HMAS Queenborough (G70)
HMAS Queenborough was a Q-class destroyer that served in the Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy. Constructed during World War II as part of the War Emergency Programme, Queenborough was laid down in 1940 and launched in 1942, serving in the Arctic and Pacific theatres. After the war ended, the ship was transferred on loan to the RAN in exchange for an N-class destroyer given to Australia as a gift in 1950. Queenborough was converted to an anti-submarine frigate, served with the RAN until 1966. During this time, she was deployed to the Far East Strategic Reserve on multiple occasions, participated in numerous fleet exercises, took on a partial training role, she reactivated in 1969 as a training ship. Queenborough remained in service for another three years, until a series of mechanical and structural faults required that she be retired, decommissioning in 1972 and being scrapped in Hong Kong in 1975; the sixth RN ship to be named after the town of Queenborough in Kent, Queenborough was laid down by Swan Hunter and Wigham Richardson at Wallsend-on-Tyne on 6 November 1940.
She was launched on 16 January 1942, commissioned into the RN on 15 September, completed on 10 December. She cost £725,000 to complete; the main armament for Queenborough consisted of four single 4.7-inch QF Mark IX guns, two before and two aft of the main superstructure. Secondary weapons included a quadruple-mounting QF 2-pounder Mark VIII pom-pom located just aft of the funnel, six single Oerlikon 20 mm cannons provided anti-air capability, while eight Mark VIII torpedo tubes firing 21-inch Mark IX torpedoes for anti-ship engagements. HMS Queenborough served in the Arctic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean during World War II, she was assigned to the 4th Destroyer Flotilla, made up of Q-class destroyers. Following commissioning, Queenborough was assigned to the British Home Fleet and spent the end of 1942 and the early part of 1943 as an Arctic convoy escort. On 31 December 1942, Queenborough was one of ten ships taken by Home Fleet commander Admiral Tovey to reinforce the ships covering Arctic convoy JW 51B, following the Battle of the Barents Sea.
She was deployed to the waters off South Africa before the 4th Destroyer Flotilla was assigned to Force H and the Mediterranean theatre in mid-1943. Queenborough was involved in numerous Allied landings of the Italian Campaign, she was part of the British covering force for the Allied invasion of Sicily on 10 July. The destroyer was involved in the leadup to the British landings at Calabria from 31 August to 3 September, including preparatory shelling of the landing site on 31 August and 2 September. A week she supported the United States troop landings at Salerno, remaining on station until 16 September; the 4th Destroyer Flotilla was ordered to depart the Mediterranean theatre and sail for the Indian Ocean in March 1944, to join the British Eastern Fleet. Near the end of March, Queenborough commenced involvement in Operation Diplomat. Leaving Trincomalee, on 21 March, the 18-ship fleet practiced refuelling 800 nautical miles south of Ceylon. On 27 March, the fleet met United States reinforcements—USS Saratoga and three escorts—with the combined force arriving back in Trincomalee on 31 March.
From 16 to 24 April, Queenborough was assigned to Task Force 70 of Operation Cockpit as one of the ships escorting aircraft carriers HMS Illustrious and USS Saratoga. On her return to Trincomalee, the destroyer joined Task Force 66 for Operation Transom, a carrier-based air raid on Surabaya; the task force replenished from tankers before attacking on 17 May. Queenborough returned to Trincomalee on 27 May. Queenborough departed Trincomalee on 15 October as part of Task Force 63, a British Eastern Fleet operation to focus Japanese attention on the west coast of Malaya as a diversion for American amphibious landings in the Philippines; the diversionary attacks, known as Operation Millet, included a series of bombardments and air raids against Japanese installations and ships in Malacca and Car Nicobar, were intended to appear as if the Allies were preparing an invasion of Malaya. Queenborough was attached to Group 1, consisting of the battleship HMS Renown and her escorts, bombarded Car Nicobar on 17 and 18 October.
Despite heavy damage to the target areas, Operation Millet failed to attract a significant reaction from the Japanese, as available resources were en route to defend Leyte from invasion. At the end of 1944, the heavily-reinforced British Eastern Fleet was split into two forces, The smaller East Indies Fleet remained in the Indian Ocean, while the larger British Pacific Fleet was redeployed to the Pacific Ocean, to increase the British and Commonwealth presence in the war against Japan. Queenborough and the 4th Destroyer Flotilla were assigned to the latter at the end of November 1944; as part of this deployment, ship numbers and designations were changed from the British pennant system to the American hull number system to facilitate operation with the United States Navy. From 23 March to 29 May 1945, Queenborough was part of the escort screen protecting British carriers as their aircraft attacked Japanese airfields in the Ryukyu Islands; the destroyer received five battle honours for her wartime service: "Arctic 1942–43", "Sicily 1943", "Salerno 1943", "Mediterranean 1943", "Okinawa 1945".
