Chris Marker was a French writer, documentary film director, multimedia artist and film essayist. His best known films are La Jetée, Le Joli Mai, A Grin Without a Cat and Sans Soleil. Marker is associated with the Left Bank Cinema movement that occurred in the late 1950s and included such other filmmakers as Alain Resnais, Agnès Varda, Henri Colpi and Armand Gatti, his friend and sometime collaborator Alain Resnais called him "the prototype of the twenty-first-century man." Film theorist Roy Armes has said of him: "Marker is unclassifiable because he is unique... The French Cinema has its dramatists and its poets, its technicians, its autobiographers, but only has one true essayist: Chris Marker." Marker was born Christian François Bouche-Villeneuve. He was always elusive about his past and known to refuse interviews and not allow photographs to be taken of him; some sources and Marker himself claim that he was born in Mongolia. Other sources say he was born in Belleville and others, in Neuilly-sur-Seine.
The 1949 edition of Le Cœur Net specifies his birthday as 22 July. Film critic David Thomson has stated: "Marker told me himself that Mongolia is correct. I have since concluded that Belleville is correct – but that does not spoil the spiritual truth of Ulan Bator." When asked about his secretive nature, Marker has said "My films are enough for them."Marker was a philosophy student in France prior to World War II. During the German occupation of France, he joined a part of the French Resistance. At some point during the war he left France and joined the United States Air Force as a paratrooper, although some sources claim that this is not true. After the war, he began a career as a journalist, first writing for the journal Esprit, a neo-Catholic, Marxist magazine where he met fellow journalist André Bazin. At Esprit, Marker wrote political commentaries, short stories, film reviews, he would become an early contributor to Bazin's Cahiers du cinéma. During this time period, Marker began to travel around the world as a journalist and photographer, a vocation he would continue the rest of his life.
He was hired by the French publishing company Éditions du Seuil as editor of the series Petite Planète. This collection included information and photographs. In 1949 Marker published his first novel, Le Coeur net, about aviation. In 1952 Marker published an illustrated essay on French writer Jean Giraudoux, Giraudoux Par Lui-Même. During his early journalism career, Marker became interested in filmmaking and experimented with photography in the early 1950s. Around this time Marker met and befriended many members of what would be called the Left Bank Film Movement, including Alain Resnais, Agnès Varda, Henri Colpi, Armand Gatti and the novelists Marguerite Duras and Jean Cayrol; this group is associated with the French New Wave directors who came to prominence during the same time period, indeed both groups were friends and journalistic co-workers. The term Left Bank was first coined by film critic Richard Roud, who has described them as having "fondness for a kind of Bohemian life and an impatience with the conformity of the Right Bank, a high degree of involvement in literature and the plastic arts, a consequent interest in experimental filmmaking", as well as an identification with the political left.
Many of Marker's earliest films were produced by Anatole Dauman. In 1952 Marker made his first film, Olympia 52, a 16mm feature documentary about the 1952 Helsinki Olympic Games. In 1953 Marker collaborated with Resnais on the documentary; the film examines traditional African art such as sculptures and masks, its decline with coming of Western colonialism. The film won the 1954 Prix Jean Vigo, but was banned by French censors for its criticism of French colonialism. After working as assistant director on Resnais's Night and Fog in 1955, Marker made Sunday in Peking, a short documentary "film essay" that would characterize Marker's unique film style for most of his career; the film was shot in two weeks by Marker while he was traveling through China with Armand Gatti in September 1955. In the film, Marker's commentary overlaps scenes from China, such as tombs which, contrary to Westernized understandings of Chinese legends, do not contain the remains of any Ming Dynasty emperors. After working on the commentary for Resnais' film Le mystère de l'atelier quinze in 1957, Marker continued to form his own cinematic style with the feature documentary Letter from Siberia.
