Edward Paul Abbey was an American author and essayist noted for his advocacy of environmental issues, criticism of public land policies, anarchist political views. His best-known works include the novel The Monkey Wrench Gang, cited as an inspiration by environmental and eco-terrorist groups, the non-fiction work Desert Solitaire. Abbey was born in Indiana, Pennsylvania, on January 29, 1927 to Mildred Postlewait and Paul Revere Abbey. Mildred was a schoolteacher and a church organist, gave Abbey an appreciation for classical music and literature. Paul was a socialist and atheist whose views influenced Abbey. Abbey graduated from high school in Indiana, Pennsylvania, in 1945. Eight months before his 18th birthday, when he would be faced with being drafted into the United States military, Abbey decided to explore the American southwest, he traveled by foot, bus and freight train hopping. During this trip he fell in love with the desert country of the Four Corners region. Abbey wrote: "crags and pinnacles of naked rock, the dark cores of ancient volcanoes, a vast and silent emptiness smoldering with heat and indecipherable significance, above which floated a small number of pure, hard-edged clouds.
For the first time, I felt I was getting close to the West of my deepest imaginings, the place where the tangible and the mythical became the same."In the military Abbey had applied for a clerk typist position but instead served two years as a military police officer in Italy. Abbey was promoted in the military twice but, due to his knack for opposing authority, was twice demoted and was honorably discharged as a private, his experience with the military left him with a distrust for large institutions and regulations which influenced his writing throughout his career, strengthened his anarchist beliefs. When he returned to the United States, Abbey took advantage of the G. I. Bill to attend the University of New Mexico, where he received a B. A. in philosophy and English in 1951, a master's degree in philosophy in 1956. During his time in college, Abbey supported himself by working at a variety of odd jobs, including being a newspaper reporter and bartending in Taos, New Mexico. During this time he had intimate relationships with a number of women.
Shortly before getting his bachelor's degree, Abbey married Jean Schmechal. While an undergraduate, Abbey was the editor of a student newspaper in which he published an article titled "Some Implications of Anarchy". A cover quotation (from Voltaire of the article, "ironically attributed to Louisa May Alcott", stated: "Man will never be free until the last king is strangled with the entrails of the last priest." University officials seized all of the copies of the issue and removed Abbey from the editorship of the paper. Upon receiving his honorable discharge papers, Abbey sent them back to the department with the words "Return to Sender"; the FBI took note and added a note to his file, opened in 1947 when Edward Abbey committed an act of civil disobedience. Abbey was on the FBI's watch-list since and was watched throughout his life. In 1952 Abbey wrote a letter against the draft in times of peace, again the FBI took notice writing, "Edward Abbey is against war and military." Throughout Abbey's life the FBI took notes building a profile on Abbey, observing his movements, interviewing many people who knew him.
Towards the part of his life Abbey learned of the FBI's interest in him and said, "I'd be insulted if they weren't watching me."After graduating and Abbey traveled together to Edinburgh, where Abbey spent a year at Edinburgh University as a Fulbright scholar. During this time and Schmechal separated and ended their marriage. In 1951, Abbey began an affair with Rita Deanin, who in 1952 would become his second wife after he and Schmechal divorced. Deanin and Abbey had Joshua N. Abbey and Aaron Paul Abbey. Abbey's master's thesis explored anarchism and the morality of violence, asking the two questions: "To what extent is the current association between anarchism and violence warranted?" and "In so far as the association is a valid one, what arguments have the anarchists presented, explicitly or implicitly, to justify the use of violence?" After receiving his master's degree, Abbey spent 1957 at Stanford University on a Wallace Stegner Creative Writing Fellowship. In 1956 and 1957, Abbey worked as a seasonal ranger for the United States National Park Service at Arches National Monument, near the town of Moab, Utah.
