Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done for locomotion and competition, in trades that rely on it, in emergency rescue and military operations, it is done indoors and out, on man-made structures. Guides, such as professional mountain guides, have been an essential element of pursuing the sport in the natural environment, remain so today. Climbing activities include: Bouldering: Ascending boulders or small outcrops with climbing shoes and a chalk bag or bucket. Instead of using a safety rope from above, injury is avoided using a crash pad and a human spotter Buildering: Ascending the exterior skeletons of buildings without protective equipment. Canyoneering: Climbing along canyons for sport or recreation. Chalk climbing: Ascending chalk cliffs uses some of the same techniques as ice climbing. Competition climbing: A formal, competitive sport of recent origins practiced on artificial walls that resemble natural formations.
The International Federation of Sport Climbing is the official organization governing competition rock climbing worldwide and is recognized by the IOC and GAISF and is a member of the International World Games Association. The UIAA is the official organization governing competition ice climbing worldwide. Competition climbing has three major disciplines: Lead and Speed. Free Climbing: a form of rock climbing in which the climber uses climbing equipment such as ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls and not to assist progress. Ice climbing: Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special equipment ice axes and crampons. Techniques of protecting the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective devices adapted to frozen conditions. Indoor climbing: Top roping, lead climbing, bouldering artificial walls with bolted holds in a climbing gym. Ladder climbing: Climbing ladders for exercise; this may involve climbing up and down the underside of a ladder, or along a horizontally aligned ladder or'monkey bars'.
The ladder may be climbed going backwards, or sideways. Lumberjack tree-trimming and competitive tree-trunk or pole climbing for speed using spikes and belts. Mallakhamba: A traditional Indian sport which combines climbing a pole or rope with the performance of aerial Yoga and gymnastics. Mountaineering: Ascending mountains for sport or recreation, it involves rock and/or ice climbing. Pole climbing: Climbing poles and masts without equipment. Rock climbing: Ascending rock formations using climbing shoes and a chalk bag. Equipment such as ropes, nuts and camming devices are employed, either as a safeguard or for artificial aid. Rope access: Industrial climbing abseiling, as an alternative to scaffolding for short works on exposed structures. Rope climbing: Climbing a short, thick rope for speed. Not to be confused with roped climbing, as in rock or ice climbing. Scrambling which includes easy rock climbing, is considered part of hillwalking. Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, bolts, for protection.
Top roping: Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below Traditional climbing is a form of climbing without fixed anchors and bolts. Climbers place removable protection such as camming devices and other passive and active protection that holds the rope to the rock in the event of a fall and/or when weighted by a climber. Solo climbing: Solo climbing or soloing is a style of climbing in which the climber climbs alone, without somebody belaying them; when free soloing, an error is fatal as no belay systems are being used. Soloing can be self-belayed, hence minimizing the risks. Tree climbing: Recreationally ascending trees using ropes and other protective equipment. A tower climber is a professional who climbs broadcasting or telecommunication towers or masts for maintenance or repair. Rock and tree climbing all utilize ropes for safety or aid. Pole climbing and rope climbing were among the first exercises to be included in the origins of modern gymnastics in the late 18th century and early 19th century.
Aid climbing Clean climbing Climbing clubs Climbing wall Climbing equipment Climbing organisations Fall factor List of climbers – notable rock and ice climbers List of climbing topics Glossary of climbing terms Glossary of knots common in climbing Outdoor education Outdoor activity Rock climbing Running belay Parkour Scrambling Solo climbing Speed climbing Climbing at Curlie
Conrad Anker is an American rock climber and author. He is the team leader of The North Face climbing team. In 1999, he located George Mallory's body on Everest as a member of a search team looking for the remains of the British climber, he lives in Montana. 2010 - David A Brower Award - American Alpine Club 2016 - Golden Pitons: Lifetime Achievement - Climbing Magazine 2017 - University of Utah Honorary Degree Recipient 2018 - Jack Roberts Lifetime Achievements Award - Cody, WY Ice Festival 1987 Southeast Face Gurney Peak, Kichatna Mountains, Alaska Range, United States. First Ascent with Seth'S. T.' Shaw, Robert Ingle and James Garrett. 1989 Northwest Face Mount Hunter, Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. FA with Seth'S. T.' Shaw, summit attained July 3, 1989. 1990 Rodeo Queen, Streaked Wall, Zion National Park, Utah, USA. FA with Mugs Stump. 1992 East Buttress, Middle Triple Peak, Kichatna Spires, Alaska, USA, 2nd ascent with Seth Shaw. 1992 Shunes Buttress, Red Arch Mountain, Zion National Park. FFA with Dave Jones.
