Castle of Rivoli
The Castle of Rivoli is a former Residence of the Royal House of Savoy in Rivoli. It is home to the Castello di Rivoli – Museo d'Arte Contemporanea, the museum of contemporary art of Turin; the castle was built in the 9th–10th centuries. Its existence is mentioned for the first time in 1159, in a diploma by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa that ceded the Rivolese territories to the bishops of Turin; the House of Savoy acquired Rivoli in the 11th century. Soon afterward, a feud began with the bishops. In 1330 Amadeus VI of Savoy allowed the Consiglio dei Principi, senior administrative council of the countryside to occupy it; the castle was the first place of public veneration of the Shroud of Turin. The castle experienced a period of decline. In 1559, the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis forbade the Duke Emmanuel Philibert from residing in Turin until he had a male child, he therefore resided in the Castle of Rivoli. In 1562 heir Charles Emmanuel I was born, he returned to Turin. Works on Vitozzi's designs were brought on until 1644 under Carlo and Amedeo di Castellamonte, with the construction of the so-called Manica Lunga, intended to house the Savoy Gallery, the sole 17th-century part of the edifice still visible today.
Numerous works of art were however stolen by French troops in the following years. New works began after 1706. Victor Amadeus II commissioned a new façade from Filippo Juvarra, which went unfinished. After his abdication and failed attempt to regain power from his son Charles Emmanuel III, Victor Amadeus lived here as a prisoner with his morganatic spouse the Marchesa di Spigno. After his death, the castle remained abandoned, until in 1863, when the comune of Rivoli turned it into barracks. Twenty years a section was used as library; the edifice was damaged during World War II, remained in a substantial state of abandon until 1979, when new works of restoration were begun. In 1984 the castle was reopened as the home of the Museo d'Arte Contemporanea, the first contemporary art museum in Italy. In 2000, the castle became home to a Michelin-starred restaurant when chef Davide Scabin moved his restaurant Combal there renaming it Combal. Zero; the first post-WW2 renovation works were carried out under the Turin architect Andrea Bruno.
The initiative was not completed, available funding being enough only repair of structural damage. In 1967, Bruno proceeded to break down the decaying parts of the atrium, built at the beginning of 900; the palace is the setting for King Charles by Robert Browning. Official website
Wichita is the largest city in the U. S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Sedgwick County. As of 2017, the estimated population of the city was 390,591. Wichita is the principal city of the Wichita metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 644,610 in 2015. Located in south-central Kansas on the Arkansas River, Wichita began as a trading post on the Chisholm Trail in the 1860s and was incorporated as a city in 1870, it became a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to Kansas railroads, earning it the nickname "Cowtown."In the 1920s and'30s, businessmen and aeronautical engineers established aircraft manufacturing companies in Wichita, including Beechcraft and Stearman Aircraft. The city became a U. S. aircraft production hub known as "The Air Capital of the World." Textron Aviation, Learjet and Spirit AeroSystems continue to operate design and manufacturing facilities in Wichita, the city remains a major center of the American aircraft industry. Wichita is home to McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport, the largest airport in Kansas.
As an industrial hub, Wichita is a regional center of culture and trade. It hosts several universities, large museums, theaters and entertainment venues, notably Intrust Bank Arena and Century II Performing Arts & Convention Center; the city's Old Cowtown Museum maintains historical artifacts and exhibits on the city's early history. Wichita State University is the third-largest post-secondary institution in the state. Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation near the confluence of the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers, the site of present-day Wichita, as early as 3000 B. C. In 1541, a Spanish expedition led by explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado found the area populated by the Quivira, or Wichita, people. Conflict with the Osage in the 1750s drove the Wichita further south. Prior to American settlement of the region, the site was located in the territory of the Kiowa. Claimed first by France as part of Louisiana and acquired by the United States with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, it became part of Kansas Territory in 1854 and the state of Kansas in 1861.