Following the conclusion of World War II, Queenborough was one of three RN Q-class destroyers transferred to the RAN on loan. Another two had been loaned to the RAN since commissioning; this arrangement allowed the four N-class destroyers loaned t
Governor of New South Wales
The Governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the Governor-General of Australia at the national level, the Governors of the Australian states perform constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level; the governor is appointed by the queen on the advice of the premier of New South Wales, for an unfixed period of time—known as serving At Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the norm. The current governor is retired General David Hurley, who succeeded Dame Marie Bashir on 2 October 2014; the office has its origin in the 18th-century colonial governors of New South Wales upon its settlement in 1788, is the oldest continuous institution in Australia. The present incarnation of the position emerged with the Federation of Australia and the New South Wales Constitution Act 1902, which defined the viceregal office as the governor acting by and with the advice of the Executive Council of New South Wales.
However, the post still represented the government of the United Kingdom until, after continually decreasing involvement by the British government, the passage in 1942 of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 and the Australia Act 1986, after which the governor became the direct, personal representative of the uniquely Australian sovereign. The Office of Governor is required by the New South Wales Constitution Act, 1902; the Australian monarch, on the advice and recommendation of the premier of New South Wales, approves the appointment of governor with a commission issued under the royal sign-manual and Public Seal of the State, from until being sworn in by the premier and chief justice referred to as the governor-designate. Besides the administration of the oaths of office, there is no set formula for the swearing-in of a governor-designate; the constitution act stipulates that: "Before assuming office, a person appointed to be Governor shall take the Oath or Affirmation of Allegiance and the Oath or Affirmation of Office in the presence of the Chief Justice or another Judge of the Supreme Court."
The sovereign will hold an audience with the appointee and will at that time induct the governor-designate as a Companion of the Order of Australia. The incumbent will serve for at least five years, though this is only a developed convention, the governor still technically acts at Her Majesty's pleasure; the premier may therefore recommend to the queen that the viceroy remain in her service for a longer period of time, sometimes upwards of more than seven years. A governor may resign and three have died in office. In such a circumstance, or if the governor leaves the country for longer than one month, the lieutenant governor of New South Wales, concurrently held by the chief justice of New South Wales since 1872, serves as Administrator of the Government and exercises all powers of the governor. Furthermore, if the lieutenant governor becomes incapacitated while serving in the office of governor or is absent from the state, the next most senior judge of the Supreme Court is sworn in as the administrator.
Between 1788 and 1957, all governors were born outside New South Wales and were members of the Peerage. Historian A. J. P. Taylor once noted that "going out and governing New South Wales became the British aristocracy's'abiding consolation'"; however though the implementation of the Australian Citizenship Act in 1948 established the concept of an independent Australian citizenship, the idea of Australian-born persons being appointed governor of New South Wales was much earlier. Coincidentally the first Australian-born governor, Sir John Northcott on 1 August 1946, was the first Australian-born governor of any state. However, as Northcott was born in Victoria, it was not until Sir Eric Woodward's appointment by Queen Elizabeth II in 1957 that the position was filled by a New South Welshman. Although required by the tenets of constitutional monarchy to be non-partisan while in office, governors were former politicians, many being members of the House of Lords by virtue of their peerage; the first governors were all military officers and the majority of governors since have come from a military background, numbering 19.
