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Waldmann disease

Waldmann disease is a rare disease characterized by enlargement of the lymph vessels supplying the lamina propria of the small intestine. Although its prevalence is unknown, it being classified as a "rare disease" means that less than 200,000 of the population of the United States are affected by this condition and its subtypes. Signs and symptoms of the disease include diarrhea, swelling of the legs, protein-losing enteropathy and loss of lymphatic fluid into the intestines, it is diagnosed before the patient is 3 years old, but it is sometimes diagnosed in adults. The illness is caused by lymphatic vessels that were misshaped at birth, causing obstruction and subsequent enlargement; the condition can be a result of other illnesses such as constrictive pericarditis and pancreatitis. The disease is diagnosed by doing a biopsy of the affected area. Severity of the disease is determined by measuring alpha1-antitrypsin proteins in a stool sample. Once the main cause of the disease is treated, a diet of low-fat and high-protein aliments, supplemental calcium and certain vitamins has been shown to reduce symptom effects.

This diet, however, is not a cure. If the diet is stopped, the symptoms will reappear; the disease was first reported in 1961 by T. A. Waldmann, he described 18 cases of patients having a low level 131I-albumin. Biopsies of the small intestine were examined under the microscope and found various levels of dilatation of the lymph vessels

John L. Wimbush

John L. Wimbush was an English landscape and portrait painter. Born in London, Wimbush first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1889 and went on to mount several other exhibitions there over the years; the spelling Wimbush is not found in his birth record. It is believed, it was just an initial. He died at Totnes – an artistic area in Devon on the South Coast – age 60 on 15 March 1914. John L. Wimbush's father was Edward John Winbush, Licensed Victualler of the Magpie and Punchbowl hotel, Bishopsgate. From records at the General Register Office, a'John Winbush' was born in London in January 1854 at the hotel, he was baptised in the family church, St Ethelburga's Bishopsgate, on 12 February 1854. John was the second born and the second son of a family of 11, he had 5 brothers and 4 sisters. The building 100 Bishopsgate now stands on the original site of the Punchbowl. On the 1871 census Winbush was registered as living at 58 Bishopgate Street London, he was listed as an'Artist student'. At this time he was 17 years of age.

On the census document his name was given as John Winbush. His grandfather John Wimbush, was the Licensed Victualler of Warwick. John L. Wimbush spent some time living with his Wimbush grandfather in Warwick. In both 1891 census and the 1901 census he had registered as being born in Warwick. In those days, there were many alternative spellings for family names; as all the Winbush children were well educated, it appears that there was a definite decision on his part to change the spelling of his name. As there was another artist, Henry B Wimbush, John Wimbush may have wanted to differentiate the two Wimbush names and added the'L.' From on he went by the name John L. Wimbush. However, in his final years he used John Lewis Winbush. John Wimbush developed as an artist and around 1874 had his own studio, he may have shared the studio with other artists. Wimbush was based in London, he became a friend of James McNeill Whistler. Whistler lived for a time at No. 8 Fitzroy Square in Camden Town. John Wimbush's career as an artist was centred around this same area for the last part of the 19th century.

Wimbush moved in artist circles and his path would have crossed with many other major artists of the day. There was a vibrant community of artists around Fitzroy Street, he was friends with the artist Albert Ludovici. One of Wimbush's friends was Walter Sickert. Sickert took up painting in 1881, he became a pupil and etching assistant to James Whistler. Although Sickert was 8 years younger than John they may have been fellow students. Sickert became a prominent art teacher and the subject of the book, Portrait of a Killer: Jack the Ripper—Case Closed. A painting by Wimbush, An opium den At Lime Street was painted in 1889, it is the only painting known. The Lime Street referred to is in the district of Limehouse. Lime Street is less than 1 kilometre from Bishopsgate. Limehouse and Lime Street sometimes mistakenly thought to be derived from the nickname for the seamen that disembarked there, who had earned the name Lime—juicers or limeys after the obligatory ration of lime juice the Royal Navy gave their sailors to ward off scurvy.

