Louis XVI style
Louis XVI style called Louis Seize, is a style of architecture, furniture and art which developed in France during the 19-year reign of Louis XVI, just before the French Revolution. It saw the final phase of the baroque style as well as the birth of French neoclassicism; the style was a reaction against the elaborate ornament of the preceding baroque period. It was inspired in part by the discoveries of ancient Roman paintings and architecture in Herculaneum and Pompeii, its features included the straight column, the simplicity of the post-and-lintel, the architrave of the Greek temple. It expressed the Rousseau-inspired values of returning to nature and the view of nature as an idealized and wild but still orderly and inherently worthy model for the arts to follow. Notable architects of the period included Victor Louis who completed the theater of Bordeaux, The Odeon Theater in Paris was built by Marie-Joseph Peyre and Charles de Wailly. François-Joseph Bélanger completed the Chateau de Bagatelle in just sixty-three days to win a bet for its builder, the King's brother.
Another period landmark was the belvedere of the Petit Trianon, built by Rchard Mique. The most characteristic building of the late Louis XVI residential style is the Hôtel de Salm in Paris (Now the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur, built by Pierre Rousseau in 1751-83. Superbly crafted desks and cabinets were created for the Palace of Versailles and other royal residences by cabinetmakers Jean-Henri Riesener and David Roentgen, using inlays of fine woods mahogany, decorated with gilded bronze and mother of pearl. Fine sets of chairs and tables were made by Jean-Henri Riesener and Georges Jacob; the Royal tapestry works of Gobelins and Beauvais Tapestry continued to make large tapestries, but an increasing part of their business was the manufacture of upholstery for the new sets of chairs and other furnishings for the royal residences and nobility. Wallpaper became an important part of interior design, thanks to new processes developed by Reveillon; the Lous XVI style was a reaction to and transition the French Baroque style, which had dominated French architecture and art since the mid-17th century, from a desire to establish a new Beau idéal, or ideal of beauty, based on the purity and grandeur of the art of the Ancient Romans and Greeks.
In 1754 The French engraver and art critic Charles-Nicolas Cochin denounced the curves and undulations of the predominant rocaille style: "Don't torture without reason those things which could be straight, come back to the good sense, the beginning of good taste."Louis XVI himself showed little enthusiasm for art or architecture. He left the management of these to Charles-Claude Flahaut de la Billaderie, the Count of Angiviller, made Director General of Buildings, Arts and Royal Manufactories. Angeviller, for financial reasons, postponed a grand enlargement of the Palace of Versailles, but completed the new Château de Compiègne, begun by Louis XV, decorated it from 1782 to 1786; the King's principal architectural addition to Versailles was the new library on the first floor. He was much more generous to Queen Marie-Antoinette; the King gave the Queen the Petit Trianon at Versailles, in 1785 bought a new chateau for her at St. Cloud. Classicism, based Roman and Greek models had been used in French architecture since the time of Louis XIV.
The architects of Louis XIV, Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Jacques Lemercier, turned away from the gothic and renaissance style and used a baroque version of the Roman dome on the new churches at Val-de-Grace and Les Invalides. Louis XV and his chief architects, Jacques Ange Gabriel and Jacques-Germain Soufflot continued the style of architecture based upon symmetry and the straight line. Gabriel created the ensemble of classical buildings around the Place de la Concorde while Soufflot designed the Panthéon on the Roman model. An influential building from the late Louis XV period was the Petit Trianon at Versailles, by Jacques Ange Gabriel, built for the mistress of the King, Madame Pompadour, its cubic form, symmetric facade and Corinthian peristyle, similar to the villas of Palladio, made it model for the following Louis XVI style. Another notable influence on the style was the architecture of the Renaissance architect Palladio, which influenced the building of country houses in England, as well as the French architect Claude-Nicolas Ledoux.