Abbey held the position from April to September each year, during which time he maintained trails, greeted visitors, collected campground fees. He lived in a house trailer, provided to him by the Park Service, as well as in a ramada that he built himself. During his stay at Arches, Abbey accumulated a large volume of notes and sketches which formed the basis of his first non-fiction work, Desert Solitaire. Abbey's second son Aaron was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In the 1960s Abbey worked as a seasonal park ranger at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, on the border of Arizona and Mexico. In 1961, the movie version of his second novel, The Brave Cowboy, with screenplay by Dalton Trumbo, was being shot on location in New Mexico by Kirk Douglas who had purchased the novel's screen rights and was producing and starring in the film, released in 1962 as Lonely Are the Brave. Douglas once said that when Abbey visited the film set, he looked and talked so much like Douglas' friend Gary Cooper that Douglas was disconcerted.
Nonetheless, over 25 years
Kathryn Schulz is an American journalist and author, the former book critic for New York magazine. She joined The New Yorker as a staff writer in 2015. Schulz won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing for her New Yorker article on a potential large earthquake in the Pacific Northwest. Kathryn Schulz was raised in Shaker Heights, Ohio. After graduating from Brown University in 1996, she moved to Portland and lived there for a little less than four years, her freelance writing has appeared in the New York Times Magazine, Rolling Stone, The Nation, Foreign Policy, The Boston Globe, among other publications. She wrote "The Wrong Stuff", a blog on Slate magazine, contributes to the Freakonomics blog at The New York Times. Schulz began her career as a journalist writing for Feed Magazine, an early online magazine published from 1995 to 2001. During the period from 2001 to 2006, she edited Grist an environmental magazine on the web. Before that she worked as a reporter and editor for The Santiago Times in Chile covering environmental and human rights issues.
Schulz was a 2004 recipient of the Pew Fellowship in International Journalism, has reported from throughout Central and South America and the Middle East. Kathryn Schulz became a staff writer at The New Yorker in 2015. Reviewing her book Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error, Dwight Garner wrote: "Ms. Schulz's book is a funny and philosophical meditation on why error is a humane and desirable human trait, she flies high in the intellectual skies, leaving beautiful sunlit contrails." Daniel Gilbert described her as "a warm and welcome presence who confides in her readers rather than lecturing them. It doesn't hurt that she combines lucid prose with perfect comic timing." Schulz, Kathryn. Being wrong: adventures in the margin of error. Ecco/HarperCollins. "Did Antidepressants Depress Japan?", The New York Times Magazine, August 22, 2004 "Being Left: Reflections on Love and Politics", The Nation, December 20, 2004 "Brave Neuro World", The Nation, January 9, 2006 "Billy Jean in Baghdad", The Huffington Post, November 16, 2009 "Life in Hell", Foreign Policy, January 12, 2010 "Thanks for Admitting the Blindingly Obvious", The New York Times, June 8, 2010 "The Bright Side of Wrong", The Boston Globe, June 13, 2010 "The United Mistakes of America", The New York Times, July 28, 2010 Schulz, Kathryn.
"Sight unseen: the hows and whys of invisibility". The Critics. A Critic at Large; the New Yorker. 91: 75–79. Retrieved 2015-06-22. —. "Outside in: Nell Zink turned her back on the publishing world. It found her anyway". Life and Letters; the New Yorker. 91: 38–45. Retrieved 2015-08-05. —. "The Really Big One". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2015-08-05. "Pond Scum", The New Yorker, October 19, 2015 "Dead Certainty: How'Making a Murderer' goes wrong", The New Yorker, January 25, 2016 "When Things Go Missing", The New Yorker, February 13, 2017 "Call and Response", The New Yorker, March 6, 2017 —. "Fantastic beasts and how to rank them: they may not exist, but they tell us a lot about the human mind". Dept. of Speculation. The New Yorker. 93: 24–28. Official Site The Wrong Stuff on Slate Kathryn Schultz speaks at TED 2011 Biography Being Wrong, at HarperCollins Kathryn Schulz author page, HarperCollins Dwight Garner, "To Err Is Human, and How! And Why", The New York Times, June 10, 2010 Daniel Gilbert, "The Errors of Our Ways", The New York Times, Sunday Book Review, July 23, 2010 "Kathryn Schulz On Learning To Love'Being Wrong'".