An essay film on the narrativization of Siberia, it contains Marker's signature commentary, which takes the form of a letter from the director, in the long tradition of epistolary treatments by French explorers of the "undeveloped" world. Letter looks at the modernization of Siberia with its movement into the twentieth century, but with a look back at some of the tribal cultural practices now receding into the past, it combines footage that Marker shot in Siberia with old newsreel footage, cartoon sequences, an illustration of Alfred E. Neuman from Mad Magazine as well as a fake TV commercial as part of a humorous attack on Western mass culture. In producing a meta-commentary on narrativity and film, Marker uses the same brief filmic sequence three times but with different commentary—the first one praising the Soviet Union, the second denouncing it, the third taking an neutral or "objective" stance. In 1959 Marker made the animated film Les Astronautes with Walerian Borowczyk; the film was a combination of traditional drawings with still photogra
Screwball comedy film
Screwball comedy is a subgenre of the romantic comedy film that became popular during the Great Depression, originating in the early 1930s and thriving until the early 1940s. It is known for satirizing the traditional love story. Many secondary characteristics of this genre are similar to film noir, but it distinguishes itself for being characterized by a female that dominates the relationship with the male central character, whose masculinity is challenged; the two engage in a humorous battle of the sexes, a new theme for Hollywood and audiences at the time. What sets the screwball comedy apart from the generic romantic comedy is that "screwball comedy puts its emphasis on a funny spoofing of love, while the more traditional romantic accents love." Other elements of the screwball comedy include fast-paced, overlapping repartee, farcical situations, escapist themes, physical battle of the sexes and masquerade, plot lines involving courtship and marriage. Screwball comedies depict social classes in conflict, as in It Happened One Night and My Man Godfrey.
Some comic plays are described as screwball comedies. Screwball comedy has proved to be one of the most enduring film genres, it Happened One Night, is credited as the first true screwball, though Bombshell starring Jean Harlow preceded it by a year. Although many film scholars agree that its classic period had ended by 1942, elements of the genre have persisted or have been paid homage to in contemporary films. Still more, other film scholars argue. During the Great Depression, there was a general demand for films with a strong social class critique and hopeful, escapist-oriented themes; the screwball format arose as a result of the major film studios' desire to avoid censorship by the enforced Hays Code. In order to incorporate prohibited risqué elements into their plots, filmmakers resorted to handling these elements covertly. Verbal sparring between the sexes served as a stand-in for sexual tension. Though some film scholars, such as William K. Everson argue "screwball comedies were not so much rebelling against the Production Code as they were attacking–and ridiculing– the dull, lifeless respectability that the Code insisted on for family viewing.
The screwball comedy has close links with the theatrical genre of farce, some comic plays are described as screwball comedies. Many elements of the screwball genre can be traced back to such stage plays as Lysistrata by Aristophanes, William Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It and A Midsummer Night's Dream and Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest. Other genres with which screwball comedy is associated include slapstick, situation comedy, romantic comedy and bedroom farce. Films definitive of the genre feature farcical situations, a combination of slapstick with fast-paced repartee and show the struggle between economic classes, they generally feature a self-confident and stubborn central female protagonist and a plot involving courtship and marriage or remarriage. These traits can be seen in both It Happened My Man Godfrey; the film critic Andrew Sarris has defined the screwball comedy as "a sex comedy without the sex."Like farce, screwball comedies involve masquerade and disguise in which a character or characters resort to secrecy.
Sometimes screwball comedies feature male characters cross-dressing, further contributing to elements of masquerade. At first, the couple seem mismatched and hostile to each other but overcome their differences in an amusing or entertaining way that leads to romance; this mismatch comes about when the man is of a lower social class than the woman. The final romantic union is planned by the woman from the outset, the man is oblivious to this. In Bringing Up Baby, the woman says to a third party: "He's the man, he doesn't know it, but I am." These pictures offered a kind of cultural escape valve: a safe battleground on which to explore serious issues such as class under a comedic and non-threatening framework. Class issues are a strong component of screwball comedies: the upper class are represented as idle and having difficulty coping with the real world; some critics believe that the portrayal of the upper class in It Happened One Night was brought about by the Great Depression, the financially struggling moviegoing public's desire to see the rich upper class taught a lesson in humanity.
