A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
My Name Is Joe
My Name Is Joe is a 1998 film directed by Ken Loach. The film stars Peter Mullan as Joe Kavanagh, an unemployed recovering alcoholic in Glasgow, Scotland who meets and falls in love with a health visitor, played by Louise Goodall. David McKay plays his troubled friend Liam; the film's title is a reference to the ritualised greeting performed in Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, as portrayed in the film's opening scene. The movie was filmed in the council estates of Glasgow and filling small roles with local residents, many of whom had drug and criminal pasts; the Glaswegian Scots dialect of some of the actors are unintelligible to many of the American audience and therefore the film is shown subtitled there.. The film won awards in many film festivals, including Best Actor for Mullan at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival; the film begins with Joe Kavanagh at an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting, relaying an experience from his past. He states the ritualised greeting:'My name is Joe and I'm an alcoholic.' He feels.
He tells the group that he copes by states that he is grateful to be at the meeting. He goes round to his friend's place, bangs on the door and pretends to be the police, they travel in Joe's van where they examine stolen sporting merchandise, of low quality. Joe and his friends stop at another person's house to pick up more people. A car cuts off the van. Joe encounters the driver, whom Joe describes as being'the woman who tried to kill us all.' He asks the woman if she lost her guide dog. The woman, states that she is a health visitor, she wants to see Liam and his child, but Joe explains that Liam has an important football game to attend. Joe is encouraging as a coach; the other team appears in black, which are the colours that Joe's team wears. Joe's team express their anger at this and respond by taking their shirts off so that they are able to distinguish between players; the other team scores the first goal of the game. Joe drives Liam home and Liam abruptly tells Joe to pull over and Liam runs up to a male who acts aggressively towards him.
Joe does not hear what transpires between the man. Joe sees Sarah, seen struggling with wallpaper in her car. Joe appears to fancy her, as Sarah tells him her name and he flirts with her. Joe helps an acquaintance of Sarah's to complete a wall papering and paint job in Sarah's flat. Sarah brings them tea as they paint the ceiling and sing to themselves, they look outside and notice someone taking photos of them through the window. Joe runs outside with his can of white paint and brush to confront the man, taking the photos; the photographer tells Joe that he has a bad heart. Joe paints all over the photographer's car; the car manages to knock over a pile of rubbish by the side of the road. Sarah and Joe have dinner together. There is a bottle of red wine on the table. Sarah's telephone rings and she leaves the kitchen to answer it. Joe is left alone with the wine, he appears somewhat nervous. When Sarah finishes with her telephone conversation, Joe asks her about the photographs on her wall. Joe reveals to Sarah that he does not drink, to which Sarah replies:'Why didn't you say?'
Joe reveals that he is an alcoholic and he has not had a drink in ten months. Joe is happy that she has been direct in her responses to him. Joe thanks Sarah for her company. Sarah pays Joe for the work that they part company. Joe attends the Mayfield Health Centre. Joe tells the receptionist; the receptionist does not appear to be surprised by his request and says that Joe is free to pop his head around the door. He sees Sarah advising parents on dealing with the changing of nappies. Outside the Health Centre, Joe asks Sarah if she would like to go ten-pin bowling with him and to ring him if she fancies going, they part company. Sarah speaks with a female colleague and says that Joe seems a bit wild, she states. Sarah and Joe laugh at their many errors, they occupy Aisle 16 and neither of them are spectacular players. They go back to Sarah's place. Joe politely says no. Sarah offers him money for a taxi. A friendly argument ensues, at the end. Sarah says. Joe states that Sarah can sleep at his place, but not together.
They arrive at Joe's and he shows her around his flat. Joe tells Sarah that he used to be in a band and they won a local talent contest. Joe tells Sarah a story of what transpired, he stole some cassettes. He took one of them home and'got pissed.' He describes the experience as being'magical.' When Sarah asks him what made him stop drinking, Joe asks her. He is not curious. Joe says that he is scared to tell her and that there is a strong chance that she will hate him if he tells. Joe explains that there was a girl he used to drink with and they loved one another, they were both'just tangled up' and they used to get into terrible arguments and tear one another apart. The audience sees a flashback where Joe and the girl are returning home from a night out, he states that'a cloud just descended... really
Peter Mullan is a Scottish actor and filmmaker. He is best known for his role in Ken Loach's My Name Is Joe, for which he won Best Actor Award at 1998 Cannes Film Festival and The Claim, he is winner of the World Dramatic Special Jury Prize for Breakout Performances at 2011 Sundance Film Festival for his work on Paddy Considine's Tyrannosaur. Mullan appeared as supporting or guest actor in numerous cult movies, including Riff-Raff, Trainspotting, Young Adam, Children of Men, War Horse and the Harry Potter film series. Mullan is an acclaimed art house movie director, he won a Golden Lion at 59th Venice International Film Festival for The Magdalene Sisters, listed by many critics among the best films of 2003 and nominated for BAFTA Award for Best British Film and European Film Award for best film, a Golden Shell at San Sebastián International Film Festival for Neds. He is the only person to win top prizes both for acting and for the best film at major European film festivals. In television, Mullan appeared in Gerard Lee's and Jane Campion's acclaimed miniseries Top of the Lake as one of the main characters, head of the Mitcham family and father of Tui Mitcham, whose disappearance is the main topic of the series.
