Rutgers Law School
Rutgers Law School is the law school of Rutgers University located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. It is the largest public law school in the United States by enrollment and the 10th largest overall, with each class in Rutgers Law's three-year J. D. program enrolling 300 students. Founded in 1908, Rutgers offers the J. D. and foreign lawyer J. D. Rutgers has over 20,000 alumni practicing in all 50 U. S. states. In 2015, Rutgers School of Law–Newark and Rutgers School of Law–Camden were unified into a single law school with two campuses. U. S. News & World Report, in its 2018 rankings of Best Graduate Schools, ranked Rutgers Law School 62nd among 197 law schools accredited by the American Bar Association. Above the Law ranked Rutgers 43rd on its 2017 list of top law schools According to Rutgers Law School's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 93.7% of the Class of 2016 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required or JD-advantage employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo practitioners. Rutgers Law School is the oldest law school in New Jersey.
Rutgers Law School has its in the roots in three law schools. The first was founded October 5, 1908 as the New Jersey Law School, the second, the South Jersey Law School founded in 1926 by Collingswood, New Jersey mayor and businessmen Arthur E. Armitage, Sr. and the final was Mercer Beasley School of Law named for a former New Jersey Supreme Court Justice and founded in 1926 by several prominent Newark attorneys. The New Jersey Law School was founded as a for-profit law school by Richard D. Currier, a New York lawyer and graduate of Yale and New York Law School. Currier was joined by Charles M. Mason, a New Jersey attorney, who served as dean until his death in 1928; the school had only three faculty members 30 students with classes on the 4th floor of the Prudential Insurance Home Office in Newark for their first classes. In December 1908, the school was moved to a large Victorian townhouse at 33 East Park Street in Newark. From its founding, women were to be admitted on "equal basis to men."
After World War I, the New Jersey Law School saw increase in enrollment and by 1927, enrollment had peaked to more than 2,300 students, making it the second largest law school in the United States. In 1927 the school moved to the former Sons Ale Brewery at 40 Rector Street. In 1934, Mercer Beasley School of Law and Newark Institute of Arts and Sciences merged to form the University of Newark and two years the New Jersey Law School joined establishing the University of Newark Law School. Combining the resources of the schools was designed created a stronger institution however the law school experienced a major decline in enrollment due to World War II and therefore was in a precarious financial condition. In 1946, the University of Newark merged with Rutgers University and the law school was renamed the Rutgers University School of Law. In 1950, the South Jersey Law School in Camden, New Jersey, merged with Rutgers University; the school was divided between the Newark Division and the South Jersey division based in Camden, with the dean and law school administration based in Newark.
During the 1950s and 1960s the law school expanded in size creating the largest law library in New Jersey and its faculty tripled in size. In 1963, the now U. S. Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, was hired as a law professor and served on the faculty until 1972. Ginsburg developed some of the concepts that led to the founding of the Women's Rights Litigation Clinic by Professor Nadine H. Taub, its director for many years, the Women's Rights Law Reporter the first American legal journal dedicated women's rights. In 1967, the South Jersey Division was split and created as a separate unit, creating two law schools: Rutgers School of Law – Camden and Rutgers School of Law – Newark. In 1968, following the Newark riots of 1967, the faculty created the Minority Students Program one of the first law school affirmative action programs in the country, with the goal of increasing African American student enrollment. In 1978, the law faculty voted to admit students regardless of race and revamped the Minority Students Program to focus on socio-economically disadvantaged students in response to the Supreme Court's decision in Bakke.
In Doherty V. Rutgers School Of Law-Newark the 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the MSP in a lawsuit from a white student alleging discrimination. Throughout the 1970s the Newark campus was a center of activism and law students nicknamed it "The Peoples'Electric Law School." Its graduates from this period include United States Senators Elizabeth Robert Menendez. After eliminating its evening program in 1955, in 1975, the law school restarted an evening program on Camden and Newark campus. From 1965 to 1978 the Newark division of the law school was located on Akerson Hall. In 1978, it moved to a skyscraper at 15 Washington Street, renamed in honor of billionaire media baron Samuel I. Newhouse, a 1916 graduate of the law school. In January 2000, the school moved to the Center for Law and Justice, a newly constructed 225,000-square-foot, six-story building at 123 Washington Street in Newark. In 2015, Rutgers School of Law–Newark and Rutgers School of Law–Camden were unified into a single, jointly administered Rutgers Law School with two campuses.