Samuels was the first governor in New South Wales history without either a political, public service or military background, being a former justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. The first woman to hold this position is the first Lebanese-Australian governor, Dame Marie Bashir; as Australia shares its monarch with fifteen other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations and the sovereign lives predominantly outside New South Wales' borders, the governor's primary task is to perform the sovereign's constitutional duties on his or her behalf, acting within the principles of parliamentary democracy and responsible government as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and as a nonpartisan safeguard against the abuse of power. For the most part, the powers of the Crown are exercised on a day-to-day basis by elected and appointed individuals, leaving the governor to perform the various ceremonial duties the sovereign otherwise carries out when in the country, it is the governor, required by the Constitution Act 1902, to appoint persons to the Government of New South Wales, who are all theoretically tasked with tendering to the monarch and viceroy guidance on
Kim Christian Beazley, AC, is an Australian politician, serving as the Governor of Western Australia. A former Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Opposition, Beazley has held various ministerial portfolios in the Hawke and Keating Governments before serving as Ambassador to the United States. Beazley was born in Perth, the son of politician Kim Beazley senior, he studied at the University of Western Australia and Balliol College, attending the latter as a Rhodes Scholar. After a period as a lecturer at Murdoch University, Beazley was elected to parliament at the 1980 federal election, winning the Division of Swan for the Labor Party, he was added to the ministry when the party won the 1983 election, served continuously through to the party's defeat in 1996. His longest-held portfolio during that time was Minister for Defence. In 1995, Beazley was elected deputy leader of the Labor Party in place of Brian Howe, thus becoming deputy prime minister. After Labor lost power in 1996, Beazley was elected unopposed as party leader in place of Paul Keating.
He led Labor to the 1998 election, falling well short of victory. After a second defeat in 2001, he resigned the leadership in favour of his deputy Simon Crean. However, in 2003 Beazley made two attempts to regain his old position, he lost an initial challenge to Crean in June, after Crean's resignation in December lost a ballot to Mark Latham by two votes. Beazley was elected to a second term as leader in January 2005 when Latham resigned in the wake of the 2004 election. Beazley was replaced by Kevin Rudd following a spate of poor opinion polling, he retired from politics at the 2007 election. From 2010 to 2016, Beazley served as Ambassador of Australia to the United States. In April 2018, it was announced by Premier Mark McGowan that Beazley would succeed Kerry Sanderson as Governor of Western Australia on 1 May, for a term of four years. Beazley was born in Western Australia, his father, Kim Beazley Snr, was the Labor MP for Fremantle from 1945 to 1977 and education minister in the Whitlam Government.
His mother, Betty Judge, was record-holder. Beazley's uncle, the Reverend Syd Beazley, was one of the more than 1,000 prisoners of war who died in the sinking of the SS Montevideo Maru in July 1942. Beazley contracted polio at the age of six, he was educated at Hollywood Senior High School and the University of Western Australia, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts and subsequently a Master of Arts. On a Rhodes Scholarship, he attended Balliol College, where he graduated with a Master of Philosophy. At Oxford, he befriended Tony Blair, who would become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Geoff Gallop to be Premier of Western Australia. After he returned to Australia, Beazley tutored and lectured in politics at Perth's Murdoch University, he was recruited to Labor's right-wing faction by Graham Richardson and John Ducker, before being elected MP for the seat of Swan at the 1980 election. Beazley became a protege of Bob Hawke, Labor leader from 1983, in that year he was appointed Minister for Aviation in Hawke's first ministry.
He was Minister for Defence, with a seat in Cabinet, 1984–90. In this role he was responsible for establishing the Royal Australian Navy's submarine program, beset with some technical problems and cost over-runs. Beazley has had a lifelong interest in military matters. Beazley was Minister for Transport and Communications, Employment and Training, Finance again, he supported Hawke in his leadership battles with Paul Keating in 1991, but retained his position when Keating deposed Hawke and became Prime Minister in December 1991. Beazley was Deputy Prime Minister 1995–96. Beazley's hold on Swan grew tenuous over the years, he saw his majority more than halved in 1990, was nearly defeated in 1993. With Labor sinking in the polls during the run-up to the 1996 election, Beazley shifted to Brand, a more secure seat south of Perth. In the 1996 election, Labor was defeated by the Coalition under John Howard. Keating resigned, Beazley was elected unopposed as Labor leader, he had the difficult task of rebuilding a party that had just suffered the second-worst defeat of a sitting government since Federation.
Beazley, however made up ground on Howard as the Coalition's poll numbers sagged when Howard broke his previous promise not to introduce a Goods and Services Tax. Beazley led the ALP contingent at the Constitutional Convention in February 1998, called to discuss the issue of Australia becoming a republic. Beazley advocated "minimalist" change and described transition to a republic as "unfinished business" for Australia, he said that foreigners "find it strange and anachronistic, as many Australians now do, that our Head of State is not an Australian". The ALP proposed appointment of a president by two-thirds majority of parliament. In his opening address, Beazley told the Convention: In the October 1998 election, Labor polled a majority of the two-party vote and received the largest swing to a first-term opposition since 1934. However, due to the uneven nature of the swing, as well as the Coalition's large majority going into the election, Labor came up eight seats short of making Beazley Prime Minister.