He was nominated for Primetime Emmy Award for his work in the series. He played a lead role in the 2008 ITV series The Fixer. Beginning in 2017, he has appeared in both seasons of the Netflix series Ozark opposite Jason Bateman and Laura Linney. Since 2016, Mullan has starred in the BBC Two sitcom Mum. In 2018, he stars in the second season of HBO's Westworld. Mullan is politically active, supporting left-wing causes and protests. Mullan was born in Peterhead, Scotland, the son of Patricia and Charles Mullan; the second-youngest of eight children, Mullan was brought up in a working class Roman Catholic family. They moved to Mosspark, a district in Glasgow. An alcoholic and sufferer from lung cancer, Mullan's father became tyrannical and abusive. For a brief period, Mullan was a member of a street gang while at secondary school, worked as a bouncer in a number of south-side pubs, he was homeless for short periods at the ages of 15 and 18. Mullan went on to the University of Glasgow to study economic drama.
There he began continued stage acting after graduation. He had roles in films such as Shallow Grave, Trainspotting and Riff-Raff, his first full-length film, won an award at the Venice Film Festival. In 2002, he returned to directing and screenwriting with the controversial film The Magdalene Sisters, based on life in an Irish Magdalene asylum. Mullan won a Golden Lion award at the Venice Film Festival. Mullan's role as a recovering alcoholic in My Name Is Joe won him the Best Actor Award at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival. A self-styled Marxist, Mullan continues to support hard-left causes and was a leading figure in the left-wing theatre movement that blossomed in Scotland during the Conservative Thatcher government; these included stints with the Wildcat Theatre companies. A passionate critic of Tony Blair's New Labour government, he told The Guardian "the TUC and the Labour Party sold us out big style, unashamedly so". Mullan took part in a 2006 occupation of the Glasgow offices of the UK Immigration Service, protesting against the UKIS's "dawn raid" tactics when deporting failed asylum seekers.
In January 2009, Mullan joined other actors in protesting against the BBC's refusal to screen a Disasters Emergency Committee appeal for Gaza. They told BBC director general Mark Thompson: "Like millions of others, we are appalled at the decision to refuse to broadcast the appeal. We will never work for the BBC. We will urge others from our profession and beyond to do likewise." Mullan has agreed to appear in an adaptation of Iain Banks’ Stonemouth after the BBC aired a DEC appeal for Gaza in late 2014. Mullan was a supporter of the Yes Scotland campaign in the Scottish independence referendum, 2014. In 2015, he criticised the BBC for "horrendous bias" against the Yes campaign and told the Radio Times that "to see the BBC used as a political cudgel against a legitimate democratic movement... broke my heart.”Mullan married Ann Swan, an actor and scriptwriter, in about 1989. He has four children - three with one with former girlfriend, activist Robina Qureshi. Peter Mullan on IMDb Peter Mullan at the BFI's Screenonline
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Stoner rock known as stoner metal or stoner doom, is a rock music fusion genre that combines elements of heavy metal and/or doom metal with psychedelic rock and acid rock. The name references cannabis consumption; the term desert rock is used interchangeably with the term "stoner rock" to describe this genre. Stoner rock is slow-to-mid tempo and features a distorted, groove-laden bass-heavy sound, melodic vocals, "retro" production; the genre emerged during the early 1990s and was pioneered foremost by Monster Magnet and the California bands Fu Manchu and Sleep. The descriptor "stoner rock" may originate from the title of the 1997 Roadrunner Records compilation Burn One Up! Music for Stoners. Desert rock is used interchangeably as a descriptor, was coined by a MeteorCity Records intern, around the time the label released the 1998 stoner rock compilation Welcome to MeteorCity. Due to the similarities between stoner and sludge metal, there is a crossover between the two genres; this hybrid has traits of both styles, but lacks stoner metal's laid back atmosphere and its usage of psychedelia.
Bands such as Weedeater, High on Fire and Electric Wizard creatively fuse both styles. The involvement of cannabis in the creation of "stoner rock/metal" can range between bands in the genre. Bands such as Sleep have involved the concept of cannabis to be part of the core of their albums and songs; the consumption of cannabis is common in the live performances of some stoner rock/metal bands, bands such as Electric Wizard are known to have concerts with the band members and the crowd participating in smoking cannabis. Dopesmoker by Sleep received controversy because the 60-minute song is about cannabis, which resulted in conflict with Sleep's record company; some members of the genre state that "stoner rock is a style, not life,", interpreted as the band members do not participate in smoking cannabis or are influenced by cannabis. However, the style of their music reflects the sound of "stoner rock/metal." Bands such as King Caravan and Sea of Green have come under terms with this statement. Matt Pike from the band High on Fire stated, "It's a strong scene, but I don't think any of the stoner rock bands want to be labeled as stoner rock...