By contrast, when lower-class people attempt to pass themselves off as upper-class, they are able to do so with relative ease. Another common element of the screwball comedy is fast-talking, witty repartee; this stylistic device did not originate in the genre: it is found in many of the old Hollywood cycles, including gangster films and romantic comedies. Screwball comedies tend to contain ridiculous, farcical situations, such as in Bringing Up Baby, where a couple must take care of a pet leopard during much of the film. Slapstick elements are frequently present, such as the numerous pratfalls Henry Fonda takes in The Lady Eve. One subgenre of screwball is known as the comedy of remarriage, in which characters divorce and remarry one another; some scholars point to this frequent device as evidence of the shift in the American moral code, as it showed freer attitudes toward d
Hero (1992 film)
Hero is a 1992 American comedy-drama film directed by Stephen Frears. It was written by David Webb Peoples from a story written by Peoples, Laura Ziskin and Alvin Sargent and stars Dustin Hoffman, Geena Davis, Andy García, Joan Cusack and Chevy Chase. Following the critically acclaimed The Grifters, it was the second American feature film by British filmmaker Frears. Bernie LaPlante is a pickpocket and petty criminal who anonymously rescues survivors including TV reporter Gale Gayley at an airplane crash, his motives are not "pure" as he enters the burning plane in order to steal some of the passengers' purses and wallets, losing a shoe in the process. After finding his car is towed away from the crash scene, he flags down John Bubber, a homeless Vietnam veteran, tells him about the rescue at the crash site, giving him his remaining shoe; when Deke, the television station news director, offers $1 million to the "Angel of Flight 104", Bernie realizes he can't claim the reward, due to his arrest while fencing credit cards he stole from the people he rescued.
John, contacts Gale, recounting Bernie's tale of the rescue and provides the single shoe to take credit for the selfless act. When Bernie tries to tell people that John is a fake, the media, after sensationalizing his heroic image, will not believe Bernie. Bernie is released from jail and his lawyer informed him that he will be heading to prison soon because of the stolen goods he carried in his apartment. Gale, as one of the crash survivors, considers herself to be in John's debt and soon grooms his public image, she finds herself falling in love with him though she has questions about his authenticity. Despite his reluctant acceptance of his fame, he turns out to be a decent person, using his notoriety and reward money to help sick children and the homeless. John finds himself in an ethical dilemma. Meanwhile, Bernie continues to aggravate his ex-wife and fails to bond with his son, now enamored with John, he begins to feel that if Joey is going to idolize anyone John is the better choice. A police detective tells Gale.
She and her cameraman, break into Bernie's apartment with the help of Winston, the landlord. While searching for evidence to incriminate Bernie, Gale finds a stolen Silver Microphone Award that she won in New York City, the night before the crash. Bernie arrives only to be confronted by her, who speculates that John stole her purse in a moment of weakness during the rescue, sold it to Bernie, accuses him of attempting to now blackmail John, they are interrupted by Winston, who says John is on television, about to commit suicide by jumping from the ledge of a high-rise skyscraper. Gale rushes to the scene and brings Bernie along, threatening to have him prosecuted if John leaps to his death. In addition, she demands Bernie apologize for the attempted blackmail. Evelyn and Joey rush there as well, with Evelyn reminiscing how Bernie is selfish and cynical, but always becomes a great person in a crisis; when they arrive, Bernie goes out on the ledge, hatching a scheme to milk the media attention for all its worth.