In 2017, Rutgers had a 48 % acceptance rate, with 2,079 applications for 1,001 offers. The for the 2017 admitted students, the LSAT 75% - 25% was 157-151 and the UGPA 75% - 25% was 3.61 - 3.11. Rutgers' admissions process offers applicants a choice between competing for admission based on traditional measures such as LSAT scores and college GPAs, or, alternatively, on the basis of an applicant's life experience, with a lesser emphasis placed on traditional factor
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Master of Public Administration
The Master of Public Administration is a professional graduate degree in public administration, similar to the Master of Business Administration but with an emphasis on the issues of governance. The MPA program is a professional degree and a graduate degree for the public sector and it prepares individuals to serve as managers and policy analysts in the executive arm of local, state/provincial, federal/national government, in non-governmental organization and nonprofit sectors. Instruction includes the roles and principles of public administration. Through its history, the MPA degree has become more interdisciplinary by drawing from fields such as economics, law, political science, regional planning in order to equip MPA graduates with skills and knowledge covering a broad range of topics and disciplines relevant to the public sector. A core curriculum of a typical MPA program includes courses on microeconomics, public finance, research methods, policy analysis, managerial accounting, public management, geographic information systems, program evaluation.
MPA students may focus their studies on public sector fields such as urban planning, emergency management, health care, economic development, community development, non-profit management, environmental policy, cultural policy, criminal justice. MPA graduates serve in some important positions within the public sector including Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Hsien Loong, former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon, former CIA Director David Petraeus, former president of Liberia Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, former president of Mexico Felipe Calderón, Foreign Minister of Serbia Vuk Jeremić, Chairman of the World Toilet Organization Jack Sim, former New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly, former Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius, former Treasurer of Australia Wayne Swan. Other notable MPA graduates include pilot Chesley Sullenberger. A Master of Public Administration can be acquired at various institutions. See List of schools offering MPA degrees. Master of Public Affairs Master of Public Policy Master of Nonprofit Organizations Public policy schools Master of Business Administration Doctor of Public Administration Network of Schools of Public Policy and Administration - Accrediting body for MPA and MPP programs in the U.
S. Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management American Society for Public Administration - Professional society for public administration practitioners and educator]
New Jersey's 1st congressional district
New Jersey's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of New Jersey. NJ-01 is one of the most reliably Democratic districts in New Jersey, as it is made up of Democratic-dominated Camden County, New Jersey. Since November 12, 2014, the 1st congressional district has been represented by Donald Norcross. For the 113th and successive Congresses, the district contains all or portions of three counties and 52 municipalities: Burlington County Maple Shade Township, PalmyraCamden County Audubon, Audubon Park, Bellmawr, Berlin Township, Camden, Cherry Hill Township, Clementon, Gibbsboro, Gloucester City, Gloucester Township, Haddon Heights, Haddon Township, Haddonfield, Hi-Nella, Laurel Springs, Lindenwold, Merchantville, Mount Ephraim, Pennsauken Township, Pine Hill, Pine Valley, Somerdale, Tavistock, Voorhees Township, Winslow Township, WoodlynneGloucester County Deptford Township, East Greenwich Township, Greenwich Township, Logan Township, Monroe Township, National Park, Washington Township, West Deptford Township, Woodbury Heights, Woodbury From 1813 to 1815, two seats were apportioned, elected at-large on a general ticket.