Palladio's ideas were the inspiration for the Château de Louveciennes, its neoclassical music pavilion built by Claude Nicolas Ledoux for the mistress of Louis XV, Madame du Barry. The pavilion is cubic in form, with a facade of four pilasters supporting the architrave and the pilaster of the terrace, it became the model for similar houses under Louis XVI. Notable monuments of Louis XVI civil architecture include the Hotel de la Monnaie in Paris by Jacques Denis Antoine, as well as the Palais de Justice in Paris by the same architect; the latter building has geometric architecture, a flat ceiling, a portico in the colossal order of corinthian columns. The École de Chirurgie, or School of Surgery in Paris by Jacques Gondoin adapt
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang Goethe was a German writer and statesman. His works include four novels. In addition, there are numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, nearly 3,000 drawings by him extant. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August, in 1782 after taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther, he was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe was a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena, he contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace. In 1998 both these sites together with nine others were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site under the name Classical Weimar. Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy.
In 1791, he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period, Goethe published Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, his conversations and various common undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, August and Friedrich Schlegel have come to be collectively termed Weimar Classicism. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels written, while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name. Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe. Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe, lived with his family in a large house in Frankfurt an Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire.
Though he had studied law in Leipzig and had been appointed Imperial Councillor, he was not involved in the city's official affairs. Johann Caspar married Goethe's mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, born in 1750, died at early ages, his father and private tutors gave Goethe lessons in all the common subjects of their time languages. Goethe received lessons in dancing and fencing. Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not. Although Goethe's great passion was drawing, he became interested in literature, he had a lively devotion to theater as well and was fascinated by puppet shows that were annually arranged in his home. He took great pleasure in reading works on history and religion, he writes about this period: I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, of the'Aeneid' and Ovid's'Metamorphoses'....
If an busy imagination, of which that tale may bear witness, led me hither and thither, if the medley of fable and history and religion, threatened to bewilder me, I fled to those oriental regions, plunged into the first books of Moses, there, amid the scattered shepherd tribes, found myself at once in the greatest solitude and the greatest society. Goethe became acquainted with Frankfurt actors. Among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit, he adored Caritas Meixner, a wealthy Worms trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would marry the merchant G. F. Schuler. Goethe studied law at Leipzig University from 1765 to 1768, he detested learning age-old judicial rules by heart, preferring instead to attend the poetry lessons of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Anna Katharina Schönkopf and wrote cheerful verses about her in the Rococo genre.
In 1770, he anonymously released his first collection of poems. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Christoph Martin Wieland. At this time, Goethe wrote a good deal, but he threw away nearly all of these works, except for the comedy Die Mitschuldigen; the restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Goethe became ill in Frankfurt. Durin
Callenberg Castle is a castle on a wooded hill in Beiersdorf, an Ortsteil of Coburg, 6 kilometres from the town centre. It was a hunting lodge and summer residence and has long been the principal residence of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, it is owned by Andreas, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha who created the Ducal Saxe-Coburg and Gotha House Order. A large and architecturally important family chapel is contained within. According to the Schloss Callenberg web site "the castle became the property of Duke Johann Casimir of Saxe-Coburg in 1588, after the death of the last von Sternberg; until 1825 the ducal treasury and the Castle of Callenberg were property of the Dukes of Saxe-Meiningen. It was only in 1826; until 1945 the castle was the summer residence of the Dukes of Coburg." A hill castle here was first mentioned as Chalwinberch in 1122. It served as the main seat for the Ritter von Callenberg until 1231, when the lord sold it to the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg; the knight made use of the proceeds to participate in a Crusade.