He convinces John that the world needs a hero, that he is the right one for the job, though he does negotiate a discreet share of the $1 million to pay for his son's college tuition and a letter to the judge to put in a good word for him to suspend his prison sentence. When Bernie slips off the ledge, John pulls him to safety, a hero once more; when Gale sees Bernie's face covered with dirt, as on the night of the crash, she realizes it was he who saved her. She confronts him "off the record" with her supposition; as Gale leaves, she thanks Bernie for saving her life. She tells him to tell Joey the truth. John agrees to continue playing the part of public hero. While on an excursion to the zoo, Bernie decides to tell Joey the true story of the crash. After he does so, a lady cries out. Joey pleads with him to help, to which he sighs, slips off his shoes, heads off to see what he can do. Principal photography on the film began shooting October 30, 1991 in Chicago with studio work at Sony Pictures Studios, Culver City and Los Angeles, along with the crash scene on location at Piru, California.
It wrapped on March 20, 1992. Hail the Conquering Hero is a film on a similar theme by Preston Sturges. Many reviewers referred to the obvious similarities between Sturges' screwball comedies; the classic Frank Capra film Meet John Doe was cited as a model for Laura Ziskin who both produced and supplied the story for Hero. The film was met with positive critical reviews, although it was not a box office success. Columbia lost $25.6 million on it. Roger Ebert noted: "It has all the ingredients for a terrific entertainment, but it lingers over the kinds of details that belong in a different kind of movie, it comes out of the tradition of those rat-a-tat Preston Sturges comedies of the 1940s, when Chevy Chase, as a wise-guy TV boss, barks orders into a phone, it finds the right note." Desson Howe, film reviewer for the Washington Post said: "At the heart of this is a appealing, old-fashioned screwball caper – the kind they used to make." The film holds a 65% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 20 reviews.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2003: AFI'
Soldier (1998 American film)
Soldier is a 1998 American science fiction action film directed by Paul W. S. Anderson, written by David Webb Peoples, starring Kurt Russell, Jason Scott Lee, Jason Isaacs, Connie Nielsen, Sean Pertwee and Gary Busey; the film tells the story of a skilled soldier defying his commanders and facing a relentless and brutal genetically-enhanced rival soldier. The film was released worldwide on October 23, 1998. Upon its release, Soldier received negative reviews but many praised the action sequences and Russell's performance; the film was a commercial failure, grossing $14 million worldwide against a production budget of $60 million. In 1996, as part of a new military training program, orphaned infants are selected at birth and raised as disciplined soldiers dedicated to a wholly military routine, they are trained to be ruthless obedient killers without any moral code of conduct, any deemed physically or mentally unworthy are executed. Survivors of the training program are turned into impassive, dedicated fighting machines with no exposure to or understanding of the outside world.
In 2036, at the age of 40, Sgt. Todd 3465 is a battle-hardened veteran and the best soldier of the original 1996 infants. Colonel Mekum, the leader of the original project, introduces a new group of genetically engineered soldiers, designed with superior physical attributes and a complete lack of emotion except unparalleled aggression. Captain Church, the commander of Todd's unit, insists on testing the abilities of the new soldiers against those of his proven older ones; the new soldiers outperform the old soldiers in every way. In a combat exercise held at the top of climbing chains, a new soldier, Caine 607 defeats two of the original soldiers before Todd gouges out Caine's eye. Caine knocks Todd from the top of the chains. Mekum classifies it as a training exercise gone wrong and orders their bodies disposed of like garbage. Declared obsolete by Mekum, the remaining older soldiers are removed from combat duty and demoted to menial unarmed support roles. Dumped on Arcadia 234, a waste disposal planet, an injured Todd limps toward a colony whose residents crash-landed there years earlier.