1994 Badlands, Southeast Face, Torre Egger, Patagonia. Conrad Anker, Jay Smith and Steve Gerberding, FA 12 December 1994. 1997 The Northwest Face, Peak Loretan, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica Jan 15-16, 1997. 1997 Rakekniven Peak, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, FA with Jon Krakauer. Featured in the cover article of the February 1998 National Geographic Magazine. 1997 Tsering Mosong, Latok II, Karakorum, FA with Thomas Huber and Toni Gutsch. 1997 Continental Drift, El Capitan, Yosemite, CA, USA. FA with Steve Gerberding and Kevin Thaw. 1999 Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, Mount Everest, Nepal / Tibet. 1999 Shishapangma American Ski Expedition, Tibet. Survived a massive avalanche which killed climbing partner Alex Lowe and cameraman David Bridges. 2001 East Face of Antarctica. FA with Jon Krakauer. Featured on PBS series NOVA in February 2003. 2005 Southwest Ridge, Khumbu region, Nepal - summit attained with Kevin Thaw, John Griber, Kris Erickson and Abby Watkins on May 12, 2005. 2007 Leads Altitude Everest Expedition 2007, joined by Leo Houlding, Jimmy Chin and Kevin Thaw, retracing Mallory's last steps on Everest.
2nd summit. First documented free climb of the Second Step. 2011 Shark's Fin, Meru Peak, FA with Renan Ozturk. 2012 Leads "Everest Education Expedition" with National Geographic, The North Face, Montana State University and Mayo Clinic - 3rd summit, this time without oxygen. With Cory Richards, Sam Elias, Kris Erickson, Emily Harrington, Philip Henderson, Mark Jenkins, David Lageson Ph. D, Hilaree O'Neill. Mayo Team - Dr. Bruce Johnson, Landon Bassett, Derek Campbell, Amine Issa. Base Camp Support Andy Bardon, Travis Courthouts, Anjin Herndon, Max Lowe. Anker has climbed notable routes in Yosemite Valley, Zion National Park, Baffin Island, the Ellsworth Mountains in Antarctica. Anker, Conrad. "Gumbies on Gurney". American Alpine Journal. NYC, NY, USA: American Alpine Club. 30: 69–75. ISBN 0-930410-33-5. Anker, Conrad. "Hunter's Northwest Face". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. 42: 36–38. ISBN 0-930410-43-2. Anker, Conrad. "With You in Spirit". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. 40: 140–145.
ISBN 0-930410-78-5. Anker, Conrad; the Lost Explorer: Finding Mallory on Mt. Everest. New York, NY, USA: Simon and Schuster / Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-87151-3. Shackleton's Antarctic Adventure Light of the Himalaya. At the heart of the planet's most formidable mountain range live people who suffer from the highest rates of cataract blindness on the planet; the North Face athletes join eye surgeons from America in hopes of making a difference. The film follows the doctors' work on the Himalayan Cataract Project all the way to the summit of a 21,000-foot Himalayan giant; the Endless Knot. Directed by Michael Brown and produced by David D'Angelo, an HDTV documentary film with Rush HD and The North Face. In October 1999, Alex Lowe and Conrad Anker were buried by an avalanche in the Tibetan Himalaya. Anker survived the avalanche, but was overcome with survivor's guilt. In the months following the tragedy, he worked to comfort Lowe's widow, they unexpectedly found love; the Wildest Dream, IMAX, directed by Anthony Geffen, Altitude Films, US distribution, National Geographic Entertainment releasing.