Beazley did, manage to slash Howard's majority by more than half, from 19 seats to five. In mid-2001 Labor was well ahead in the opinion polls and seemed set to win the elec
David Martin (governor)
Rear Admiral Sir David James Martin, was a senior officer of the Royal Australian Navy and Governor of New South Wales. He established the Sir David Martin Foundation to assist young Australians in crisis. Born in Sydney on 15 April 1933, Martin came from a long line of naval officers, he was descended from Lieutenant George Johnston, one of the Royal Marines of the First Fleet, the convict Esther Abrahams. Their son Robert was the first Australian born person to enlist in the Royal Navy, which he joined in 1805. In 1942, when David was nine years old, his father was lost in action following the sinking of HMAS Perth of which he was Deputy Commander. Martin attended Scots College in Bellevue Hill from 1939–1946 before joining the RAN as a cadet midshipman and entering the Royal Australian Naval College in 1947, he attended the Royal Naval College, before serving aboard HMAS Sydney during the Korean War aboard the aircraft carriers HMS Vengeance and HMAS Melbourne. He was an officer on HMS Battleaxe, participating in the Cyprus Emergency, the Iceland emergency, in 1959–1960.
He was promoted to Commander of the Third Australian Destroyer Squadron in 1974 and commanded several RAN ships, including HMA Ships Queenborough, Torrens and Melbourne. Martin was promoted to flag rank in 1982 and served as Chief of Naval Personnel and as Commander of Naval Support Command until he retired in February 1988. On 26 January 1985, the Queen appointed Martin an Officer of the Order of Australia "for service as the Chief of Naval Personnel and flag officer Naval Support Command". Martin married Suzanne Millear in 1957 and had three children, one of whom was a Captain in the Royal Australian Navy. Martin was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1988, shortly before being appointed the Governor of New South Wales. Following his appointment as Governor of New South Wales, Martin set about establishing a relationship between his office as governor and the people of New South Wales, he soon became known as'the people's Governor'. Just three days before his death, Martin resigned as governor due to an advancing medical condition.
He made arrangements for the Sir David Martin Foundation to be established, which runs programs that help young homeless and disadvantaged Australians. Sir David died on 10 August 1990 of pleural mesothelioma, a rare form of lung cancer caused by asbestos, to which he was exposed during his naval career, he engendered much respect and sympathy when seen struggling for breath during the final days of his service as governor. At his funeral the Premier of New South Wales Nick Greiner noted: With the sad passing last week of Sir David Martin, Australia lost one of its most distinguished citizens. After a proud career of public service with the Royal Australian Navy, Sir David made the Office of Governor of New South Wales accessible, his service in the Royal Australian Navy is commemorated in the Naval Chapel, Garden Island NSW. After his death, Woollahra Council named the former site of HMAS Rushcutter in Rushcutters Bay as the "Sir David Martin Reserve" in his honour. 15 April 1933 – 1947: David Martin, Esq 1947 – 1953: Midshipman David Martin RAN 1953 – 1955: Sub-Lieutenant David Martin RAN 1955 – 1963: Lieutenant David Martin RAN 1963 – 1967: Lieutenant Commander David Martin RAN 1967 – 1972: Commander David Martin RAN 1972 – 1979: Captain David Martin RAN 1979 – 1982: Commodore David Martin RAN 1982 – 1984: Rear-Admiral David Martin RAN, Chief of Naval Personnel 1984 – 1985: Rear-Admiral David Martin RAN, Flag Officer, Naval Support Command 1985 – 1988: Rear-Admiral David Martin AO RAN, Flag Officer, Naval Support Command 1988 – 1988: Rear-Admiral David Martin AO 1988 – 1989: Rear-Admiral Sir David Martin KCMG AO 1989 – 1990: His Excellency Rear-Admiral Sir David Martin KCMG AO, Governor of New South Wales 1990 – 10 August 1990: Rear-Admiral Sir David Martin KCMG AO Sir David Martin Foundation – Helping young people in crisis
Scots College (Sydney)
The Scots College is an independent Presbyterian day and boarding school for boys, located in Bellevue Hill, an eastern suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Established in 1893 at Brighton-Le-Sands, Scots has a non-selective enrolment policy and caters for 1800 students from Kindergarten to Year 12, including 250 Boarders from Years 7 to 12. Students attend Scots from all regions of the greater metropolitan area and New South Wales country regions; the college is affiliated with the Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia, the Junior School Heads Association of Australia, the Australian Boarding Schools' Association, the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference, is a founding member of the Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales. The college was formed in 1893 by three men, the Reverend Archibald Gilchrist, the Reverend William "Fighting Mac" Dill-Macky, the Reverend Arthur Aspinall. Gilchrist devised the school motto of "Utinam Patribus Nostris Digni Simus", which may be translated from Latin as "O that we may be worthy of our forefathers".