This district was organized from New Jersey's At-large congressional district. District organized to New Jersey's At-large congressional district in 1815 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
New Jersey Legislature
The New Jersey Legislature is the legislative branch of the government of the U. S. state of New Jersey. In its current form, as defined by the New Jersey Constitution of 1947, the Legislature consists of two houses: the General Assembly and the Senate; the Legislature meets in the state capital of Trenton. Democrats hold super majorities in both chambers of the legislature; the New Jersey Legislature was established in 1702 upon the surrender by the Proprietors of East Jersey and those of West Jersey of the right of government to Queen Anne. Anne's government united the two colonies as the Province of New Jersey, a royal colony, establishing a new system of government; the instructions from Queen Anne to Viscount Cornbury, the first royal governor of New Jersey, outlined a fusion of powers system, which allowed for an overlap of executive and judicial authority. It provided for a bicameral legislature consisting of an appointed Council and an elected General Assembly; the Provincial Council consisted of twelve members, appointed by and serving at the pleasure of the British crown.
With the exception of resignations and those being removed for cause, councillors served for life. The former provinces of East and West Jersey were reorganized as the Eastern Division and the Western Division of the Province of New Jersey. Councillors were apportioned. In practice, this was not always followed; the Assembly consisted of 24 members with two each elected in the Cities of Burlington and Perth Amboy, ten at-large from each of the two divisions. As this system proved unwieldy for holding elections, in 1709 the Assembly was reapportioned; the number of members remained with a total of twelve from each division. In his instructions to Governor William Burnet, King George I recommended the reapportionment of Salem's seats to the formed Hunterdon County. Membership continued at 24 until 1768, when it was expanded to 30 by the addition of two representatives each from Morris and Sussex Counties; this apportionment remained until superseded by the Constitution of 1776. The Governor had the authority to summon the Legislature, to dissolve the Assembly and call new elections.
On December 6, 1775, Governor William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution. In 1775, representatives from New Jersey's 13 counties established a Provincial Congress to supersede the Royal Governor. In June 1776, this congress had authorized the preparation of a constitution, written within five days, adopted by the Provincial Congress, accepted by the Continental Congress; the Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature consisting of a General Assembly with three members from each county and a legislative council with one member from each county. All state officials, including the governor, were to be appointed by the Legislature under this constitution; the Vice-President of Council would succeed the governor.
Accordingly, the first session of the legislature convened on August 27, 1776. Legislative politics was defined in the following years by an intense rivalry between the Federalists, the Whigs, the Democratic Party; the New Jersey Constitution of 1844 provided for a direct popular election of the governor, gave him the power to veto bills passed by the legislature. The General Assembly was expanded to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the counties based on population; the Legislative Council was renamed the Senate, was to be composed of one member from each of the state's 19 counties, serving a three-year term. During the Civil War, party allegiance became entrenched. Democrats won both houses until the Republicans gained control in 1893. A court ruling obtained by the Republicans provided that members of the General Assembly were to be elected from the counties at-large, rather than from election districts of unequal population. Regardless of any changes, the legislature met infrequently, had high turnover among its members, was far from being the most influential or powerful organ of state government.
New Jersey adopted its current constitution in 1947. Under this constitution, the governor was given additional veto powers and the ability to serve two terms. Hundreds of independent agencies were consolidated into 20 principal executive departments under the control of the governor. Senators' terms were extended to four years. In 1966, the Senate was expanded from 21 to 40 members and the General Assembly from 60 to 80. Following a United States Supreme Court decision in 1964 and a New Jersey Supreme Court decision in 1972, the state's legislative districts were reapportioned into the current arrangement. Two more modern developments have helped shape the Legislature: the increase in importance of legislative committees and the development of longer tenures for the legislative leadership; the Legislature has the power to enact laws by a majority vote of both houses, subject to the Governor
New Jersey Senate
The New Jersey Senate was established as the upper house of the New Jersey Legislature by the Constitution of 1844, replacing the Legislative Council. There are 40 legislative districts, representing districts with average populations of 210,359; each district has one senator and two members of the New Jersey General Assembly, the lower house of the legislature. Prior to the election in which they are chosen, senators must be a minimum of 30 years old and a resident of the state for four years to be eligible to serve in office. From 1844 until 1965, each county was an electoral district, with each county electing one senator. Under the 1844 Constitution the term of office was three years; the 1947 Constitution changed the term to four years. Since 1968 it has consisted of 40 senators. Senators serve a two-year term at the beginning of each decade, with the rest of the decade divided into two four-year terms; the "2-4-4" cycle was put into place so that Senate elections can reflect the changes made to the district boundaries on the basis of the decennial United States Census.