The Wichita returned in 1864 due to the American Civil War and established a settlement on the banks of the Little Arkansas. During this period, trader Jesse Chisholm established a trading post at the site, one of several along a trail extending south to Texas which became known as the Chisholm Trail. After the war, the Wichita permanently relocated south to Indian Territory. In 1868, trader James R. Mead established another trading post at the site, surveyor Darius Munger built a house for use as a hotel, community center, post office. Business opportunities attracted area hunters and traders, a new settlement began to form; that summer and others organized the Wichita Town Company, naming the settlement after the Wichita tribe. In 1870, Munger and German immigrant William "Dutch Bill" Greiffenstein filed plats laying out the city's first streets. Wichita formally incorporated as a city on July 21, 1870. Wichita's position on the Chisholm Trail made it a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to access railroads which led to markets in eastern U.
S. cities. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reached the city in 1872; as a result, Wichita became a railhead for the cattle drives, earning it the nickname "Cowtown". Across the Arkansas River, the town of Delano became an entertainment destination for cattlemen thanks to its saloons and lack of law enforcement; the area had a reputation for violence until local lawmen, Wyatt Earp among them, began to assertively police the cowboys. By the end of the decade, the cattle trade had moved west to Dodge City. Wichita annexed Delano in 1880. Rapid immigration resulted in a speculative land boom in the late 1880s, stimulating further expansion of the city. Fairmount College, which grew into Wichita State University, opened in 1886. By 1890, Wichita had become the third-largest city in the state after Kansas City and Topeka with a population of nearly 24,000. After the boom, the city entered an economic recession, many of the original settlers went bankrupt. In 1914 and 1915, deposits of oil and natural gas were discovered in nearby Butler County.
This triggered another economic boom in Wichita as producers established refineries, fueling stations, headquarters in the city. By 1917, there were five operating refineries in Wichita with another seven built in the 1920s; the careers and fortunes of future oil moguls Archibald Derby, who founded Derby Oil, Fred C. Koch, who established what would become Koch Industries, both began in Wichita during this period; the money generated by the oil boom enabled local entrepreneurs to invest in the nascent airplane manufacturing industry. In 1917, Clyde Cessna built his Cessna Comet in the first aircraft built in the city. In 1920, two local oilmen invited Chicago aircraft builder Emil "Matty" Laird to manufacture his designs in Wichita, leading to the formation of the Swallow Airplane Company. Two early Swallow employees, Lloyd Stearman and Walter Beech, went on to found two prominent Wichita-based companies, Stearman Aircraft in 1926 and Beechcraft in 1932, respectively. Cessna, started his own company in Wichita in 1927.
The city became such a center of the industry that the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce dubbed it the "Air Capital of the World" in 1929. Over the following decades and aircraft manufacturing continued to drive expansion of the city. In 1934, Stearman's Wichita facilities became part of Boeing which would become the city's largest employer. I
Interview is an American magazine founded in late 1969 by artist Andy Warhol and British journalist John Wilcock. The magazine, nicknamed "The Crystal Ball of Pop", features interviews with celebrities, artists and creative thinkers. Interviews were unedited or edited in the eccentric fashion of Warhol's books and The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: From A to B and Back Again. In the early days, complimentary copies of Interview were given away to the "in-crowd". Toward the end of his life, as Warhol withdrew from everyday oversight of his magazine, a more conventional editorial style was introduced under editor Bob Colacello. However, Warhol continued to act as ambassador for the magazine, distributing issues in the street to passersby and creating ad hoc signing events on the streets of Manhattan, New York City; the creative covers of Interview which gave the magazine its signature style were done by artist Richard Bernstein from 1972 to 1989. The magazine's format has remained consistent at 40 % glossy advertising.
It has been published by Brant Publications, Inc since shortly after Warhol's death in 1987. It was helmed for 18 years by Ingrid Sischy, until she and Peter Brant's ex-wife Sandra became lovers and left the magazine, selling Ms. Brant's half-ownership stake in the parent company Brant Publications. For a year and a half the magazine was in flux, edited by Christopher Bollen. Interview restarted under co-editorial directors Fabien Baron and Glenn O'Brien in September 2008, with a cover featuring Kate Moss. Stephen Mooallem and Christopher Bollen served as the working editor-in-chief and editor-at-large, respectively; the publication's content can be via an app, Other Edition, available on iTunes. As of 2017, Fabien Baron was the editorial director. In December 2013, Stephen Mooallem left Interview to join Harper’s Bazaar as its executive editor. Keith Pollock served as editor-in-chief from 2014 to 2016, it was announced on May 21, 2018 that the publication ‘folded’ and would end both its print and web publications by the end of 2018.