The Reverend Arthur Aspinall, who became the first Principal, was minister to the Forbes parish from 1874 to 1887. An educated man himself, with a love of learning, he saw the need to educate the sons of the pastoralists of the area, his dream was for a boarding school in Sydney to which these isolated farming families could send their children. Lillyan MacDonald of the Church Records and Historical Society writes: From Dr Prentis I have learnt that a Forbes influence has pervaded Scots College for more than a century through the sons of Forbes District farming families the related families of Aspinall and Martel; the Presbyterian Church was not happy with the proposal to start the school. Aspinall became the guarantor, advancing the capital required, while the possibility of starting the school was still a matter of bitter contention within the Church hierarchy, thus Scots opened as a private enterprise. Once the school was established and functioning, the Church Assembly saw no reason to continue to oppose the idea of the school.
In 1906 Aspinall sold the college to the Church for 7,000 pounds and so it became part of the Presbyterian education system in New South Wales. The college was established at Lady Robinson Beach, now renamed Brighton-Le-Sands, near the shores of Botany Bay; the initial school building was the modified, de-licensed New Brighton Hotel on The Grand Parade, near Bay Street. The renovations to the hotel were done by Albert Aspinall; the first Principal, the Rev Arthur Aspinall, remained in this position until his retirement in 1913. The school was opened 28 January 1893 by the Governor of New South Wales, the Right Honourable Victor Albert George, Earl of Jersey. Villiers Street, Rockdale was named in honour of this occasion. There were 25 Boarders; the period when the school opened was a time of depression. The first few years for the school were difficult. There were 55 boys enrolled at the school when, in 1895, the school moved to its current location in Bellevue Hill; the school occupied the former home of Judge Josephson.
Before he retired, Aspinall had developed playing fields. The school was still surrounded by many areas of bushland. Lessons would be cancelled. Aspinall was a stern Principal, his acerbic tongue and brilliant use of words produced ridicule more intimidating than any of his physical punishments. But he was capable of empathy; some promising students were educated for free when economic constraints within a family seemed to result in a student being withdrawn from the school. James Bee, a New Zealander, continued the expansion of the college; when he retired in 1934 there were 450 enrolled students. Alexander Knox Anderson a New Zealander, saw the Depression end only to be followed four years by World War II. During World War II, Scots and its student body relocated to a purpose built campus at Bathurst, to the west of the Great Dividing Range; this was due to the proximity of the Bellevue Hill campus to the coast, the fear of Japanese naval bombardment, a fear justified in May 1942 with the Japanese mini-sub attack on Sydney Harbour.
The Bathurst campus remained part of the school for a short period after the war, before splintering off and becoming the independent The Scots School, Bathurst. The 75th Anniversary celebrations were held 3 to 10 May; the 1200 students at the College and past students had much to celebrate, for many former students had achieved success. In 1968 Robert Naumann was Professor of Nuclear Physics at Princeton University in the United States of America; the Guest of Honour at the celebrations, the oldest known student in 1968, was Ed Spark, a dental surgeon who had attended the school in 1894 at Lady Robinson Beach. In 1975, a fire gutted the school's Assembly Hall, resulting in a major reconstruction and renovation of school facilities. In 1988, the school opened its outdoor education campus, "Glengarry", in the Kangaroo Valley. Attending Glengarry is compulsory for all Year 9 boys, who live on site in one of five dormitories for six months. A residential academic and outdoor education team deliver a wide range of developed personal development programs that enhance academic motivation and learning, emphasise discipline, care and curiosity.
The year group is split into two intakes, they attend in terms 1 and 2, terms 3 and 4 respective
Bellevue Hill, New South Wales
Bellevue Hill is an affluent harbourside eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, located 5 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district, in the Municipality of Woollahra. The suburb is located within the Division of Wentworth electorate, the wealthiest in Australia, despite being the second smallest; the suburb has long been home to Australia's most notable billionaires. In 2018, Bellevue Hill was found to be the most expensive suburb in Australia, with the highest median house price of $5.4 million. In the early 19th century, Irish-Australian immigrants referred to the area as Vinegar Hill, after the Battle of Vinegar Hill, an engagement during the 1798 uprising of the United Irishmen in south-east Ireland. Governor Lachlan Macquarie took great exception to this and decided to name the suburb Bellevue Hill, the belle vue meaning beautiful view. In that century, Bellevue Hill became the home of the Fairfax family, who lived at Trahlee, in Ginahgulla Road, leased by James Fairfax from 1866 to 1878.