NPR. June 7, 2010 Stuart Jeffries, "Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz"; the Guardian, August 27, 2010
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
New York Post
The New York Post is a daily newspaper in New York City. The Post operates the celebrity gossip site PageSix.com, the entertainment site Decider.com, co-produces the television show Page Six TV. The modern version of the paper is published in tabloid format. Established in 1801 by Federalist and Founding Father Alexander Hamilton, it became a respected broadsheet in the 19th century, under the name New York Evening Post. In 1976, Rupert Murdoch bought the Post for US$30.5 million. Since 1993, the Post has been owned by News Corporation and its successor, News Corp, which had owned it from 1976 to 1988, its editorial offices are located at 1211 Avenue of the Americas. Its distribution ranked 5th in the US in 2018; the New York Post, established on November 16, 1801, as the New-York Evening Post, describes itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper. The Providence Journal, which began daily publication on July 21, 1829 bills itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper because the New York Post halted publication during strikes in 1958 and 1978.
The Hartford Courant, believed to be the oldest continuously published newspaper, was founded in 1764 as a semi-weekly paper. The New Hampshire Gazette, which has trademarked its claim of being The Nation's Oldest Newspaper, was founded in 1756 as a weekly. Since the 1890s it has been published only on weekends; the Post was founded by Alexander Hamilton with about US$10,000 from a group of investors in the autumn of 1801 as the New-York Evening Post, a broadsheet. Hamilton's co-investors included other New York members of the Federalist Party, such as Robert Troup and Oliver Wolcott, who were dismayed by the election of Thomas Jefferson as U. S. President and the rise in popularity of the Democratic-Republican Party; the meeting at which Hamilton first recruited investors for the new paper took place in the then-country weekend villa, now Gracie Mansion. Hamilton chose William Coleman as his first editor; the most famous 19th-century Evening Post editor was the poet and abolitionist William Cullen Bryant.
So well respected was the Evening Post under Bryant's editorship, it received praise from the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, in 1864. In the summer of 1829, Bryant invited William Leggett, the Locofoco Democrat, to write for the paper. There, in addition to literary and drama reviews, Leggett began to write political editorials. Leggett's classical liberal philosophy entailed a fierce opposition to central banking, a support for voluntary labor unions, a dedication to laissez-faire economics, he was a member of the Equal Rights Party. Leggett became a co-owner and editor at the Post in 1831 working as sole editor of the newspaper while Bryant traveled in Europe in 1834 through 1835. Another co-owner of the paper was John Bigelow. Born in Malden-on-Hudson, New York, John Bigelow, Sr. graduated in 1835 from Union College, where he was a member of the Sigma Phi Society and the Philomathean Society, was admitted to the bar in 1838. From 1849 to 1861, he was one of the co-owners of the Evening Post.
In 1881 Henry Villard took control of the Evening Post, as well as The Nation, which became the Post's weekly edition. With this acquisition, the paper was managed by the triumvirate of Carl Schurz, Horace White, Edwin L. Godkin; when Schurz left the paper in 1883, Godkin became editor-in-chief. White became editor-in-chief in 1899, remained in that role until his retirement in 1903. In 1897, both publications passed to the management of Villard's son, Oswald Garrison Villard, a founding member of both the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the American Civil Liberties Union. Villard sold the paper in 1918, after widespread allegations of pro-German sympathies during World War I hurt its circulation; the new owner was Thomas Lamont, a senior partner in the Wall Street firm of J. P. Morgan & Co.. Unable to stem the paper's financial losses, he sold it to a consortium of 34 financial and reform political leaders, headed by Edwin Francis Gay, dean of the Harvard Business School, whose members included Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Conservative Cyrus H. K. Curtis—publisher of the Ladies Home Journal—purchased the Evening Post in 1924 and turned it into a non-sensational tabloid in 1933. In 1934, J. David Stern purchased the paper, changed its name to the New York Post, restored its broadsheet size and liberal perspective. In 1939, Dorothy Schiff purchased the paper, her husband, George Backer, was named publisher. Her second editor Ted Thackrey became co-publisher and co-editor with Schiff in 1942. Together, they recast the newspaper into its current tabloid format. In 1948 The Bronx Home News merged with it. In 1949, James Wechsler became editor of the paper, running both the editorial pages. In 1961, he turned over the news section to Paul Sann and remained as editorial-page editor until 1980. Under Schiff's tenure the Post was devoted to liberalism, supporting trade unions and social welfare, featured some of the most-popular columnists of the time, such as Joseph Cookman, Drew Pearson, Eleanor Roosevelt, Max Lerner, Murray Kempton, Pete Hamill, Eric Sevareid, in addition to theatre critic Richard Watts, Jr. and gossip columnist Earl Wilson.
