St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center is a non-profit, tertiary 958-bed hospital and multi-specialty academic health science center located in the Beverly Grove neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Part of the Cedars-Sinai Health System, the hospital employs a staff of over 2,000 physicians and 10,000 employees. A team of 2,000 volunteers and more than 40 community groups support. Cedars-Sinai focuses on biomedical research and technologically advanced medical education—based on an interdisciplinary collaboration between physicians and clinical researchers; the facility has research centers covering cardiovascular, gene therapy, neuroscience, surgery, organ transplantation, stem cells, biomedical imaging and cancer—with more than 800 research projects underway. Certified as a level I trauma center for adults and pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai trauma-related services range from prevention to rehabilitation and are provided in concert with the hospital's Department of Surgery. Cedars-Sinai is affiliated with the California Heart Center, University of Southern California and David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles.
As of 2017, U. S. News & World Report ranked Cedars-Sinai #4 in the western United States, with number one being the UCSF Medical Center. Cedars-Sinai earned national rankings in 12 adult specialties including #5 for gastroenterology, #9 in cardiology and heart surgery, #9 in orthopedics, #10 in urology, #12 in gynecology, #14 in diabetes and endocrinology, #14 in neurology and neurosurgery. Located in the Harvey Morse Auditorium, Cedars-Sinai's patient care is depicted in the Jewish Contributions to Medicine mural; the heart transplantation program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center has experienced unprecedented growth since 2010. Statistically, Cedars-Sinai performs more annual heart transplants than any other medical center in the world, having performed 95 heart transplants in 2012 and 87 in 2011. Founded and financed by businessman Kaspare Cohn, Cedars-Sinai was established as the Kaspare Cohn Hospital in 1902. At the time, Cohn donated a two-story Victorian home at 1441 Carroll Avenue in the Angeleno Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles to the Hebrew Benevolent Society to create the hospital as a memorial to his brother Samuel.
The hospital had just 12 beds when it opened on September 21, 1902, its services were free. From 1906 to 1910, Dr. Sarah Vasen, the first female doctor in Los Angeles, acted as superintendent. In 1910, the hospital relocated and expanded to Stephenson Avenue, where it had 50 beds and a backhouse containing a 10-cot tubercular ward, it transformed from a charity-based hospital to a general hospital and began to charge patients. The hospital relocated again in 1930 to 4833 Fountain Avenue, where it was renamed Cedars of Lebanon after the religiously significant Lebanon Cedars, which were used to build King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in the Bible. Cedars of Lebanon could accommodate 279 patients. In 1918, the Bikur Cholim Society opened a second Jewish hospital, the Bikur Cholim Hospice, when the Great Influenza Pandemic hit America. In 1921, the hospice relocated to an eight-bed facility in Boyle Heights and was renamed Bikur Cholim Hospital. In 1923 the Bikur Cholim Hospital became Mount Sinai Home for the Incurables.
On November 7, 1926, a newly named Mount Sinai Hospital moved to a 50-bed facility on Bonnie Beach Place. In 1950, Emma and Hyman Levine donated their property adjacent to Beverly Hills, by 1955 the construction completed and Mount Sinai Hospital opened at 8700 Beverly Boulevard. Cedars of Lebanon and Mount Sinai Hospitals merged in 1961 to form Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Donations from the Max Factor Family Foundation allowed the construction of the current main hospital building, which broke ground on November 5, 1972, opened on April 3, 1976. In 1994, the Cedars-Sinai Health System was established, comprising the Cedars-Sinai Medical Care Foundation, the Burns and Allen Research Institute and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; the Burns and Allen Research Institute, named for George Burns and his wife, Gracie Allen, is located inside the Barbara and Marvin Davis Research Building. Opened in 1996, it houses biomedical research aimed at discovering genetic and immunological factors that trigger disease.
In 1994, the original building was demolished. In 2006, Cedars-Sinai added the Saperstein Critical Care Tower with 150 ICU beds. In 2008, Cedars-Sinai served 54,947 inpatients and 350,405 outpatients, there were 77,964 visits to the emergency room. Cedars-Sinai received high rankings in 11 of the 16 specialties, ranking in the top 10 for digestive disorders and in the top 25 for five other specialties as listed below. In 2013, Cedars-Sinai opened its 800,000-square-foot Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion, which consists of eight stories of program space located over a six-story parking structure, on the eastern edge of its campus at the corner of San Vicente Boulevard and Gracie Allen Drive. Designed by architectural firm HOK, the Pavilion brings patient care and translational research together in one site; the Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion houses the Cedars-Sinai's neurosciences programs, the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute and Regenerative Medicine Institute laboratories, as well as outpatient surgery suites, an imaging area and an education center.
