The Day (New London)
The Day newspaper known as The New London Day, is a local newspaper based in New London, published by The Day Publishing Company. The newspaper has won Newspaper of the Year and the Best Daily Newspaper Award from the New England Press Association, it has twice won the Horace Greeley Award for "courage and outstanding effectiveness in serving the public." It has won the American Society of Newspaper Editors Example of Excellence in Small Newspaper award and the Columbia Journalism Review has listed it as one of the top 100 newspapers in the country with a circulation of less than 100,000 copies. The Day was founded in July 1881 as a mouthpiece of the local Republican Party in an era when many American newspapers served political parties, it was owned by a wealthy mercantile family in New London. In 1889, the original publisher, Maj. John A. Tibbits, left the paper to take a government post in England; the paper struggled for a few years until the family convinced Theodore Bodenwein to purchase the paper.
He purchased it in 1891, agreeing to change his political affiliation to Republican in order to secure a loan to purchase the paper. He remained the publisher until his death in 1939. Pat Richardson served as publisher from 2018 until her departure less than a year in early 2019, she was succeeded by Tim Dwyer, executive editor. In addition to The Day, The Day Publishing Co. runs several weekly newspapers along the shoreline in southern Connecticut. The paper endorsed Democratic Party candidate Senator Barack Obama for President of the United States in the 2008 election cycle, Hillary Clinton in 2016. Since the death of Theodore Bodenwein, whose tenure started in 1888, The Day has been held in public trust, is still independent; the Day Trust devotes its attention to operating the newspaper and supporting a charitable foundation, the Bodenwein Public Benevolent Foundation. This arrangement ensures that the newspaper will remain independent and locally owned and that profits from the newspaper will be distributed to non-profit organizations within The Day's primary circulation area.
In October 2010, The New England Newspaper & Press Association recognized The Day as its Newspaper of the Year for its weekday edition and Newspaper of the Year for its Sunday edition in the 25,000 to 40,000 circulation category. The Day received NENPA's Publick Occurrences award in recognition "of outstanding journalism in 2010 for flood coverage" that included its print and Web component in theday.com. The recognition came for coverage of the flooding in late March and early April that devastated many communities in southeastern Connecticut and southern Rhode Island. In December 2009, theday.com was recognized as New England's Website of the Year. That same year, reporter Lee Howard won the Theodore Driscoll Investigative Reporting Award for a series of stories about H1-B visa abuses; the Day's multimedia producer Peter Huoppi earned two Regional Emmy Awards in May 2010 for its multimedia series, "The Deaf Kid Who Played Rock n Roll" reported by Joe Wojtas. In 2012, political reporter JC Reindl won the Theodore Driscoll award for an article that raised questions about Connecticut’s investment in the ticket resale company TicketNetwork.
And Editorial Page Editor Paul Choiniere took home the First Amendment Award for a series of editorials on freedom of information issues. In August 2018, the paper was one of 18 newspapers nationally to win grants from Poynter's Community Listening and Engagement fund. There have been 52 recipients of the grant total. In September 2018 The Day implemented a change in their online commenting policy that required paid subscribers using screen names to comment on articles on the Day.com website using their real names instead of aliases or screen names. Official website
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher was a British statistician and geneticist. For his work in statistics, he has been described as "a genius who single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science" and "the single most important figure in 20th century statistics". In genetics, his work used mathematics to combine natural selection. For his contributions to biology, Fisher has been called "the greatest of Darwin’s successors". From 1919 onward, he worked at the Rothamsted Experimental Station for 14 years, he established his reputation there in the following years as a biostatistician. He is known as one of the three principal founders of population genetics, he outlined Fisher's principle, the Fisherian runaway and sexy son hypothesis theories of sexual selection. His contributions to statistics include the maximum likelihood, fiducial inference, the derivation of various sampling distributions, founding principles of the design of experiments, much more. Fisher held strong views on race.
Throughout his life, he was a prominent supporter of eugenics, an interest which led to his work on statistics and genetics. Notably, he was a dissenting voice in UNESCO's statement The Race Question, insisting on racial differences. Fisher was born in East Finchley in London, into a middle-class household, he was one of twins, with the other twin being still-born and grew up the youngest, with three sisters and one brother. From 1896 until 1904 they lived at Inverforth House in London, where English Heritage installed a blue plaque in 2002, before moving to Streatham, his mother, died from acute peritonitis when he was 14, his father lost his business 18 months later. Lifelong poor eyesight caused his rejection by the British Army for World War I, but developed his ability to visualize problems in geometrical terms, not in writing mathematical solutions, or proofs, he entered Harrow School won the school's Neeld Medal in mathematics. In 1909, he won a scholarship to study Mathematics at Cambridge.