In November 1976, it was announced that Rupert Murdoch had bought the Post from Schiff with the intention she would remain as a consultant for five years. It emerged that Murdoch bought the newspaper for US$30.5 million. The Post at this point was the only surviving afternoon daily in New York City and its circulation under Schiff had grown by two-thirds after the failure of the competing World Journal Tribu
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
St. Xavier High School (Cincinnati)
Saint Xavier High School is a private, college-preparatory high school just outside the Cincinnati city limits, in the Finneytown neighborhood of Springfield Township, Hamilton County, United States. The independent, non-diocesan school is operated by the Midwest Province of the Society of Jesus as one of four all-male Catholic high schools in the Archdiocese of Cincinnati. Aside from colleges and universities, St. Xavier is the second-largest private school in Ohio and one of the 100 largest schools in the state, with 1,492 enrolled students as of the 2018–19 school year, it is the second-largest of the 35 all-male high schools run by the Society of Jesus in the United States. St. Xavier is one of the oldest in the nation, it grew out of the Athenaeum. From 1869 to 1934, the high school program formed the lower division of St. Xavier College, now Xavier University; the high school moved to its present location in 1960. The Bombers football team and Aquabombers swimming and diving team have a national profile, appearing at state championships and in national rankings.
Graduates of St. Xavier include numerous professional athletes, three Olympians, prominent state and national politicians, noted authors and actors. St. Xavier, once a part of Xavier University, traces its history to the Athenaeum at Seventh and Sycamore streets in Downtown Cincinnati; the institute, which included a seminary and lay college, was dedicated by the first bishop of Cincinnati, the Most Rev. Edward D. Fenwick, O. P. on October 17, 1831. It was the first Catholic institution of higher learning in the Northwest Territory. Just a week the city's first public high school, Woodward College, opened its doors; the Athenaeum stood until 1890, next door to The Catholic Telegraph's printing press. In 1840, at the behest of Bishop Fenwick, the Society of Jesus began operating the Athenaeum's lay college, which it renamed St. Xavier College, after St. Francis Xavier; the Congregation of the Mission took over the seminary in 1841, the college was granted a 30-year state charter in 1842. St. Xavier College offered six years of integrated primary and post-secondary education, in keeping with the Ratio Studiorum and the original Jesuit college in Messina, predecessor to the University of Messina.
Day schoolers came from all over the city, while boarders hailed from the Deep South and Cuba. School closed on Thursdays and Sundays until 1917; until 1851, admission was granted to students ages 8 to 16. A tuition-free elementary school division opened to complement the college. In 1844, the school's elementary division opened a boarding school campus in Walnut Hills but was forced to close its doors two years and return downtown. In the 1850s, falling enrollment, threat of bankruptcy, cholera brought about proposals to close the high school division. Jesuit schools had opened in the South; the situation was worsened by the local anti-Catholic and Know Nothing sentiment that culminated in the Cincinnati riot of 1853. Beginning the fall of 1854, St. Xavier stopped admitting boarders altogether, becoming a local institute, to reduce the financial burden on its students' families. On May 7, 1869, St. Xavier's charter was extended in perpetuity by an act of the General Assembly; that year, the school began distinguishing between academic and collegiate departments.
Three years of high school would be followed by one year each of the humanities, poetry and philosophy. At the close of the 19th century, St. Xavier's athletic teams competed in the Interscholastic Athletic Association of Cincinnati. In 1910, St. Xavier College transitioned to an American-style eight-year program; some students took typing classes at the St. Xavier Commercial School nearby. On October 1, 1906, another branch campus opened in Walnut Hills; this time, St. Xavier Branch High School or "St. Xavier on the Hill" served first- and second-year high school students. Tuition was $60 downtown and $80 at the suburban location. Classes were held in Walnut Hills until December 1911. In 1912, the Branch High School moved into the Avondale Athletic Club in North Avondale and became Xavier Academy. On September 10, 1919, Xavier Academy closed as the College of Arts and Sciences moved into its campus. However, science classes remained at the high school downtown, for the time being, as did the evening classes from the Schools of Law and Sociology.