I might use the word ` stoner' in my lyrics. I'd say I was crossover metal or progressive metal. It's kind of a tough thing to lump into a category, but I guess we get the stoner-rock label because of the whole pot thing." Like most subgenres of music, the origins of stoner rock are hard to pinpoint. Several known progenitors and signature songs are credited with helping to shape the genre. Blue Cheer is considered one of the pioneers of the style. According to critic Mark Deming, Blue Cheer's first album, Vincebus Eruptum, "is a glorious celebration of rock & roll primitivism run through enough Marshall amps to deafen an army," not unlike the heaviness of MC5's Kick Out the Jams and the Velvet Underground's White Light/White Heat. Rolling Stone claims, "What stoner rock delivers, slowed down and magnified, is the riff, the persistent legacy of Mississippi blues. Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath were the first to make a monolith of it." Sir Lord Baltimore have been called "the godfathers of stoner rock" and Leaf Hound have been cited for influencing countless bands in the stoner rock movement, including Kyuss and Monster Magnet.
Buffalo's 1973 sophomore release Volcanic Rock has been "heralded as the first great stoner rock record," the song Sunrise "has since been shamelessly cannibalized for its parts by more stoner-rock bands than you can shake a bong at," and the songs Till My Death and The Prophet have been likened to stoner rock. Primevil's album Smokin' Bats at Campton's has been called a "touchstone" of stoner rock. Jim DeRogatis has said that stoner rock bands are "reaching back for inspiration to the psychedelic, proto-metallic jamming of bands like Cream, Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Hawkwind."According to DeRogatis, the roots of stoner rock can be heard on Black Sabbath's Master of Reality, Hawkwind's 25 Years On 1973–1977 box set, the aforementioned Blue Cheer album, Deep Purple's Machine Head and Blue Öyster Cult's Workshop of the Telescopes. Black Sabbath's Master of Reality is cited as the first album of the genre, Martin Popoff states: "When'Sweet Leaf' kicks in, one witnesses the invention of stoner rock".
Allmusic summarizes this unique fusion as follows: "Stoner metal bands updated the long, mind-bending jams and ultra-heavy riffs of bands like Black Sabbath, Blue Cheer, Blue Öyster Cult, Hawkwind by filtering their psychedelia-tinged metal and acid rock through the buzzing sound of early Sub Pop–style grunge." However, Kyuss members Josh Homme and John Garcia have shrugged off the heavy metal influence, instead cite punk rock and hardcore punk the sludgy hardcore of Black Flag's album My War as influences. The doom metal band Trouble introduced acid rock elements on their 1990 self-titled album, which became more prominent on 1992's Manic Frustration; the British doom metal band Cathedral moved toward a psychedelic/stoner sound over the course of their first three releases, culminating in the critically acclaimed 1993 album The Ethereal Mirror. During this same period, heavy metal band White Zombie achieved multi-platinum success with their two major label albums expanding the heavy music audience with their groove-based, sample-laden "psychedelic horror" so
Once Upon a Time in the Midlands
Once Upon a Time in the Midlands is a 2002 British romantic comedy film written and directed by Shane Meadows, starring Robert Carlyle, Rhys Ifans, Kathy Burke, Ricky Tomlinson and Shirley Henderson. It is set in the East Midlands region of England. Set in Nottinghamshire, Dek proposes to his girlfriend Shirley on TV; when Jimmy, "the great love of her life" and father of her daughter Marlene, sees this, he returns in an attempt to win back her heart. However, after deserting his friends in Scotland during an unsuccessful robbery of some clowns, his friends turn against him and come to the Midlands to try to track him down. In the end, Shirley professes her love for Dek. Robert Carlyle – Jimmy, Carol's foster brother, Shirley's ex-husband and Marlene's father Vanessa Feltz – Herself Ricky Tomlinson – Charlie, Carol's estranged husband Kathy Burke – Carol, Jimmy's foster sister Vicki Patterson – Audience Guest Shirley Henderson – Shirley, Jimmy's ex-wife and Marlene's mother Finn Atkins – Marlene and Shirley's daughter Kelly Thresher – Donna, Carol's daughter Rhys Ifans – Dek, Shirley's boyfriend Andrew Shim – Donut, Donna's boyfriend Ryan Bruce – Emerson and Charlie's son and Lake and Donna's brother Eliot Otis Brown Walters – Lake and Charlie's son and Emerson and Donna's brother Anthony Strachan – Jumbo David McKay – Dougy James Cosmo – Billy This is the third time that Carlyle has worked with Henderson.
The second time he has worked with Ifans and the fourth time he has worked with Tomlinson. Gijón International Film Festival 2002Nominated: Best Feature – Shane Meadows Once Upon a Time in the Midlands on IMDb Once Upon a Time in the Midlands. Guardian film of the week
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p