In 1912, he gained a First in Astronomy. In 1915 he published a paper The evolution of sexual preference on sexual mate choice. During 1913–1919, Fisher worked for six years as a statistician in the City of London and taught physics and maths at a sequence of public schools, at the Thames Nautical Training College, at Bradfield College. There he settled with Eileen Guinness, with whom he had two sons and six daughters. In 1918 he published "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance", in which he introduced the term variance and proposed its formal analysis, he put forward a genetics conceptual model showing that continuous variation amongst phenotypic traits measured by biostatisticians could be produced by the combined action of many discrete genes and thus be the result of Mendelian inheritance. This was the first step towards establishing population genetics and quantitative genetics, which demonstrated that natural selection could change allele frequencies in a population, resulting in reconciling its discontinuous nature with gradual evolution.
Joan Box, Fisher's biographer and daughter says that Fisher had resolved this problem in 1911. In 1919, he began working at the Rothamsted Experimental Station for 14 years, where he analysed its immense data from crop experiments since the 1840s, developed the analysis of variance. In 1919, he was offered a position at the Galton Laboratory in University College London led by Karl Pearson, but instead accepted a temporary job at Rothamsted in Harpenden to investigate the possibility of analysing the vast amount of crop data accumulated since 1842 from the "Classical Field Experiments", he analysed the data recorded over many years and in 1921, published Studies in Crop Variation, his first application of the analysis of variance ANOVA. In 1928, Joseph Oscar Irwin began a three-year stint at Rothamsted and became one of the first people to master Fisher's innovations. Between 1912 and 1922 Fisher recommended and vastly popularized Maximum likelihood. Fisher's 1924 article On a distribution yielding the error functions of several well known statistics presented Pearson's chi-squared test and William Gosset's Student's t-distribution in the same framework as the Gaussian distribution and is where he developed Fisher's z-distribution a new statistical method used decades as the F distribution.
He pioneered the principles of the design of experiments and the statistics of small samples and the analysis of real data. In 1925 he published Statistical Methods for Research Workers, one of the 20th century's most influential books on statistical methods. Fisher's method is a technique for data fusion or "meta-analysis"; this book popularized the p-value, plays a central role in his approach. Fisher proposes the level p=0.05, or a 1 in 20 chance of being exceeded by chance, as a limit for statistical significance, applies this to a normal distribution, thus yielding the rule of two standard deviations for statistical significance. The 1.96, the approximate value of the 97.5 percentile point of the normal distribution used in probability and statistics originated in this book. "The value for which P=.05, or 1 in 20, is 1.96 or nearly 2
Karl Pearson HFRSE LLD was an English mathematician and biostatistician. He has been credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics, he founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London in 1911, contributed to the field of biometrics and meteorology. Pearson was a proponent of social Darwinism and eugenics. Pearson was a biographer of Sir Francis Galton. Pearson was born in Islington, London to William Pearson QC of the Inner Temple, his wife Fanny, had two siblings and Amy. Pearson was educated at University College School, after which he went to King's College, Cambridge in 1876 to study mathematics, graduating in 1879 as Third Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos, he travelled to Germany to study physics at the University of Heidelberg under G H Quincke and metaphysics under Kuno Fischer. He next visited the University of Berlin, where he attended the lectures of the physiologist Emil du Bois-Reymond on Darwinism. Pearson studied Roman Law, taught by Bruns and Mommsen, medieval and 16th century German Literature, Socialism.
He became an accomplished historian and Germanist and spent much of the 1880s in Berlin, Vienna, Saig bei Lenzkirch, Brixlegg. He wrote on Passion plays, Goethe, Werther, as well as sex-related themes, was a founder of the Men and Women's Club. Pearson was offered a Germanics post at Cambridge. Comparing Cambridge students to those he knew from Germany, Karl found German students inathletic and weak, he wrote his mother, "I used to think athletics and sport was overestimated at Cambridge, but now I think it cannot be too valued."On returning to England in 1880, Pearson first went to Cambridge: Back in Cambridge, I worked in the engineering shops, but drew up the schedule in Mittel- and Althochdeutsch for the Medieval Languages Tripos. In his first book, The New Werther, Pearson gives a clear indication of why he studied so many diverse subjects: I rush from science to philosophy, from philosophy to our old friends the poets. Have you attempted to conceive all there is in the world worth knowing—that not one subject in the universe is unworthy of study?