Meru, a 2015 documentary film about climbing the Shark's fin route National Parks Adventure, a short IMAX film/documentary by MacGillivray Freeman about the National Park Service. Lunag Ri, a documentary film by Joachim Hellinger about the attempted ascend of the Lunag Ri by Conrad Anker and David Lama List of Mount Everest summiters by number of times to the summit Timex Expedition WS4 Conrad Anker's "return to the outdoors" blog Conrad Anker's website Conrad Anker on the North Face website Conrad Anker, Leader of the 2012 Everest Education Expedition Conrad Anker on Altitude Everest Expedition 2007 The Wildest Dream / Official Website The Endless Knot / Official Website Light of the Himalaya / Official Website Dave Reuss, "Gallatin to the Ganges", Outside Bozeman magazine BBC Radio 4: Desert Island Discs / Conrad Anker Conrad Anker on IMDb
Jon Krakauer is an American writer and mountaineer. He is the author of best-selling non-fiction books—Into the Wild, he was a member of an ill-fated expedition to summit Mount Everest in 1996, one of the deadliest disasters in the history of climbing Everest. Krakauer was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, as the third of five children of Carol Ann and Lewis Joseph Krakauer, his father was Jewish and his mother was a Unitarian, of Scandinavian descent. He was raised in Corvallis, from the age of two, his father introduced the young Krakauer to mountaineering at the age of eight. He competed in tennis at Corvallis High School, graduated in 1972, he went on to study at Hampshire College in Massachusetts, where in 1976 he received his degree in Environmental Studies. In 1977, he met former climber Linda Mariam Moore, they married in 1980, they lived in Seattle, but moved to Boulder, after the release of Krakauer's book Into Thin Air. After graduating from college, Krakauer spent three weeks alone in the wilderness of the Stikine Icecap region of Alaska and climbed a new route on the Devils Thumb, an experience he described in Eiger Dreams and in Into the Wild.
In 1992, he made his way to Cerro Torre in the Andes of Patagonia—a sheer granite peak considered to be one of the most difficult technical climbs in the world. In 1996, Krakauer took part in a guided ascent of Mount Everest, his group was one of those caught in the 1996 Mount Everest disaster, in which a violent storm trapped a number of climbers high on the slopes of the mountain. Krakauer reached the peak and returned to camp, but four of his teammates died while making their descent in the storm. A candid recollection of the event was published in Outside magazine and in the book Into Thin Air. By the end of the 1996 climbing season, fifteen people had died on the mountain, making it the deadliest single year in Everest history to that point; this has been exceeded by the sixteen deaths in the 2014 Mount Everest avalanche, the 2015 earthquake avalanche disaster in which nineteen people were killed. Krakauer publicly criticized the commercialization of Mount Everest following this tragedy.
Much of Krakauer's popularity as a writer came from his work as a journalist for Outside. In November 1983, he was able to give up his part-time work as a fisherman and carpenter to become a full-time writer. In addition to his work on mountain climbing, the topics he covered as a freelance writer varied greatly. Krakauer's 1992 book Eiger Dreams collects some of his articles written between 1982 and 1989. On assignment for Outside, Krakauer wrote an article focusing on two parties during his ascent of Mt. Everest: the one he was in, led by Rob Hall, the one led by Scott Fischer, both of whom guided clients to the summit but experienced severe difficulty during the descent; the storm, and, in his estimation, irresponsible choices by guides of both parties, led to a number of deaths, including both head guides. Krakauer felt the short account did not cover the event, clarified his initial statements—especially those regarding the death of Andy Harris—in Into Thin Air, which includes extensive interviews with fellow survivors.
Eiger Dreams: Ventures Among Men and Mountains is a non-fiction collection of articles and essays by Jon Krakauer on mountaineering and rock climbing. It concerns a variety of topics, from ascending the Eiger Nordwand in the Swiss Alps, Denali in Alaska or K2 in the Karakoram, to the well-known rock climbers Krakauer has met on his trips, such as John Gill. Into the Wild was spent two years on The New York Times Best Seller List; the book employs a non-linear narrative that documents the travels of Christopher McCandless, a young man from a well-to-do East Coast family who, in 1990, after graduating from Emory University, donated all of the money in his bank account to the humanitarian charity Oxfam, renamed himself "Alexander Supertramp", began a journey in the American West. McCandless' remains were found in August 1992. In the book, Krakauer draws parallels between McCandless' experiences and his own, the experiences of other adventurers. Into The Wild was adapted into a film of the same name, released on September 21, 2007.