The publication filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy and liquidation. On September 6, 2018, Interview announced the launch of its 521st issue; the magazine was purchased by Kelly Brant and Jason Nikic, with some reports suggesting that the title's intellectual property will be returned to Peter Brant. The magazine is featured in The CW's television series The Carrie Diaries, a prequel to HBO's Sex and the City; the protagonist, played by actress AnnaSophia Robb, vicariously explores New York City through the glamorous fashion editor of Interview, played by Freema Agyeman. Official website
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. The museum was inaugurated on 18 October 1997 by King Juan Carlos I of Spain. Built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Cantabrian Sea, it is one of several museums belonging to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and features permanent and visiting exhibits of works by Spanish and international artists, it is one of the largest museums in Spain. One of the most admired works of contemporary architecture, the building has been hailed as a "signal moment in the architectural culture", because it represents "one of those rare moments when critics and the general public were all united about something." The museum was the building most named as one of the most important works completed since 1980 in the 2010 World Architecture Survey among architecture experts. In 1991, the Basque government suggested to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation that it would fund a Guggenheim museum to be built in Bilbao's decrepit port area, once the city's main source of income.
The Basque government agreed to cover the US$100 million construction cost, to create a US$50 million acquisitions fund, to pay a one-time US$20 million fee to the Guggenheim and to subsidize the museum's US$12 million annual budget. In exchange, the Foundation agreed to manage the institution, rotate parts of its permanent collection through the Bilbao museum and organize temporary exhibitions; the museum was built at a cost of US$89 million. About 5,000 residents of Bilbao attended a preopening extravaganza outside the museum on the night preceding the official opening, featuring an outdoor light show and concerts. On 18 October 1997 the museum was opened by Juan Carlos I of Spain; the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation selected Frank Gehry as the architect, its director, Thomas Krens, encouraged him to design something daring and innovative; the curves on the exterior of the building were intended to appear random. The interior "is designed around a large, light-filled atrium with views of Bilbao's estuary and the surrounding hills of the Basque country".
The atrium, which Gehry nicknamed The Flower because of its shape, serves as the organizing center of the museum. When the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao opened to the public in 1997, it was hailed as one of the world's most spectacular buildings in the style of Deconstructivism, a masterpiece of the 20th century. Architect Philip Johnson described it as "the greatest building of our time", while critic Calvin Tomkins, in The New Yorker, characterized it as "a fantastic dream ship of undulating form in a cloak of titanium," its brilliantly reflective panels reminiscent of fish scales. Herbert Muschamp praised its "mercurial brilliance" in The New York Times Magazine; the Independent calls the museum "an astonishing architectural feat". The building inspired other structures of similar design across the globe; the museum is seamlessly integrated into the urban context, unfolding its interconnecting shapes of stone and titanium on a 32,500-square-meter site along the Nervión River in the ancient industrial heart of the city.
With a total 24,000 m2, of which 11,000 m2 are dedicated to exhibition space, it had more exhibition space than the three Guggenheim collections in New York and Venice combined at that time. The 11,000 m2 of exhibition space are distributed over nineteen galleries, ten of which follow a classic orthogonal plan that can be identified from the exterior by their stone finishes; the remaining nine galleries are irregularly shaped and can be identified from the outside by their swirling organic forms and titanium cladding. The largest gallery measures 130 meters long. In 2005, it housed Richard Serra's monumental installation The Matter of Time, which Robert Hughes dubbed "courageous and sublime"; the building was constructed on time and budget, rare for architecture of this type. In an interview in Harvard Design Magazine, Gehry explained. First, he ensured that what he calls the "organization of the artist" prevailed during construction, to prevent political and business interests from interfering with the design.
Second, he made sure he had a realistic cost estimate before proceeding. Third, he used computer visualizations produced by Rick Smith employing Dassault Systemes' CATIA V3 software and collaborated with the individual building trades to control costs during construction. KLM Royal Dutch Airlines donated $1,000,000 towards its construction. In the fall of 1993, architects at Gehry Partners began to utilize Dassault Systemes’ CATIA software for the schematic design phase of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao to digitize and model the exterior of the Museum project; the architects applied Master Modeling and Virtual Build Processes they learned from Rick Smith and his use of the same techniques on the Walt Disney Concert Hall during the previous two years. The success and global awareness of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao ushered in a new era of Virtual Building and was a catalyst for what would become popularly known as Building Information Modeling seven years later. Pulitzer prize winning architectural critic Paul Goldberger shares the words of others that Bilbao "could not have been constructed without CATIA".
