and John McEnroe hold record with 7 titles in doubles. In the current tournament, winners are awarded up to 1500 rankings points, the event is the fourth evolution of a championship which began in 1970. It was originally known as the Masters Grand Prix and was part of the Grand Prix Tennis Circuit and it was organised by the International Lawn Tennis Federation ITF. It ran alongside the competing WCT Finals the other season ending championships for the rival World Championship Tennis Tour, the Masters was a year-end showpiece event between the best players on the mens tour, but did not count for any world ranking points.
In 1990, the Association of Tennis Professionals took over the running of the mens tour, World ranking points were now at stake, with an undefeated champion earning the same number of points they would for winning one of the four Grand Slam events. In December 1999, the ATP and ITF agreed to discontinue the two events and create a new jointly-owned event called the Tennis Masters Cup. As with the Masters Grand Prix and the ATP Tour World Championships, player who is ranked number eight in the ATP Champions Race world rankings does not have a guaranteed spot. If two players outside the top eight win Grand Slam events, the higher placed player in the world takes the final spot in the Tennis Masters Cup. In 2009 the Masters was renamed to the ATP World Tour Finals, in 2012 the organisers extended the contract by two years up to 2015. In 2015 the contract was extended again for three years up to 2018. For many years, the event was held as a separate tournament the week after the singles competition.
There are eight players or teams, and playing is mandatory except for injury or other good cause. Qualification is as follows, the top seven players in the ATP rankings up to two grand slam winners ranked between 8 and 20 the next players in the ATP rankings, until the quota of eight is reached. The ATP World Tour Finals currently rewards the following points and prize money, there is an appearance fee of $179,000 singles, and $88,000 per doubles team. The two alternates are paid $100,000 and $34,000, an undefeated champion would earn the maximum 1,500 points, and $2,391,000 in singles or $455,000 in doubles. In addition, prizes include the Barclays ATP Singles and Doubles World Tour Finals Trophies, unlike all other singles events on the mens tour, the ATP World Tour Finals is not a straightforward knock-out tournament. Eight players are divided into two groups of four and play three matches each against the other players in their group
The French Open, often referred to as Roland Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France. Roland Garros is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen. Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros, in 1891 the Championnat de France, which is commonly referred to in English as the French Championships, was begun. It was only open to players who were members of French clubs. The first winner was a Briton—H, the first womens singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the doubles in 1907. This French club members only tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period, Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, the Racing Club de France, played on clay.
For one year,1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors. Winners of this tournament included world no, 1s such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games, in 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF. It was held at the Stade Français in Saint-Cloud in 1925 and 1927, in 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French club members only Championship, on clay. In 1928, the Roland Garros stadium was opened and the event has held there ever since. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros.
The new Stade de Roland Garros, and its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge, during World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. From 1946 through 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, in 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented, the Prix Orange, the Prix Citron, in another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Launceston is a city in the north of Tasmania, Australia at the junction of the North Esk and South Esk rivers where they become the Tamar River. Launceston is the second largest city in Tasmania after Hobart, with a population of 86,633, Launceston is the twelfth-largest non-capital city in Australia. It is the inland city in Tasmania. Settled by Europeans in March 1806, Launceston is one of Australias oldest cities and is home to historic buildings. Like many Australian places, it was named after a town in the United Kingdom – in this case, the city has a temperate climate with four distinct seasons. Local government is split between the City of Launceston and the Meander Valley and West Tamar Councils, the first inhabitants of the area of Launceston were largely nomadic Aboriginal Tasmanians believed to have been part of the North Midlands Tribe. The first white visitors did not arrive until 1798, when George Bass and they originally landed in Port Dalrymple,40 kilometres to the north-west of Launceston.
A few weeks later, the settlement was moved across the river to York Town, the name still survives in the tiny hamlet of Patersonia 18 kilometres north-west of Launceston. Paterson himself served as Lieutenant-Governor of northern Van Diemens Land from 1804 to 1808, by 1827, Launcestons population had climbed to 2,000 and the town had become an export centre, mainly for the colonys northern pastoral industry. Small hotels and breweries began to emerge in the 1820s, before larger, sporting groups, political groups and schools were often established in these hotels, they hosted plays, musical soirees and readings, until theatres were built. Newer popular team sports such as cricket and football failed to be sustained in Launceston before the population grew substantially, the sports were initially middle class recreations, as the working class found it difficult to participate after a six-day working week. Nevertheless, a demand for facilities lead to the upgrade of the Northern Tasmanian Cricket Association Ground amongst other sporting facilities in the 1860s, not long beforehand, Tasmania played Victoria in Australias first first-class cricket match at the NTCA Ground in 1851.
Tin was discovered at Mount Bischoff in 1871 in north-western Tasmania, gold mining commenced approximately 50 kilometres away in Beaconsfield in 1877. During the following two decades Launceston grew from a town into an urban centre. In 1889, Launceston was the town in Tasmania to be declared a city. Launceston is at 41°26′31″S 147°8′42″E in the Tamar Valley, Northern Tasmania, the valley was formed by volcanic and glacial forces over 10 million years ago. The city is approximately 45 kilometres south of the Bass Strait, with its closest neighbour-city being Devonport, Launceston combines steep ridges and low-lying areas. As a result, areas of Launceston are subject to problems, while others are liable to poor drainage
Robert Charles Bob Bryan is an American male professional tennis player. He has won twenty-three Grand Slam titles,16 in mens doubles and 7 in mixed doubles, with his twin brother Mike, he has been world No.1 doubles player for much of the last several years, first achieving the top ranking in September 2003. The brothers were named ATP Team of the Decade for 2000–2009, the brothers became the second mens doubles team to complete the career golden slam at the 2012 Summer Olympics. 1 ranked singles player in the nation in 1998 after winning the clay court nationals, the brothers were back-to-back Kalamazoo doubles champions in 1995 and 1996 and won the US Open Junior doubles title in 1996. He played for Stanford University in 1997 and 1998, where he helped the Cardinal win back-to-back NCAA team championships, in 1998, he won the Triple Crown by taking the NCAA singles and team titles. He was the first man to accomplish this since Stanfords Alex OBrien did it in 1992, both brothers started their professional careers playing World TeamTennis for teams like the Idaho Sneakers through the current season for the Kansas City Explorers.
With his twin brother Mike, Bob has won 89 doubles titles, in 2005, the Bryan brothers made it to the finals of all four Grand Slam tournaments, only the second time a mens doubles team has done this during the open era. In 2006, the Bryan brothers won Wimbledon and the Australian Open and they repeated their Australian Open victory in 2007. As of February 2,2009, the Bryan brothers both as a team and individually are ranked World No.1 by the Association of Tennis Professionals, six times they were the year-ending top-ranked team, in 20032005,2006, and 2007,2009, and 2010. The Bryan brothers have been frequent participants on U. S. Davis Cup teams, the United States sealed its 32nd title at the 2007 Davis Cup. The Bryans guest starred on 8 Simple Rules and they were featured on the Jan/Feb 2010 cover of Making Music Magazine. Their father, Wayne Bryan, wrote a book about his sons, The Formula, together with his twin brother Mike Bryan, the pair has won the most Davis Cup matches of any doubles team for the United States.
Bob holds the record for most years played in the Davis Cup for the U. S and he holds a 4-2 career record in singles ties. By winning the 2006 Wimbledon title, Bryan completed the mens doubles Career Grand Slam and he became the 19th individual player and, with Mike Bryan, the 7th doubles pair to achieve this