In 1997, Krakauer expanded his September 1996 Outside article into what has become his best-known book, Into Thin Air. The book describes the climbing parties' experiences and the general state of Everest mountaineering at the time. Hired as a journalist by the magazine, Krakauer had participated as a client of the 1996 Everest climbing team led by Rob Hall—the team which ended up suffering the greatest casualties in the 1996 Mount Everest disaster; the book reached the top of The New York Times' non-fiction bestseller list, was honored as "Book of the Year" by Time magazine, was among three books considered for the General Non-Fiction Pulitzer Prize in 1998. The American Academy of Arts and Letters gave Krakauer an Academy Award in Literature in 1999 for his work, commenting that the writer "combines the tenacity and courage of the finest tradition of investigative journalism with the stylish subtlety and profound insight of the born writer, his account of an ascent of Mount Everest has led to a general reevaluation of climbing and of the commercialization of what was once a romantic, solitary sport."
Krakauer has contributed royalties from this book to the Ev
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Walter Orr Roberts
Walter Orr Roberts was an American astronomer and atmospheric physicist, as well as an educator and builder. He founded the National Center for Atmospheric Research and was a leader in identifying technology as a cause of climate change. Walter Orr Roberts was born on August 20, 1915, in West Bridgewater, Massachusetts, to Ernest Marion Roberts and Alice Elliot Orr, he was the oldest of three children. He attained a Bachelor's degree in Physics from Amherst College in 1938, a Masters and PhD in astronomy from Harvard University in 1940 and 1943. In 1940 he married Janet Smock. From 1940 to 1946 Roberts was superintendent of the Climax Observing Station, Harvard College Observatory, in Climax Colorado; this site was chosen by Donald H. Menzel in 1939; the observatory was installed with a coronagraph in 1940, developed and tested at the Oakridge Station of Harvard College Observatory. At the Harvard College Observatory in Climax, Roberts observed and concluded that changes in the corona affected radio communications, in fact these changes provided advance warning of communication disturbances.
This became important for WWII wartime security and the observatory work was classified and overseen by the Navy during this period. In 1945, after WWII, the National Bureau of Standards contracted the observatory for reports on solar activity. In 1946, the Climax Harvard College Observatory incorporated with the University of Colorado under CU President Robert L. Stearns's tenure and was renamed the High Altitude Observatory. At that time, he became the founding director of the High Altitude Observatory, remained the director until 1961. HAO launched an Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Relations in January 1956 for a four-year period “to study the effects of the sun on weather with the hope that from this work would come an improvement in weather or climate forecasting based on analysis of variations in the emissions from the sun.” Subsequently he was the founding president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research and first director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
In the fall of 1956, Walter Orr Roberts was named head of the newly created Department of Astro-Geophysics in the graduate school by the Regents of the University of Colorado. In 1960 after the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research incorporated, Roberts was elected its first president. Boulder was chosen as the site for NCAR, Roberts was named its inaugural director in 1960; the National Center for Atmospheric Research was established by UCAR in partnership with the National Science Foundation. “The basic purposes of NCAR are: to conduct fundamental research on the processes of the atmosphere on a scope beyond that yet attempted. The Colorado Legislature appropriated $250,000 to buy 500 acres beneath the Flatirons just south of Boulder for the new center. I. M. Pei was selected as the architect in 1961; the resulting Mesa Laboratory, NCAR’s flagship building, is considered an architectural masterpiece. By 1965, as the director of both UCAR and NCAR, Walter Orr Roberts presided over five branches of NCAR: the Advanced Study Program, the Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences or LAS, the High Altitude Observatory, the Facilities Division, the Administrative and Support Services Division.
In an oral interview in 1987, Roberts “discusses how he came to be NCAR's first director, the purpose for creating a national center, the process for identifying NCAR's initial priorities, the issue of competition between NCAR and university programs, the debate regarding NCAR's focus on research with practical applications, NCAR's early facilities. Roberts reflects on characteristics of a successful research center, his ideas about administration, the importance of interdisciplinary research and international cooperation among the scientific community.”Walter Orr Roberts was a pivotal figure in making Boulder, Colorado, a center for scientific research. Boulder attracted such institutions as HAO, UCAR, NCAR, the Central Radio Propagation Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, JILA, LASP, IBM, Ball Aerospace, NOAA during the 1940s – 1970s. “Walt was enormously helpful in bringing a lot of ambitious and competing scientific groups together.”