The area achieved notoriety for opium dens in the late 19th century featured in pulp fiction works by Sax Rohmer and others. The name Limehouse spelt Lymehouse goes back to the 1300s and referred to the lime kilns that were once there. Wimbush exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts in 1889, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904; the painting An opium den At Lime Street was exhibited in 1889 titled Lingering Clouds. The Mutualart website notes: John L. Wimbush is a 19th Century painter. John L. Wimbush's work has been offered at auction multiple times, with realised prices raining from $338 USD to $53,278 USD, depending on the size and medium of the artwork. Since 1998 the record price for this artist at an auction is $53,278 USD for An Opium Den at Lime Street, sold at Sotheby's London in 2008. Sotheby’s auction notes said that the painting An opium den at Lime Street was valued at £40,000 – 60,000 and sold for £36,050. In 2008 £36,050 converts to the $53,278 USD figure given above, it is signed J.

L. WIMBUSH.: further signed and inscribed on an old label attached to the stretcher oil on canvas 101 by 152 cm.: 40 by 60 in. PROVENANCE Lucian Freud and thence to his friend Charlie Thomas who gave the picture to Marianne Faithfull. Notes: PROPERTY OF A GENTLEMAN ‘I am engulfed, drown deliciously. Soft music like a perfume, sweet light Golden with audible odours exquisite, Swathe me with cerements for eternity. Time is no more. I pause and yet I flee. A million ages wrap. I drain a million ages of delight. I hold the future in memory.’ It is that this picture is the one entitled Lingering Clouds exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1889, the title alluding to the rings of thick smoke swirling above the recumbent figures in an East End opium den. The image of the Chinatown opium den run by wicked Oriental immigrants luring innocent Westerners into a life of destitution and addiction, was one made popular in late nineteenth century literature and lurid newspaper stories. East London opium dens appear in Charles Dickens' The Mystery of Edward Drood and famously in Oscar Wilde's'P

Plumbland

Plumbland is a village and civil parish in the Allerdale district in the county of Cumbria, England. Situated towards the north west corner of the county, it is only a 2-mile journey to reach the outskirts of the Lake District National Park, considered to be an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the parish includes the hamlets of Threapland and Arkleby. Plumbland, is part of the Workington constituency of the UK parliament; the current Member of Parliament is a member of the Conservative Party. 2019 marks only the second time since the Second World War that a Conservative has been elected for Workington, the first being at the 1976 by-election. For Local Government purposes it is in the Aspatria Ward of Allerdale Borough Council and the Bothel and Wharrels Ward of Cumbria County Council; the village has its own Parish Council jointly with nearby Parsonby. For the European Parliament residents in Plumbland vote to elect MEP's for the North West England constituency. Listed buildings in Plumbland Genuki Media related to Plumbland at Wikimedia Commons

Bacterial cellulose

Bacterial cellulose is an organic compound with the formula n produced by certain types of bacteria. While cellulose is a basic structural material of most plants, it is produced by bacteria, principally of the genera Acetobacter, Sarcina ventriculi and Agrobacterium. Bacterial, or microbial, cellulose has different properties from plant cellulose and is characterized by high purity, strength and increased water holding ability. In natural habitats, the majority of bacteria synthesize extracellular polysaccharides, such as cellulose, which form protective envelopes around the cells. While bacterial cellulose is produced in nature, many methods are being investigated to enhance cellulose growth from cultures in laboratories as a large-scale process. By controlling synthesis methods, the resulting microbial cellulose can be tailored to have specific desirable properties. For example, attention has been given to the bacteria Acetobacter xylinum due to its cellulose's unique mechanical properties and applications to biotechnology and materials science.

Bacterial cellulose has been limited to the manufacture of Nata de coco, a South-East Asian food product. With advances in the ability to synthesize and characterize bacterial cellulose, the material is being used for a wide variety of commercial applications including textiles and food products, as well as medical applications. Many patents have been issued in microbial cellulose applications and several active areas of research are attempting to better characterize microbial cellulose and utilize it in new areas; as a material, cellulose was first discovered in 1838 by Anselme Payen. Payen was able to chemically characterize it. In one of its first and most common industrial applications, cellulose from wood pulp was used to manufacture paper, it is ideal for displaying information in print form due to its high reflectivity, high contrast, low cost and flexibility. The discovery of cellulose produced by bacteria from the Acetobacter xylinum, was accredited to A. J. Brown in 1886 with the synthesis of an extracellular gelatinous mat.