Todd is found and sheltered by Mace, he and his wife Sandra help nurse Todd back to health. Speaking himself, Todd develops a silent rapport with their mute son, traumatized by a snakebite as an infant, he looks upon the loving family with yearning in his eyes. Though they try to make him feel welcome, Todd has difficulty adapting to the community and their conflict-free lives due to his rigid conditioning; when Nathan silently looks to him for defense against a coiled snake, Todd attempts to show Nathan how to protect himself. Nathan's parents intervene and disapprove of the lesson, unsure of how to deal with the silent soldier. Todd's increasing disorientation by exposure to peaceful civilian life manifests into flashbacks of his time battling other enemy soldiers - and killing civilians who were in the way. With Todd's mind deep inside one of his more violent memories, one of the colonists surprises Todd, who nearly kills him. Fearful, the colonists expel Todd from the community. Having been rejected by every society he has known - the military and the refugee civilians - Todd shows strong emotion for the first time.
A short time Mace and Sandra are bitten by a snake while they sleep, but Nathan uses Todd's defensive technique and saves them. Now understanding the value of Todd's lesson, Mace leaves to bring him back, regardless of the opposition of the colonists who fear him. Mekum and the new soldiers arrive on the garbage planet to garner them combat experience. Since the world is listed as uninhabited, Mekum declares the colonists as hostiles to be used as the targets, much to the disapproval of Captain Church. Just after Mace finds Todd and apologizes, the soldiers open fire. Todd survives but Mace dies from the attack. Though out-manned and outgunned, Todd's years of battle experience and superior knowledge of the planet allow him to return to the colony and kill the advance squad. Nervous that an unknown enemy force may be confronting them, Colonel Mekum orders the soldiers to withdraw and return with heavy artillery. Using guerrilla tactics, Todd kills all the remaining soldiers. Caine 607 is wounded and uses painkillers and performance enhancing stimulants to attack Todd in vicious hand-to-hand combat, but he is defeated by Todd's experience and clever tactics rather than mere physical prowess.
Todd confronts Mekum over the radio. Panicking, Mekum orders Todd's old squad to set up and activate a portable nuclear device powerful enough to destroy the planet before commanding the ship to lift off and leave the squad behind; when Captain Church objects to the abandonment of the old soldiers, Mekum shoots him in cold blood. Todd finds his old squad and they silently side with him over the army that has discarded them, they take over the ship, evacuate the remaining colonists and leave Mekum and Church's aides on the planet. In an attempt to disarm the nuclear device, Mekum accidentally sets it off, killing himself and the aides; the ship escapes the shockwave and sets course for the Trinity Moons, the colonists' original destination. When Nathan enters the control room and reaches for Todd, he picks up Nathan and points to their new destination while looking out upon the galaxy. Soldier was written by
Ladyhawke is a 1985 American medieval fantasy film directed and produced by Richard Donner and starring Matthew Broderick, Rutger Hauer, Michelle Pfeiffer. The story is about a young thief who unwillingly gets involved with a warrior and his lady that are hunted by the Bishop of Aquila; as he comes to know about the couple's past and secret, he finds himself determined to help them overcome the Bishop's oppressions, both in arms and in the form of a demonic curse. In medieval Europe, Phillipe Gaston, a thief known as “The Mouse”, escapes from the Bishop of Aquila’s dungeons right before execution, he is recaptured at an inn by the Bishop’s guards, led by Captain Marquet. However, the former captain, Etienne Navarre, defeats Marquet and the guards, he rides off with Phillipe. That evening, Phillipe narrowly escapes from a farmer’s sneak attack when an enormous black wolf emerges and kills the farmer. A mysterious young woman accompanies the wolf. Navarre asks Phillipe to help him get inside Aquila.