In 1317 the House of Henneberg gave it as a fief to the Sternberg family. This family died out in 1592; as a vacant property, it now fell to Duke Johann Casimir. He intended to use it as a summer palace and planned substantial renovations but during his lifetime only the castle chapel was rebuilt. Major construction work resumed only in 1827 under Ernst I, he had the castle redesigned, a landscape garden was created and an exhibit farm added, in which silkworms were bred. From 1842, Callenberg was the summer residence of the heir and future duke Ernst II. Today's Gothic revival elements date to another renovation after 1857. From 1893, Callenberg served as dowager house for Princess Alexandrine of Baden, the widow of Ernest II; the last ruling duke, Carl Eduard used Callenberg as a summer residence. After his death in 1954 he was buried here. Post World War II, the castle fell into disrepair, it was first used by American troops and served as a nursing home, housed a technical college and a foundation.
From the late 1970s, the castle stood changed owners several times. The chapel features Gothic arches, Doric columns, Italian Renaissance parapets, medieval walls and a Baroque pulpit. Schloss Callenberg is once again owned by the House of Gotha. Due to its history and Gothic revival architecture it is a listed monument. Since 1998 it has displayed the ducal art and furniture collection and since 2004 it has housed the German Rifle Museum; the cemetery, Cemetery Waldfriedhof or Waldfriedhof Beiersdorf, still remains, containing the remains of Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, among others. Website of Callenberg Castle Official Website of the Ducal House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
The Ancien Régime was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the French Revolution. The Ancien Régime was ruled by Bourbon dynasties; the term is used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe. The administrative and social structures of the Ancien Régime were the result of years of state-building, legislative acts, internal conflicts, civil wars, but they remained and the Valois Dynasty's attempts at re-establishing control over the scattered political centres of the country were hindered by the Huguenot Wars. Much of the reigns of Henry IV and Louis XIII and the early years of Louis XIV were focused on administrative centralization. Despite, the notion of "absolute monarchy" and the efforts by the kings to create a centralized state, the Kingdom of France retained its irregularities: authority overlapped and nobles struggled to retain autonomy.
The need for centralization in this period was directly linked to the question of royal finances and the ability to wage war. The internal conflicts and dynastic crises of the 16th and 17th centuries and the territorial expansion of France in the 17th century demanded great sums which needed to be raised through taxes, such as the land tax and the tax on salt and by contributions of men and service from the nobility. One key to this centralization was the replacing of personal patronage systems organized around the king and other nobles by institutional systems around the state; the creation of intendants—representatives of royal power in the provinces—did much to undermine local control by regional nobles. The same was true of the greater reliance shown by the royal court on the noblesse de robe as judges and royal counselors; the creation of regional parlements had the same goal of facilitating the introduction of royal power into newly assimilated territories, but as the parlements gained in self-assurance, they began to be sources of disunity.
The term in French means "old regime" or "former regime". However, most English language books use the French term Ancien Régime; the term first appeared in print in English in 1794, was pejorative in nature. It conjured up a society so encrusted with anachronisms that only a shock of great violence could free the living organism within. Institutionally torpid, economically immobile, culturally atrophied and stratified, this'old regime' was incapable of self-modernization."More ancien régime refers to any political and social system having the principal features of the French Ancien Régime. Europe's other anciens régimes had diverse fates; the Nine Years' War was a major conflict between France and a European-wide coalition of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain and Savoy. It was fought on the European continent and the surrounding seas, in Ireland, North America, India, it was the first global war. Louis XIV had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Europe, an absolute ruler who had won numerous military victories.
Using a combination of aggression and quasilegal means, Louis XIV set about extending his gains to stabilize and strengthen France's frontiers, culminating in the brief War of the Reunions. The resulting Truce of Ratisbon guaranteed France's new borders for 20 years, but Louis XIV's subsequent actions – notably his revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 – led to the deterioration of his military and political dominance. Louis XIV's decision to cross the Rhine in September 1688 was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims, but when Leopold I and the German princes resolved to resist, when the States General and William III brought the Dutch and the English into the war against France, the French King at last faced a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing his ambitions; the main fighting took place around France's borders, in the Spanish Netherlands, the Rhineland, Duchy of Savoy, Catalonia. The fighting favoured Louis XIV's armies, but by 1696, his country was in the grip of an economic crisis.