However, it was not until the 20th century that more intensive studies on bacterial cellulose were conducted. Several decades after the initial discovery of microbial cellulose, C. A. Browne studied the cellulose material obtained by fermentation of Louisiana sugar cane juice and affirmed the results by A. J. Brown. Other researchers reported the formation of cellulose by other various organisms such as the Acetobacter pasteurianum, Acetobacter rancens, Sarcina ventriculi, Bacterium xylinoides. In 1931, Tarr and Hibbert published the first detailed study of the formation of bacterial cellulose by conducting a series of experiments to grow A. xylinum on culture mediums. In the mid-1900s, Hestrin et al. proved the necessity of glucose and oxygen in the synthesis of bacterial cellulose. Soon after, Colvin detected cellulose synthesis in samples containing cell-free extract of A. xylinum, glucose and ATP. In 1949, the microfibrillar structure of bacterial cellulose was characterized by Muhlethaler.

Further bacterial cellulose studies have led to new applications for the material. Bacteria that produce cellulose include Gram-negative bacteria species such as Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Salmonella and Gram-positive bacteria species such as Sarcina ventriculi; the most effective producers of cellulose are A. xylinum, A. hansenii, A. pasteurianus. Of these, A. xylinum is the model microorganism for basic and applied studies on cellulose due to its ability to produce high levels of polymer from a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources. The synthesis of bacterial cellulose is a multistep process that involve two main mechanisms: the synthesis of uridine diphosphoglucose, followed by the polymerization of glucose into long and unbranched chains by cellulose synthase. Specifics on the cellulose synthesis has been extensively documented; the former mechanism is well known. The production of UDPGIc starts with carbon compounds entering the Krebs cycle, gluconeogenesis, or the pentose phosphate cycle depending on what carbon source is available.

It goes through phosphorylation along with catalysis, followed by isomerization of the intermediate, a process known as UDPGIc pyrophosphorylase to convert the compounds into UDPGIc, a precursor to the production of cellulose. The polymerization of glucose into the β-1→4 glucan chain has been hypothesized to either involve a lipid intermediate or not to involve a lipid intermediate, though structural enzymology studies and in vitro experiments indicate that polymerization can occur by direct enzymatic transfer of a glucosyl moiety from a nucleotide sugar to the growing polysaccharide. A. xylinum converts carbon compounds into cellulose with around 50% efficiency. Cellulose production depends on several factors such as the growth medium, environmental conditions, the formation of byproducts; the fermentation medium contains carbon and other macro and micro nutrients required for bacteria growth. Bacteria are most efficient when supplied with an abundant carbon source and minimal nitrogen source.

Glucose and sucrose are the most used carbon sources for cellulose production, while fructose, xylose and glycerol have been tried. Sometimes, ethanol may be used to increase cellulose production; the problem with using glucose is that gluconic acid is formed as a byproduct which decreases the pH of the culture and in turn, decreases the production of cellulose. Studies h

2003 Coca Cola Tigers season

The 2003 Coca-Cola Tigers season was the 2nd season of the franchise in the Philippine Basketball Association. The Coca-Cola Tigers played in the finals in all three conferences of the league's 29th season. In the All-Filipino Cup, the defending champions blew a 2-0 series lead in the best-of-seven championship against Talk'N Text Phone Pals and lost in six games. Coca-Cola placed runner-up for the second straight conference when they lost to Alaska in the best-of-three finals series of the short Invitational championship. Coca-Cola didn't end up bridesmaid for the third time in the season by winning over San Miguel Beermen in the season-ending Reinforced Conference; the Tigers defeated the Beermen in the deciding seventh game as coach Chot Reyes won his second title for Coca-Cola and fourth overall in his coaching career. Artemus McClary was voted the Reinforced Conference Best Import. Win Win via OT loss loss via OT