In 2018, famous Marvel-creator Stan Lee dies at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the nationwide U. S. News Best Hospitals 2013–14 report: Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the 2009 Los Angeles area residents' "Most Preferred Hospital for All Health Needs" ranking: In 2013, Cedars-Sinai Hospital was ranked
Doctor of Medicine
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States and other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who hold a professional degree in medicine. In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine. University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century.
The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB. Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Harvard, McGill; these first few North American medical schools that were established were founded by physicians and surgeons, trained in England and Scotland. A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. A doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction. In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country.
Entry to medical school is competitive, only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum, during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they begin to practice, they may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency; the MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine".
After the civil wars, medical education has changed, the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor". In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation. Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's degrees which permits the use of the term'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have renamed their previous medical research doctorates; the University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science. In French-speaking Belgium, the medical degree awarded after six years of study is "Docteur en Médecine". Physicians would have to register with the Ordre des Medicins to practice medicine in the country. At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine.
After 6 years of general medical education, all students will graduate with
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Johns Hopkins Hospital
The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U. S, it was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest of over $7 million by city merchant, banker/financier, civic leader and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. Johns Hopkins Hospital and its school of medicine are considered to be the founding institutions of modern American medicine and the birthplace of numerous famous medical traditions including rounds and house staff. Many medical specialties were formed by Dr. Harvey Cushing. Johns Hopkins Hospital is regarded as one of the world's greatest hospitals and medical institutions, it was ranked by U. S. News & World Report news magazine as the best overall hospital in America for 21 consecutive years. In 2017-2018, the hospital ranked in 15 adult and 10 children's specialties, coming in 1st in Maryland and 3rd nationally behind the Mayo Clinic in Rochester and the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio.
Johns Hopkins, a Baltimore merchant and banker, left an estate of $7 million when he died on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1873, in his city mansion on West Saratoga Street, just west of North Charles Street, at the age of 78. In his will, he asked that his fortune be used to found two institutions that would bear his name: "Johns Hopkins University" and "The Johns Hopkins Hospital." At the time that it was made, Hopkins's gift was the largest philanthropic bequest in the history of the United States. Toward the end of his life, Hopkins selected 12 prominent Baltimoreans to be the trustees for the project and a year before his death, sent a letter telling them that he was giving "thirteen acres of land, situated in the city of Baltimore, bounded by Broadway, Wolfe and Jefferson streets upon which I desire you to erect a hospital." He wished for a hospital "which shall, in construction and arrangement, compare favorably with any other institution of like character in this country or in Europe" and directed his trustees to "secure for the service of the Hospital and surgeons of the highest character and greatest skill."Most Hopkins told the trustees to "bear in mind that it is my wish and purpose that the hospital shall form a part of the Medical School of that university for which I have made ample provision in my will."
By calling for this integral relationship between patient care, as embodied in the hospital, teaching and research, as embodied in the university, Hopkins laid the groundwork for a revolution in American medicine. Johns Hopkins' vision, of two institutions in which the practice of medicine would be wedded to medical research and medical education was nothing short of revolutionary. Initial plans for the hospital were drafted by surgeon John Shaw Billings, the architecture designed by John Rudolph Niernsee and completed by Edward Clarke Cabot of the Boston firm of Cabot and Chandler in a Queen Anne style; when completed in 1889 at a cost of $2,050,000, the hospital included what was state-of-the art concepts in heating and ventilation to check the spread of disease. The trustees obtained the services of four outstanding physicians, known as the "Big Four," to serve as the founding staff of the hospital when it opened on May 7, 1889, they were pathologist William Henry Welch, surgeon William Stewart Halsted, internist William Osler, gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly.
In 1893, Johns Hopkins University was one of the first medical schools to admit women. The decision to begin coeducation was a result of a shortage of funds, as the B&O Railroad stock, supposed to cover cost was used up in building the hospital in 1889 and the medical school had not yet been built. Four of the original trustees’ daughters offered to raise the money needed to open the school, but only if the school agreed to admit qualified women to the university. After several discussions the trustees agreed to their terms and accepted the financial help of these four women, with only one of the doctors, William Henry Welch resisting. Welch changed his views on coeducation, "The necessity for coeducation in some form," he wrote "becomes more evident the higher the character of the education. In no form of education is this more evident than in that of medicine... we regard coeducation a success. He introduced the idea of bringing medical students into actual patient care early in their training.
Osler's contribution to practical education extends to the creation of "grand rounds", the practice of leading physicians discussing the most difficult cases in front of assembled medical students, for the benefit of patients and students. He once said he hoped his tombstone would say only, "He brought medical students into the wards for bedside teaching."Halsted, the first chief of the Department of Surgery, established many other medical and surgical achievements at Johns Hopkins including modern surgical principles of control of bleeding, accurate anatomical dissection, complete sterility, the first radical mastectomy for breast cancer (before