The Maritime Powers were financially exhausted, when Savoy defected from the alliance, all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick, Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace, but he was forced to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. Louis XIV accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired their barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their own borders. However, with the ailing and childless Charles II of Spain approaching his end, a new conflict over the inheritance of the Spanish Empire would soon embroil Louis XIV and the Grand Alliance in a final war – the War of the Spanish Succession. Spain had a number of major assets, apart from its homeland itself, it controlled important territory in the New World. S
Abraham Roentgen was a German Ébéniste. Roentgen was born in Germany, he learned cabinet making from his father. At age 20, he traveled to Den Haag and Amsterdam, learning from established cabinet makers, he became known for his marquetry work, worked in London until 1738. On 18 April 1739, he married Susanne Marie Bausch from Herrnhut, his son, David Roentgen, was born on 11 August 1743. In 1753 they migrated to the Moravian settlement at Neuwied, near Coblenz, where he established a furniture manufactory. Upon his retirement in 1772 his son David established his own reputation. Abraham Roentgen died in Herrnhut in Saxony Germany in 1793. Koeppe, Wolfram. "Abraham and David Roentgen". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. Biography at the Getty museum Claus Bernet. "Abraham Roentgen". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 29. Nordhausen: Bautz. Cols. 1177–1181. ISBN 978-3-88309-452-6. Manuel Mayer: Die Verwirklichung eines Möbels.
Der Schreibsekretär von Abraham Roentgen in der Residenz zu Würzburg, in: Mainfränkisches Jahrbuch für Kunst und Geschichte, Bd. 70, Archiv des Historischen Vereins für Unterfranken und Aschaffenburg, Bd. 141, Würzburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-88778-555-0, S. 239-259. Wolfram Koeppe: Extravagant Inventions; the Princely Furniture of the Roentgens, Exhibition catalogue, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 2012. Heinrich Kreisel: Möbel von Abraham Roentgen, in: Wohnkunst und Hausrat, einst und jetzt, Bd. 5, Darmstadt, o. J. Claus Bernet: Abraham Roentgen. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. Band 29, Nordhausen 2008, ISBN 978-3-88309-452-6, Sp. 1177–1181. Andreas Büttner, Ursula Weber-Woelk, Bernd Willscheid: Edle Möbel für höchste Kreise - Roentgens Meisterwerke für Europas Höfe. Katalog des Roentgen-Museums Neuwied, Neuwied 2007, ISBN 3-9809797-5-X. Andreas Büttner: Roentgen. Möbelkunst der Extraklasse, hrsg. von der Stadt Neuwied. Kehrein, Neuwied 2007, ISBN 978-3-934125-09-4. Melanie Doderer-Winkler: Abraham und David Roentgen, in: Rheinische Lebensbilder, Bd.
17, hrsg. von Franz-Josef Heyen, Köln 1997, S. 57–78. Dietrich Fabian: Abraham und David Roentgen. Von der Schreinerwerkstatt zur Kunstmöbel-Manufaktur, Bad Neustadt an der Saale 1992, ISBN 3-922923-87-9. Detlev Richter, Bernd Willscheid: Reinheit, Feuer & Glanz - Stobwasser und Roentgen. Kunsthandwerk von Weltrang, Katalog des Roentgen-Museums Neuwied, Neuwied 2013, ISBN 978-3-9814662-5-6. Peter Prange: Roentgen, Abraham. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie. Band 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11202-4, S. 730 f.. Wolfgang Thillmann, Bernd Willscheid: Möbeldesign - Roentgen, Thonet und die Moderne, Katalog des Roentgen-Museums Neuwied, Neuwied 2011, ISBN 978-3-9809797-9-5
Pietra dura or pietre dure, called parchin kari or parchinkari in the Indian Subcontinent, is a term for the inlay technique of using cut and fitted polished colored stones to create images. It is considered a decorative art; the stonework, after the work is assembled loosely, is glued stone-by-stone to a substrate after having been "sliced and cut in different shape sections. Stability was achieved by grooving the undersides of the stones so that they interlocked, rather like a jigsaw puzzle, with everything held tautly in place by an encircling'frame'. Many different colored stones marbles, were used, along with semiprecious, precious stones, it first appeared in Rome in the 16th century. Pietra dura items are crafted on green, white or black marble base stones; the resulting panel is flat, but some examples where the image is in low relief were made, taking the work more into the area of hardstone carving. Pietre dure is an Italian plural meaning hardstones. In Italian, but not in English, the term embraces all gem engraving and hardstone carving, the artistic carving of three-dimensional objects in semi-precious stone from a single piece, for example in Chinese jade.