He further relays that Bilbao "was the first building for which CATIA played a role in every aspect
Jeffrey Koons is an American artist known for working with popular culture subjects and his reproductions of banal objects, such as balloon animals produced in stainless steel with mirror-finish surfaces. He works in both New York City and his hometown of York, Pennsylvania, his works have sold for substantial sums, including at least one world record auction price for a work by a living artist. On November 12, 2013, Koons' Balloon Dog sold at Christie's Post-War and Contemporary Art Evening Sale in New York City for US$58.4 million, above its high US$55 million estimate, becoming the most expensive work by a living artist sold at auction. The price topped Koons' previous record of US$33.7 million and the record for the most expensive living artist, held by Gerhard Richter, whose 1968 painting, Mailand, sold for US$37.1 million at Sotheby's on May 14, 2013. Balloon Dog was one of the first of the Balloon dogs to be fabricated, had been acquired by Greenwich collector Peter Brant in the late 1990s.
Critics are divided in their views of Koons. Some view his work of major art-historical importance. Others dismiss his work as kitsch and based on cynical self-merchandising. Koons has stated that there are no hidden meanings in his works. Koons was born in Pennsylvania, to Henry and Gloria Koons, his father was interior decorator. His mother was a seamstress; when he was nine years old, his father would place old master paintings copied and signed by his son in the window of his shop in an attempt to attract visitors. As a child he went door to door after school selling gift-wrapping paper and candy to earn pocket money; as a teenager he revered Salvador Dalí so much that he visited him at the St. Regis Hotel in New York City. Koons studied painting at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and the Maryland Institute College of Art in Baltimore. While a visiting student at the Art Institute, Koons met the artist Ed Paschke, who became a major influence and for whom he worked as a studio assistant in the late 1970s.
He lived in Lakeview, in the Pilsen neighborhood at Halsted Street and 19th Street. After college, Koons moved to New York in 1977 and worked at the membership desk of the Museum of Modern Art while establishing himself as an artist. During this time, he dyed his hair red and would cultivate a pencil mustache, after Salvador Dalí. In 1980, he got licensed to sell mutual funds and stocks and began working as a Wall Street commodities broker at First Investors Corporation. After a summer with his parents in Sarasota, Florida, he returned to New York and found a new career as a commodities broker, first at Clayton Brokerage Company and at Smith Barney, he did this job when he encountered the problem of financing his first series, but in order to be independent from the art market: "I could make what art I wanted to make. And I would always know that I didn't need the art market." Jeff Koons rose to prominence in the mid-1980s as part of a generation of artists who explored the meaning of art in a media-saturated era.
He gained recognition in the 1980s and subsequently set up a factory-like studio in a SoHo loft on the corner of Houston Street and Broadway in New York. It was staffed with over 30 assistants, each assigned to a different aspect of producing his work—in a similar mode as Andy Warhol's Factory. Today, he has a 1,500 m2 factory near the old Hudson rail yards in Chelsea, working with 90 to 120 regular assistants. Koons developed a color-by-numbers system, so that each of his assistants could execute his canvases and sculptures as if they had been done "by a single hand". "I think art takes you outside yourself, takes you past yourself. I believe that my journey has been to remove my own anxiety. That's the key; the more anxiety you can remove, the more free you are to make that gesture, whatever the gesture is. The dialogue is first with the artist, but it goes outward, is shared with other people, and if the anxiety is removed everything is so close, everything is available, it's just this little bit of confidence, or trust, that people have to delve into."
Between 1977 and 1979 Koons produced four separate artworks, which he referred to as Early Works. Starting from 1978 he worked on his Inflatables series, consisting of inflatable flowers and a rabbit of various heights and colours, positioned along with mirrors. Since 1979 Koons has produced work within series, his early work was in the form of conceptual sculpture, an example of, The Pre-New, a series of domestic objects attached to light fixtures, resulting in strange new configurations. Another example is The New, a series of vacuum-cleaners selected for brand names that appealed to the artist like the iconic Hoover, which he had mounted in illuminated Perspex boxes. Koons first exhibited these pieces in the window of the New Museum in New York in 1980, he chose a limited combination of vacuum cleaners and arranged them in cabinets accordingly, juxtaposing the verticality of the upright cleaners with the squat cylinders of the "Shelton Wet/Dry drum" cleaners. At the museum, the machines were displayed as if in a showroom, oriented around a central red fluorescent lightbox with just the words "The New" written on it as if it were announcing some new concept or marketing brand.