In 1979, Roberts and Henry Lansford published The Climate Mandate, which discussed climatic variation and its implications. Greenhouse Glasnost, discussed at a 1989 Sundance Symposium on Global Climate Change, was one outcome of this international exchange. Climate and climate change remain important areas of study for NCAR scientists. From 1974–1981, Roberts served as Director for the Program of Food and the World’s Future at the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. He
University of Denver
The University of Denver is a private research university in Denver, Colorado. Founded in 1864, it is the oldest independent private university in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. DU enrolls 5,600 undergraduate students and 6,100 graduate students; the 125-acre main campus is a designated arboretum and is located in the University Neighborhood, about five miles south of downtown Denver. On March 3, 1865, John Evans, former Governor of the Colorado Territory, appointee of President Abraham Lincoln, founded the Colorado Seminary in order to help "civilize" the newly created city of Denver, a mining camp; the seminary was founded as a Methodist institution and struggled in the early years of its existence. In 1880 it was renamed the University of Denver. Although doing business as the University of Denver, DU is still named Colorado Seminary; the first buildings of the university were located in downtown Denver in the 1860s and 1870s, but concerns that Denver's rough-and-tumble frontier town atmosphere was not conducive to education prompted a relocation to the current campus, built on the donated land of potato farmer Rufus Clark, some seven miles south of the downtown core.
The university grew and prospered alongside the city's growth, appealing to a regional student body prior to World War II. After the war, the large surge in GI bill students pushed DU's enrollment to over 13,000 students, the largest the university has been, helped to spread the university's reputation to a national audience; the heart of the campus has a number of historic buildings. The longest-standing building is University Hall, built in the Richardsonian Romanesque style which has served DU since 1890; the cornerstone to this building is one mile above sea level. Just a few blocks off campus sits the historic Chamberlin Observatory, opened in 1894. Still a operational observatory, it is open to the public twice a week as well as one Saturday a month; the central campus area includes Evans Chapel, an 1870s-vintage small church, once located in downtown Denver, was relocated to the DU campus in the early 1960s. Buchtel Tower is all that remains of the former Buchtel Chapel, which burned in 1983.
The administrative offices are located in the Mary Reed Building, a former library built in 1932 in the Collegiate Gothic style. Margery Reed Hall was built in the collegiate gothic style in 1929. Margery Reed Hall has been designated to house the Undergraduate Program for the Daniels College of Business; the update for the building was to include more classroom space, a larger hall to host guest speakers, as well as mechanical and technical improvements. New construction on campus includes the rebuilding of the current Driscoll Center Student Union into a new "Community Commons," a new residence hall and a new, larger alumni/career center to replace the Leo Block Alumni Center; these project are slated for completion in the early 2020s. In 2005 the Graduate School of Social Work completed the renovation and significant expansion of its building, renamed Craig Hall. In autumn 2003, DU opened a new $63.5 million facility for its College of Law, what was named the "Sturm College of Law." The building includes a three-story library with personal computers accessible to students.
Donald and Susan Sturm, owners of Denver-based American National Bank, had given $20 million to the University of Denver College of Law. The gift is the largest single donation in the 112-year history of the law school and among the largest gifts to the university; the Daniels College of Business was completed in September 1999 at the cost of $25 million. The business school has been nationally recognized by organizations such as Forbes magazine, Business Week, the Wall Street Journal where it is ranked second in the nation for producing students with high ethical standards. F. W. Olin Hall was built in 1997 to house Natural Sciences. Olin Hall promotes an exceptional collaborative study space for DU science students. Additionally, the university opened the $70 million Robert and Judi Newman Center for Performing Arts, which houses the acclaimed Lamont School of Music; the center includes June Swaner Gates Concert Hall, a, four-level opera house seating just under 1,000, the Frederic C. Hamilton Family Recital Hall, a 222-seat recital hall with the largest "tracker" organ in the region, the Elizabeth Ericksen Byron Theatre, a flexible theatre space seating up to 350.
The Newman Center serves as home to many professional performing arts groups from the Denver region as well as the University's Newman Center Presents multi-disciplinary performing arts series. In the last two years, DU has built and opened a new building for the School of Hotel and Tourism Management. Inside the building there are numerous classrooms, a large wine cellar, meeting rooms, an all-purpose dining room that hosts numerous city and university events and formal parties; the school helps DU rank near the top of all hotel schools in the United States. The program had its first graduating class in 1946; the university has the 11th highest telescope in the world located at 14,148 feet near the summit of Mount Evans called the Meyer-Womble Observatory. This telescope is most used by the university's Natural Science and Mathematics Department, more the Department of Physics and Astronomy at DU. Nagel Residence Hall was completed in the Fall of 2008 to house upperclassman and is one of the most unusual buildings on campus, offering