The traditional convention in English has been to use the singular pietra dura just to denote multi-colored inlay work. However, in recent years there has been a trend to use pietre dure as a term for the same thing, but not for all of the techniques it covers, in Italian, but the title of a 2008 exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Art of the Royal Court: Treasures in Pietre Dure from the Palaces of Europe used the full Italian sense of the term because they thought that it had greater brand recognition. The material on the website speaks of objects such as a vase in lapis lazuli as being examples of "hardstone carving" The Victoria & Albert Museum in London uses both versions on its website, but uses pietra dura in its "Glossary", evidently not consulted by the author of another page, where the reader is told: "Pietre dure is made from finely sliced coloured stones matched, to create a pictorial scene or regular design"; the English term "Florentine mosaic" is sometimes encountered developed by the tourist industry.
Giovanni Montelatici was an Italian Florentine artist whose brilliant work has been distributed across the world by tourists and collectors. It is distinct from mosaic in that the component stones are much larger and cut to a shape suiting their place in the image, not all of equal size and shape as in mosaic. In pietra dura, the stones are not cemented together with grout, works in pietra dura are portable. Nor should it be confused with micromosaics, a form of mosaic using small tesserae of the same size to create images rather than decorative patterns, for Byzantine icons, for panels for setting into furniture and the like. For fixed inlay work on walls and pavements that do not meet the definition for mosaic, the terms intarsia or cosmati work/cosmatesque are better used. For works that use larger pieces of stone, opus sectile may be used. Pietre dure is stone marquetry; as a high expression of lapidary art, it is related to the jeweller's art. It can be seen as a branch of sculpture as three-dimensionality can be achieved, as with a bas relief.
Pietra dura developed from the ancient Roman opus sectile, which at least in terms of surviving examples, was architectural, used on floors and walls, with both geometric and figurative designs. In the Middle Ages cosmatesque floors and small columns etc. on tombs and altars continued to use inlays of different colours in geometric patterns. Byzantine art continued with inlaid floors, but produced some small religious figures in hardstone inlays, for example in the Pala d'Oro in San Marco, Venice. In the Italian Renaissance this technique again was used for images; the Florentines, who most developed the form, regarded it as'painting in stone'. As it developed in Florence, the technique was called opere di commessi. Medici Grand Duke Ferdinando I of Tuscany founded the Galleria di'Lavori in 1588, now the Opificio delle pietre dure, for the purpose of developing this and other decorative forms. A multitude of varied objects were created. Table tops were prized, these tend to be the largest specimens.
Smaller items in the form of medallions, wall plaques, panels inserted into doors or onto cabinets, jardinieres, garden ornaments, benches, etc. are all found. A popular form was to copy an existing painting of a human figure, as illustrated by the image of Pope Clement VIII, above. Examples are found in many museums; the medium was transported to other European centers of court art and remained popular into the 19th century. In particular, Naples became a noted center of the craft. By the 20th century, the medium was in decline, in part by the assault of modernism, the craft had been reduced to restoration work. In recent decades, the form has been revived, receives state-funded sponsorship. Modern examples range from tourist-oriented kitsch incl