Another example for Koons' early work is The Equilibrium Series, consisting of one to three basketballs floating in distilled water, a project the artist had researched with the help of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman. The Total Equilibrium Tan
See stage clothes. Costume design is the overall appearance of a character or performer. Costume may refer to the style of dress particular to a class, or a period. In many cases, it may contribute to the fullness of the artistic, visual world, unique to a particular theatrical or cinematic production; the most basic designs are produced to denote status, provide protection or modesty, or provide visual interest to a character. Costumes may not be limited to such. Costume design should not be confused with costume coordination which involves altering existing clothing, although both create stage clothes. Four types of costumes are used in theatrical design: historical, fantastical and modern. Village festivals and processions in honor of Dionysus amongst the ancient Greeks, are believed to be the origin of theatre, therefore theatre costume; the sculpture and vase paintings provide the clearest evidence of this costume. Because of their ritualized style of theatre many masks were used giving each character a specific look and they varied depending if they were used for comedic or dramatic purposes.
Some masks were constructed with a cheerful as well as a serious side on the same face in an attempt to indicate a change in emotion without a change of mask. The same is true for the Romans, who continued the mask tradition, which made the doubling of roles easier. During the late Middle Ages in Europe, dramatic enactments of Bible stories were prevalent, therefore actual Christian vestments, stylized from traditional Byzantine court dress, were worn as costumes to keep the performances as realistic as possible. Stereotypical characterization was key. In most instances actors had to supply their own costumes when playing a character found in daily life. In Elizabethan performance during the 1500-1600s in England, costume became the most important visual element. Garments were expensive because only the finest fabrics were used; the majority of characters were clothed in Elizabethan fashion, otherwise the costumes could be divided into five categories. Her practice soon became standard for all tragic heroines" Major actors began to compete with one another as to who would have the most lavish stage dress.
This practice continued until around the 1750s. Art began to copy life and realistic characteristics were favored during the 19th century. For example, Georg the second, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen took personal interest in the theatre and began managing troupes, he advocated for authenticity and accuracy of the script and time period, therefore he refused to let actors tamper with their own costumes. He made sure the materials were authentic and specific, using real chain mail, swords, etc. No cheap substitutes would be allowed. In August 1823, in an issue of The Album, James Planché published an article saying that more attention should be paid to the time period of Shakespeare's plays when it comes to costumes. In the same year, a casual conversation led to one of Planché's more lasting effects on British theatre, he observed to Charles Kemble, the manager of Covent Garden, that "while a thousand pounds were lavished upon a Christmas pantomime or an Easter spectacle, the plays of Shakespeare were put upon the stage with makeshift scenery, and, at the best, a new dress or two for the principal characters."
Kemble "saw the possible advantage of correct appliances catching the taste of the town" and agreed to give Planché control of the costuming for the upcoming production of King John, if he would carry out the research, design the costumes and superintend the production. Planché had little experience in this area and sought the help of antiquaries such as Francis Douce and Sir Samuel Meyrick; the research involved sparked Planché's latent antiquarian interests. Despite the actors' reservations, King John was a success and led to a number of similarly-costumed Shakespeare productions by Kemble and Planché; the designs and renderings of King John, Henry IV, As You Like It, Othello and Merchant of Venice were published, though there is no evidence that Hamlet and Merchant of Venice were produced with Planché’s accurate costume designs. Planché wrote a number of plays or adaptations which were staged with accurate costumes. After 1830, although he still used period costume, he no longer claimed historical accuracy for his work in plays.
His work in King John had brought about a "revolution in nineteenth-century stage practice" which lasted for a century. In 1923 the first of a series of innovative modern dress productions of Shakespeare plays, directed by H. K. Ayliff, opened at Barry Jackson's Birmingham Repertory Theatre in England. Costumes in Chinese