In the late 1920s, St. Xavier High School began competing against Elder and Roger Bacon high schools in baseball and football. On October 6, 1931, the four schools founded the Greater Cincinnati League, known today as the Greater Catholic League. On August 4, 1930, the College became Xavier University, to reflect its transition to the American university model and garner more prestige ahead of its centennial the next year. St. Xavier High School formally split with Fr. Aloysius J. Diersen, S. J. serving as the High School's first president. Xavier's School of Education conducted practice teaching at St. Xavier. St. Xavier's senior classes studied under Xavier professors in Avondale from 1944 to 1946, to compensate for Xavier's loss of cadets from the Army Air Corps 30th College Training Detachment during World War II. St. Xavier began its move from the original location in downtown Cincinnati in April 1955 when its president, Fr. John J. Benson, S. J. purchased a 62-acre plot in Finneytown. In September 1960, St. Xavier High School moved into its n
National Geographic is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society. It has been published continuously since its first issue in 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded, it contains articles about science, geography and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest in the magazine has been held by The Walt Disney Company since 2019; the magazine is published monthly, additional map supplements are included with subscriptions. It is available through an interactive online edition. On occasion, special editions of the magazine are issued; as of 2015, the magazine was circulated worldwide in nearly 40 local-language editions and had a global circulation of 6.5 million per month according to data published by The Washington Post or 6.7 million according to National Geographic. This includes a US circulation of 3.5 million. The current Editor-in-Chief of the National Geographic Magazine is Susan Goldberg.
Goldberg is Editorial Director for National Geographic Partners, overseeing the print and digital expression of National Geographic’s editorial content across its media platforms. She is responsible for news, National Geographic Traveler magazine, National Geographic History magazine and all digital content with the exception of National Geographic Kids. Goldberg reports to CEO of National Geographic Partners; the first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published on September 22, 1888, nine months after the Society was founded. It was a scholarly journal sent to 165 charter members and nowadays it reaches the hands of 40 million people each month. Starting with its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures of Tibet in 1900–1901, the magazine changed from being a text-oriented publication closer to a scientific journal to featuring extensive pictorial content, became well known for this style; the June 1985 cover portrait of the presumed to be 12-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula, shot by photographer Steve McCurry, became one of the magazine's most recognizable images.
National Geographic Kids, the children's version of the magazine, was launched in 1975 under the name National Geographic World. From the 1970s through about 2010 the magazine was printed in Corinth, Mississippi, by private printers until that plant was closed. In the late 1990s, the magazine began publishing The Complete National Geographic, a digital compilation of all the past issues of the magazine, it was sued over copyright of the magazine as a collective work in Greenberg v. National Geographic and other cases, temporarily withdrew the availability of the compilation; the magazine prevailed in the dispute, in July 2009 it resumed publishing a compilation containing all issues through December 2008. The compilation was updated to make more recent issues available, the archive and digital edition of the magazine are available online to the magazine's subscribers. On September 9, 2015, the National Geographic Society announced a deal with 21st Century Fox that would move the magazine to a new partnership, National Geographic Partners, in which 21st Century Fox would hold a 73 percent controlling interest.
In December 2017, Disney announced that it would acquire 21st Century Fox, including the latter's interest in National Geographic Partners. The magazine had a single "editor" from 1888–1920. From 1920–1967, the chief editorship was held by the president of the National Geographic Society. Since 1967, the magazine has been overseen by its own "editor-in-chief"; the list of editors-in-chief includes three generations of the Grosvenor family between 1903 and 1980. John Hyde Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor John Oliver LaGorce Melville Bell Grosvenor Frederick Vosburgh Gilbert Melville Grosvenor Wilbur E. Garrett William Graves William L. Allen Chris Johns Susan Goldberg During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain; the magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup.
There were many articles in the 1930s, 40s and 50s about the individual states and their resources, along with supplement maps of each state. Many of these articles were written by longtime staff such as Frederick Simpich. There were articles about biology and science topics. In years, articles became outspoken on issues such as environmental issues, chemical pollution, global warming, endangered species. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, food crop, o