The unwilling Phillipe gets tied up that night, but escapes by tricking the mysterious woman. However, he is soon recaptured by the Bishop’s guards. At an ambush from the Bishop’s guards and his hawk are each hit by a crossbow bolt, yet he manages to defeat them and saves Phillipe; the wounded Navarre makes Phillipe take the dying hawk and ride his horse to Imperius’s ruined castle for help. The hawk is sequestered in a room, but a curious Phillipe picks the lock and finds the mysterious woman inside, her chest struck with a bolt. After tending to her wound, Imperius explains, she and Navarre were cursed by the Bishop because she refused the Bishop’s love, their secret vows were leaked to the Bishop by Imperius in a drunken confession. The demonic curse turns Isabeau into a hawk by day and Navarre a wolf by night so that despite being always together, they are eternally apart; when Navarre catches up in the morning, Imperius tells him that the curse can be broken if both Navarre and Isabeau face the Bishop in the flesh on “a day without a night and a night without a day”.
Navarre dismisses Imperius as an old drunk, continues his way to Aquila intent on killing the Bishop. Phillipe decides to leave with Navarre and “Ladyhawke”. After Isabeau’s perilous encounter with Cezar the wolf trapper, Phillipe saving the transformed Navarre-wolf from certain death for falling through brittle ice, Phillipe succeeds in persuading the couple to break the curse. At night and Isabeau smuggle the Navarre-wolf into Aquila while Phillipe dives into the sewers to get inside the cathedral. Unable to see any divine sign on the day that he and Isabeau are to appear in the flesh together, Navarre reverts to his original plan to kill the Bishop, and he convinces Imperius to euthanize the hawk in case the cathedral bells ring, which would mean he has failed. Phillipe unlocks the doors. Navarre rides in and duels with Marquet. Amid the bout, Navarre sees a solar eclipse through a high window and realizes the curse can be broken, he fails to keep the guards from ringing the bell. Despairing that Imperius has killed Isabeau, he continues his fight and kills Marquet.
As Navarre is about to kill the Bishop, Isabeau stops him. Together they break the curse; the maddened Bishop tries to kill Isabeau. Isabeau and Navarre embrace each other in joy. Matthew Broderick as Phillipe Gaston, a young thief known as "The Mouse". Rutger Hauer as Etienne of Navarre, the former Captain of the Guard of Aquila who, with Isabeau, is hunted by the Bishop. Michelle Pfeiffer as Isabeau of Anjou, the Comte d'Anjou's daughter, with Etienne, is hunted by the Bishop. Leo McKern as Imperius, an old monk living in a ruined castle who used to serve the Bishop. John Wood as the Bishop of Aquila, obsessed with killing Etienne and capturing Isabeau. Ken Hutchison as Captain Marquet, the current Captain of the Guard. Alfred Molina as Cezar, a wolf trapper who serves the Bishop. Giancarlo Prete as Fornac, a higher ranking guard. Loris Loddi as Jehan, a higher ranking guard. Richard Donner had attempted to get the film financed for a number of years and came close to making it twice, once in England and once in Czechoslovakia.
He got the project up at Warners and Fox, where it was green-lit by Alan Ladd Jr. Originally, Kurt Russell was cast as the male lead alongside Michelle Pfeiffer; the role of the pickpocket was offered to Sean Penn and Dustin Hoffman, before Donner decided to go with Matthew Broderick. Russell pulled out during rehearsals, Rutger Hauer was chosen to replace him; the film's score was produced by Alan Parsons. Richard Donner stated that he was listening to The Alan Parsons Project while scouting for locations, became unable to separate his visual ideas from the music. Powell combined traditional orchestral music and Gregorian chants with contemporary progressive rock-infused material, it has been cited as the most memorable example of the growing trend among 1980s fantasy films of abandoning the lush orchestral scores of composers such as John Williams and James Horner in favor of a modern pop/rock sound. The soundtrack album was released in 1985 and re-released with additional tracks in 1995. On February 10, 2015 a 2-disc set was released from La-La Land Records.