They moved to Ginahgulla in the same road. The Fairfax family were responsible for establishing the Fairfax Media empire, which became a major force in the Australian news media; the line to Bellevue Hill opened in 1909. Services operated from Circular Quay via Park Street. Trams heading south from Circular Quay down Elizabeth Street swung left into Park Street, via a right turn into Yurong Street, a left turn into Stanley Street, a right turn into Bourke Street a left turn into Burton Street. A feature was the tram only viaduct over Barcom Ave and Boundary Street in Darlinghurst as the line headed into MacDonald Street; this viaduct is now a road bridge. The line twisted down Glenmore and Hargreave Streets in Paddington Moncur and Queen Streets in Woollahra. Here, a connection to Oxford Street allowed access to the Waverley Depot; the line travelled down Edgecliff and Victoria Roads wound along Birriga Road in Bellevue Hill running down Curlewis Street in Bondi to join the Bondi Beach via Bondi Junction line on Campbell Parade, to the North Bondi terminus.
The line was double track throughout with numerous points to allow short working. The line was cut back to Ocean Street, Woollahra in 1955; the line followed the current route of bus 389 between the city and Woollahra and route X84 between Woollahra and Bondi Beach. According to the 2011 census of Population, there were 10,765 residents in Bellevue Hill. 56.3% of residents were born in Australia. The most common other countries of birth were England 5.1%, South Africa 4.7% and New Zealand 2.4%. 73.9% of residents spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Hebrew 1.3%, Cantonese 1.3% and Mandarin 1.1%. The most common responses for religious affiliation were Judaism 23.0%, No Religion 19.2% and Catholic 16.7%. The most common occupations for residents were Professionals 41.9%, Managers 20.7% and Clerical and Administrative Workers 12.8%. In the 2016 census, 10,716 residents were counted. 58.2% of these had been born in Australia. The most common other countries of birth were England 5.8%, South Africa 4.9%, New Zealand 2.2%, China 1.6% and United States of America 1.2%.
74.8% of residents spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Hebrew 1.8%, Mandarin 1.7%, Russian 1.3%, Portuguese 1.2% and French 1.2%. The most common responses for religious affiliation were No Religion 28.1%, Judaism 21.4% and Catholic 16.8%. The most common occupationsincluded Professionals 40.8%, Managers 22.3%, Clerical and Administrative Workers 11.4%, Sales Workers 7.9%, Community and Personal Service Workers 7.2%. 4.2% of employed people in Bellevue Hill worked in Legal Services. Other major industries of employment included Other Auxiliary Finance and Investment Services 3.0%, Banking 2.9%, General Practice Medical Services 2.8% and Real Estate Services 2.6%. Bellevue Hill is well known for having some of the most significant real estate in Australia; the Rona Estate, located on Ginahgulla Road, sold for close to $60 million in 2018, making it one of Australia's most expensive homes. The historic Queen Anne home Caerleon was sold for $22 million in January 2008.
This price was surpassed by the $23 million paid for a mansion in Victoria Road in November 2009. The mansion had been used by the French consulate since 1955. One person who inspected it was actor Russell Crowe, who subsequently did not take part in the bidding; the house was bought by Lachlan Murdoch. Actress Toni Collette sold her Bellevue Hill home in August 2009 for $6.4 million. The house, El Mio, had been the base for Collette and her husband, musician David Galafassi, since they bought it in 2004 for $5 million; the house was designed in 1928 in the Spanish Mission style. It was passed in at $6.3 million, but was sold within an hour after successful negotiations with the highest bidder. Bellevue Hill has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 24 Victoria Road: Leura The following buildings are on the Register of the National Estate. Rona, Ginahgulla Road Ginahgulla, Ginahgulla Road, now known as Fairfax House and part of the Scots College Rovello, Ginahgulla Road Caerleon, Ginahgulla Road House and Gardens, 1 Rose Bay Avenue Former Government House, now part of Cranbrook School, Victoria Road Sports Pavilion, Cranbrook School, New South Head Road Trahlee, Ginahgulla Road, is listed on the Heritage Register of New South Wales Villa d'Este, Victoria Road, is listed on the Heritage Register of New South Wales Bonningt
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit