Middle Tennessee State University
Middle Tennessee State University is a public university in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Founded in 1911 as a normal school, the university is composed of eight undergraduate colleges as well as a college of graduate studies, together offering more than 80 majors/degree programs through more than 35 departments. MTSU is most prominently known for its Recording Industry, Aerospace and Concrete Industry Management programs; the university has partnered in research endeavors with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps. In 2009, Middle Tennessee State University was ranked among the nation's top 100 public universities by Forbes magazine. MTSU is part of the Tennessee Board of Regents and the State University and Community College System of Tennessee. However, as of May 2017, governance was transferred to an institutional board of trustees. MTSU is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools Commission on Colleges. MTSU athletics programs compete intercollegiately in Conference USA.
The university's president is Sidney A. McPhee. One of the earliest calls for a normal school occurred in 1855 when a Wilson County, politician wanted to build a normal school in Lebanon, Tennessee. Education efforts collapsed shortly with the breakout of the American Civil War. State superintendents and teachers traveled around the state giving speeches about the dire need of teacher preparation. In 1909, the Tennessee General Assembly moved "to provide for the improvement of the system of Public Education of the State of Tennessee, to say, to establish a General Education Fund." The major thrust of this "improvement" embodied in the legislative act, to become known as the General Education Bill of 1909 was the establishment of three normals or teacher-training institutions. Following the intent of the act that one was to be located in each of the grand divisions of the state, the State Board of Education assigned the Middle Tennessee institution to Murfreesboro. Middle Tennessee State Normal School opened on September 11, 1911, with a two-year program for training teachers.
It evolved into a four-year teachers' college by 1925 with the power of granting the Bachelor of Science degree, the institution's name was changed for the first time to Middle Tennessee State Teachers College. The school was abbreviated as "S. T. C." In 1943, the General Assembly designated the institution a state college, changing its name for the second time to Middle Tennessee State College. This new status marked a sharp departure from the founding purpose and opened the way for expanding curricular offerings and programs. In 1965, the institution was advanced to university status, changing its name to Middle Tennessee State University. In October 2010, the Student Government Association at MTSU proposed that the university be renamed to the University of Middle Tennessee, though approval by the university administration and the Tennessee Board of Regents is required. During the progressive movement from a two-year normal to a university, several significant milestones may be identified. In 1936, the Bachelor of Arts program was added.
Responding to the expressed needs of the institution's service area, the Graduate School was established in 1951. To effect better communications and improve administrative supervision, the schools concept was introduced in 1962; as Middle Tennessee State University developed and grew, the Doctor of Arts program was added in 1970 and the Specialist in Education in 1974. These degree programs became attractive centerpieces for other efforts to improve and enhance institutional roles. Library resources were increased and sophisticated computer services were developed to aid instruction and administration. A trained faculty enabled the university to continue growth in program offerings. In 1991, the university's six schools—five undergraduate and the graduate school—became colleges. In 1998, MTSU's Honors program became the first in the state. In 2002, approval was granted to redesignate three D. A. programs to Doctor of Philosophy programs, expanding the progressive institution's offerings. Ph. D. degree offerings now include computational sciences and science education, molecular biosciences, English, human performance, public history and literacy studies.
Since 1911, MTSU has graduated more than 100,000 students. Despite the university's growth from a campus of 100 acres, 125 students and a faculty of 19, to an academic city of more than 500 acres, more than 26,000 students, a faculty of more than 900, the institution is still a "people's university" with a concern for the diverse needs of the area that it serves. In the 1980s and 1990s, the institution dedicated resources to become a leader in technology, both in the classroom and in many services to students. In 1986, James McGill Buchanan became the first MT alumnus to be awarded the Nobel Prize, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his pioneering role in the development of the field of public choice, a way of studying the behavior of politicians and bureaucrats. MTSU is organized into nine colleges: College of Basic and Applied Sciences College of Behavioral and Health Sciences College of Education College of Graduate Studies College of Liberal Arts College of Media and Entertainment Jennings A. Jones College of Business University College University Honors CollegeThe College of Graduate Studies offers master's degrees in nearly 40 areas, the Specialist in Education degree (Administration and Supervision, Curriculum and I
American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers
The American Society of Composers and Publishers is an American non-profit performance-rights organization that protects its members' musical copyrights by monitoring public performances of their music, whether via a broadcast or live performance, compensating them accordingly. ASCAP collects licensing fees from users of music created by ASCAP members distributes them back to its members as royalties. In effect, the arrangement is the product of a compromise: when a song is played, the user does not have to pay the copyright holder directly, nor does the music creator have to bill a radio station for use of a song. In 2012, ASCAP collected over US$941 million in licensing fees and distributed $828.7 million in royalties to its members, with an 11.6 percent operating expense ratio. As of July 2018, ASCAP membership included over 670,000 songwriters and music publishers, with over 11 million registered works. In the United States, ASCAP competes with four other PROs – Broadcast Music, Inc. the Society of European Stage Authors and Composers, Global Music Rights, & Pro Music Rights.
Unlike collecting societies outside the United States, ASCAP contract is non-exclusive, although it is not so simple for a foreign person to join ASCAP, it is possible. ASCAP has an office in the United Kingdom; as the artist agreement is non-exclusive, authors can license using a creative commons license. The ASCAP bill of rights states, "we have the right to choose when and where our creative works may be used for free". If an author is going to use a creative commons license with another's works, this is the only author's rights organisation that has a non-exclusive contract that a foreign person can join. If an author uses a Creative Commons license and is not a member of a performing rights organisation, the works would generate royalties, these royalties are collected and given to publishers and artists that are members of these organisations. ASCAP was founded by Victor Herbert, together with composers Louis Hirsch, John Raymond Hubbell, Silvio Hein and Gustave Kerker, a lyricist Glen MacDonough, publishers George Maxwell and Jay Witmark, a copyright attorney Nathan Burkan at the Hotel Claridge in New York City on February 13, 1914, to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members, who were writers and publishers associated with New York City's Tin Pan Alley.
ASCAP's earliest members included the era's most active songwriters—Irving Berlin, George M. Cohan, Rudolf Friml, Otto Harbach, Jerome Kern, John Philip Sousa, Alfred Baldwin Sloane, James Weldon Johnson, Robert Hood Bowers and Harry Tierney. Subsequently, many other prominent songwriters became members. In 1919, ASCAP and the Performing Rights Society of Great Britain, signed the first reciprocal agreement for the representation of each other's members' works in their respective territories. Today, ASCAP has global reciprocal agreements and licenses the U. S. performances of hundreds of thousands of international music creators. The advent of radio in the 1920s brought an important new source of income for ASCAP. Radio stations only broadcast performers live, the performers working for free. Performers wanted to be paid, recorded performances became more prevalent. ASCAP started collecting license fees from the broadcasters. Between 1931 and 1939, ASCAP increased royalty rates charged to broadcasters more than 400%.
In the late 1930s, ASCAP's general control over most music and its membership requirements were considered to be in restraint of trade and illegal under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. The Justice Department abandoned the case; the Justice Department sued again in 1941, the case was settled with a consent decree in which the most important points were that ASCAP must set rates and not discriminate between customers who have the same requirements to license music, or "similar standing." Anyone, unable to negotiate satisfactory terms with ASCAP, or is otherwise unable to get a license, may go to the court overseeing the consent decree and litigate the terms they find objectionable, the terms set by the court will be binding upon the licensee and ASCAP. BMI signed a consent decree in 1941, although the terms were much more favorable to BMI than those applied to ASCAP. In 1940, when ASCAP tried to double its license fees again, radio broadcasters formed a boycott of ASCAP and founded a competing royalty agency, Broadcast Music Incorporated.