If the cycle were not put into place the boundaries would sometimes be four years out of date before being used for Senate elections. Rather, with the varied term, the boundaries are only two years out of date, thus elections for Senate seats take place in years ending with a "1", "3" or "7". Interim appointments are made to fill vacant legislative seats by the county committee or committees of the party of the vacating person; the office is on the ballot for the next general election, unless the vacancy occurred within 51 days of the election. The appointment stands until the following general election. Senatorial courtesy is a senate tradition that allows home county legislators to intercede to prevent consideration of a local resident nominated by the Governor for a position that requires Senate confirmation. Any of the senators from the nominee's home county can invoke senatorial courtesy to block a nomination, temporarily or permanently, without any obligation to justify the basis of their actions.
Governor Corzine nominated Stuart Rabner on June 4, 2007, to be the next Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, replacing James R. Zazzali, nearing mandatory retirement age. Shortly after the nomination, two members of the Senate from Essex County, where Rabner resides, blocked consideration of his confirmation by invoking senatorial courtesy. State Senator Ronald Rice had blocked the nomination, but relented on June 15, 2007, after a meeting with the governor. Nia Gill dropped her block on June 19, 2007, but did not explain the nature of her concerns, though anonymous lawmakers cited in The New York Times indicated that the objection was due to Rabner's race and Governor Corzine's failure to consider a minority candidate for the post. In June 2007, Loretta Weinberg used senatorial courtesy privileges to hold up consideration of a new term in office for Bergen County Prosecutor John Molinelli; until 2010, in the event of a gubernatorial vacancy, the New Jersey Constitution had specified that the President of the Senate would assume the role of Acting Governor and retain their role in the Senate.
An Acting Governor would assume the governorship while retaining the reins of power in their house of the legislature. The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey took office for the first time on January 19, 2010, following conjoint election with the Governor of New Jersey; the position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, 2005. While the amendment itself took effect as of January 17, 2006, made some interim changes to the succession to the governorship, the first lieutenant governor was not elected until November 3, 2009. District 1: Bob Andrzejczak District 2: Chris A. Brown District 3: Stephen M. Sweeney District 4: Fred H. Madden District 5: Nilsa Cruz-Perez District 6: James Beach District 7: Troy Singleton District 8: Dawn Marie Addiego District 9: Christopher J. Connors District 10: James W. Holzapfel District 11: Vin Gopal District 12: Samuel D. Thompson District 13: Declan O'Scanlon District 14: Linda R. Greenstein District 15: Shirley Turner District 16: Christopher Bateman District 17: Bob Smith District 18: Patrick J. Diegnan District 19: Joseph Vitale District 20: Joseph Cryan District 21: Thomas Kean, Jr. District 22: Nicholas Scutari District 23: Michael J. Doherty District 24: Steve Oroho District 25: Anthony Bucco District 26: Joseph Pennacchio District 27: Richard Codey District 28: Ronald Rice District 29: Teresa Ruiz District 30: Robert Singer District 31: Sandra Bolden Cunningham District 32: Nicholas Sacco District 33: Brian P. Stack District 34: Nia Gill District 35: Nellie Pou District 36: Paul Sarlo District 37: Loretta Weinberg District 38: Joseph Lagana District 39: Gerald Cardinale District 40: Kristin Corrado Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Budget and Appropriations - Paul Sarlo Commerce - Nellie Pou Community and Urban Affairs - Jeff Van Drew Economic Growth - Nilsa Cruz-Perez Education - Teresa Ruiz Environment and Energy - Bob Smith Health, Human Services and Senior Citizens - Joseph Vitale Higher Education - Sandra Bolden Cunningh