Ladyhawke has a rating of 64% on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 22 critics' reviews. Vincent Canby in The New York Times ca
La Jetée is a 1962 French Left Bank science fiction featurette by Chris Marker. Constructed entirely from still photos, it tells the story of a post-nuclear war experiment in time travel, it is 28 minutes long and shot in white. It won the Prix Jean Vigo for short film; the 1995 science fiction film 12 Monkeys was inspired by and borrows several concepts directly from La Jetée, as does the 2015 12 Monkeys television series developed from the film. A man is a prisoner in the aftermath of World War III in post-apocalyptic Paris, where survivors live underground in the Palais de Chaillot galleries. Scientists research time travel, hoping to send test subjects to different time periods "to call past and future to the rescue of the present", they have difficulty finding subjects. The scientists settle upon the prisoner, he did not understand what happened, but knew he had seen a man die. After several attempts, he reaches the pre-war period, he meets the woman from his memory, they develop a romantic relationship.
After his successful passages to the past, the experimenters attempt to send him into the far future. In a brief meeting with the technologically advanced people of the future, he is given a power unit sufficient to regenerate his own destroyed society. Upon his return, with his mission accomplished, he discerns that he is to be executed by his jailers, he is contacted by the people of the future. He is returned to the past, placed on the jetty at the airport, it occurs to him that the child version of himself is also there at the same time, he is more concerned with locating the woman, spots her. However, as he rushes to her, he notices an agent of his jailers who has followed him and realizes the agent is about to kill him. In his final moments, he comes to understand that the incident he witnessed as a child, which has haunted him since, was his own death. Jean Négroni as narrator Hélène Chatelain as the Woman Davos Hanich as the Man Jacques Ledoux as The Experimenter Ligia Branice as a woman from the future Janine Kleina as a woman from the future William Klein as a man from the future La Jetée is constructed entirely from optically printed photographs playing out as a photomontage of varying rhythm.
It contains only one brief shot originating on a motion-picture camera, this due to the fact that Marker could only afford to hire one for an afternoon. The stills were taken with a Pentax Spotmatic and the motion-picture segment was shot with a 35 mm Arriflex; the film has no dialogue aside from small sections of muttering in German and people talking in an airport terminal. The story is told by a voice-over narrator; the scene in which the hero and the woman look at a cut-away trunk of a tree is a reference to Alfred Hitchcock's 1958 film Vertigo which Marker references in his 1983 film Sans soleil. In Black and Blue, her study of postwar French fiction, Carol Mavor describes La Jetée as taking "place in a no-place in no-time" which she connects to the time and place of the fairy tale, she goes on to say "even the sound of the title resonates with the fairy-tale surprise of finding oneself in another world: La Jetée evokes'là j'étais'". By "u-topia", Mavor does not refer to "utopia" as the word is used.
Tor Books blogger Jake Hinkson summed up his interpretation in the title of an essay about the film, "There's No Escape Out of Time". He elaborated: What finds... is. To return to it is to realize that we never understood it, he finds–and here it is impossible to miss Marker's message for his viewers–a person cannot escape from their own time, anyway. Try as we might to lose ourselves, we will always be dragged back into the world, into the here and now. There is no escape from the present. Hinkson addresses the symbolic use of imagery: "The Man is blindfolded with some kind of padded device and he sees images; the Man is chosen for this assignment because... he has maintained a sharp mind because of his attachment to certain images. Thus a film told through the use of still photos becomes about looking at images." He further observes that Marker himself did not refer as photo novel. In 2010, Time ranked La Jetée first in its list of "Top 10 time-travel movies". In 2012, in correspondence with the Sight & Sound Poll, the British Film Institute deemed La Jetée as the 50th greatest film of all time.
Science fiction writer William Gibson considers the film one of his main influences. The video for Sigue Sigue Sputnik's 1989 single "Dancerama" is an homage to La Jetée; the film is one of the influences in the video for David Bowie's "Jump They Say". Terry Gilliam's 12 Monkeys takes several concepts directly from La Jetée; the 2003 short film La puppé is both a parody of La Jetée. Kode9 in collaboration with Ms. Haptic, Marcel Weber, Lucy Benson created an h
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give