During a ten-month period lasting from January 1 to October 29, 1941, no music licensed by ASCAP was broadcast on NBC and CBS radio stations. Instead, the stations played regional music and styles, traditionally disdained by ASCAP; when the differences between ASCAP and the broadcasters were resolved in October 1941, ASCAP agreed to settle for a lower fee than they had demanded. ASCAP's membership diversified further in the 1940s, bringing along jazz and swing greats, including Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Fletcher Henderson; the movies soared in popularity during the 1930s and 1940s, with them came classic scores and songs by new ASCAP members like Harold Arlen, Johnny Mercer, Cole Porter, Morton Gould, Jule Styne. Classical-music composers Aaron Copland, Igor Stravinsky, Leonard Bernstein brought their compositions into the ASCAP repertory in the 1940s; the rise of rock and roll derived from both country music and rhythm and blues music caused airplay of BMI licensed songs to double that of ASCAP licensed songs.
ASCAP officials decided. So ASCAP spearheaded a congressional investigation into the prac
John Anthony Lennon
John Anthony Lennon is an American composer of contemporary classical music based in Georgia. John Anthony Lennon was raised in Mill Valley, California, he earned a B. A. degree in liberal arts from the University of San Francisco, first majoring in English and minoring in philosophy adding music courses. He received M. M. and D. M. A. degrees in music composition from the University of Michigan, where he studied composition with Leslie Bassett and William Bolcom. Lennon is a professor of composition at Emory University in Atlanta, he taught at the University of Tennessee, taught as a guest composer at Northwestern University in the spring of 1998. Lennon is known for his works for classical guitar, including Another's Fandango and the guitar concerto Zingari, for several contributions to the classical saxophone repertoire, including "Distances Within Me" for James Forger, "Symphonic Rhapsody" for Donald Sinta, "Spiral Mirrors" for the Creviston Fader Duo, "Elysian Bridges" for the Capitol Quartet, several other chamber pieces.
Lennon's music is published by C. F. Peters, E. C. Schirmer, Dorn Publications, Michael Lorimer Editions, Northeastern Publications, Galaxy/Columbia University Press, Oxford University Press, his music has been recorded by CRI, Bridge Records, Contemporary Record Society, Society of Composers/Capstone, Open Loop, with the University of Michigan recording series. In 1981 he was the recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1994 he won a Kennedy Center Friedheim Award, he has won a Rome Prize and been a resident of the MacDowell Colony. Lennon lives in Georgia. John Anthony Lennon official site John Anthony Lennon faculty page from Emory University John Anthony Lennon page John Anthony Lennon page John Anthony Lennon audio files
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
American Bandmasters Association
The American Bandmasters Association was formed in 1929 by Edwin Franko Goldman to promote concert band music. Goldman sought to raise esteem for concert bands among audiences; the reputations of concert bands suffered in comparison to symphony orchestras due to factors including "the concert band’s concert venue out-of-doors, the difficulty of conductors to obtain a quality music education, a limited repertoire that with the exception of marches was borrowed from the libraries of the orchestra, a lack of camaraderie among the leading bandmasters/conductors of the period." The ABA's current Constitution states that the organization shall: honor outstanding achievement by invitation to membership. Membership is extended to the leaders of the wind band movement and is considered to be the highest honor given within the wind studies realm; the current president is Lowell E. Graham. Previous presidents include Goldman, Karl King, Charles O'Neill, Herbert L. Clarke, Henry Fillmore, William D. Revelli.
John Philip Sousa was the first honorary life president. Membership is extended through invitation to conductors/teachers/directors considered to be exemplary professionals within the field. Associate Membership is available through invitation to "firms and individuals engaged in the music industry or related field" who are affiliated with the ABA; the association has contributed to the wind and percussion band community through the spheres of literature and pedagogy. The ABA is responsible for the commissioning of many of the wind band's most revered works, including Lincolnshire Posy by Percy Grainger, Pageant by Vincent Persichetti, Strange Humors by John Mackey, Endurance by Timothy Mahr. A list of the current and historical officers and membership can be found in the publication Lest We Forget, updated regularly; the ABA sponsors the Sousa/Ostwald Award. The organization produces the Journal of Band Research; the American Bandmasters Association Website The American Bandmasters Association Archives, Special Collections in Performing Arts at the University of Maryland The American Bandmasters Association Research Center, Special Collections in Performing Arts at the University of Maryland