The giants of literature, the mysteries of many-dimensional space, the attempts of Boltzmann and Crookes to penetrate Nature's laboratory, the Kantian theory of the universe, the latest discoveries in embryology, with their wonderful tales of the development of life—what an immensity beyond our grasp! Mankind seems on the verge of a glorious discovery. What Newton did to simplify the planetary motions must now be done to unite in one whole the various isolated theories of mathematical physics. Pearson returned to London to study law, emulating his father. Quoting Pearson's own account: Coming to London, I read in chambers in Lincoln's Inn, drew up bills of sale, was called to the Bar, but varied legal studies by lecturing on heat at Barnes, on Martin Luther at Hampstead, on Lassalle and Marx on Sundays at revolutionary clubs around Soho, his next career move was to the Inner Temple, where he read law until 1881. After this, he returned to mathematics, deputising for the mathematics professor at King's College, London in 1881 and for the professor at University College, London in 1883.
In 1884, he was appointed to the Goldsmid Chair of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics at University College, London. Pearson became the editor of Common Sense of the Exact Sciences. 1891 saw him appointed to the professorship of Geometry at Gresham College. The collaboration, in biometry and evolutionary theory, was a fruitful one and lasted until Weldon died in 1906. Weldon introduced Pearson to Charles Darwin's cousin Francis Galton, interested in aspects of evolution such as heredity and eugenics. Pearson became Galton's protégé, at times to the verge of hero worship. In 1890 Pearson married Maria Sharpe; the couple had three children: Sigrid Loetitia Pearson, Helga Sharpe Pearson, Egon Pearson, who became a statistician himself and succeeded his father as head of the Applied Statistics Department at University College. Maria died in 1928 and in 1929 Karl married Margaret Victoria Child, a co-worker at the Biometric Laboratory, he and his family lived at 7 Well Road in Hampstead, now marked with a blue plaque.
After Galton's death in 1911, Pearson embarked on producing his definitive biography — a three-volume tome of narrative, genealogies and photographs — published in 1914, 1924, 1930, with much of Pearson's own money paying for their print runs. The biography, done "to satisfy myself and without regard to traditional standards, to the needs of publishers or to the tastes of the reading public", triumphed Galton's life and personal heredity, he predicted that Galton, rather than Charles Darwin, would be remembered as the most prodigious grandson of Erasmus Darwin. When Galton died, he left the residue of his estate to the University of London for a Chair in Eugenics. Pearson was the first holder of this chair — the Galton Chair of Eugenics the Galton Chair of Genetics—in accordance with Galton's wishes, he formed the Department of Applied Statistics, into which he incorporated the Biometric and Galton laboratories. He remained with the department until his retirement in 1933, con
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
University of Connecticut
The University of Connecticut is a public land grant, National Sea Grant and National Space Grant research university in Storrs, United States. It was founded in 1881; the primary 4,400-acre campus is in Storrs, Connecticut a half hour's drive from Hartford and 90 minutes from Boston. It is a flagship university, ranked as the best public national university in New England and is tied for No. 18 in Top Public Schools and No. 56 in National Universities in the 2018 U. S. News & World Report rankings. UConn has been ranked by Money Princeton Review top 18th in value; the university is designated "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education classifying the student body as "More Selective", its most selective admissions category. The university has been recognized as a Public Ivy, defined as a select group of publicly-funded universities considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
UConn is one of the founding institutions of the Hartford, Connecticut/Springfield, Massachusetts regional economic and cultural partnership alliance known as New England's Knowledge Corridor. UConn was the second U. S. university invited into Universitas 21, an elite international network of 24 research-intensive universities, who work together to foster global citizenship. UConn is accredited by the New England Association of Colleges. UConn was founded in 1881 as the Storrs Agricultural School, named after two brothers who donated the land for the school. In 1893, the school became a land grant college. In 1939, the name was changed to the University of Connecticut. Over the next decade, social work and graduate programs were established, while the schools of law and pharmacy were absorbed into the university. During the 1960s, UConn Health was established for new dental schools. John Dempsey Hospital opened in Farmington in 1975. Competing in the American Athletic Conference as the Huskies, UConn has been successful in their men's and women's basketball programs.
The Huskies have won 21 NCAA championships. The UConn Huskies are the most successful women's basketball program in the nation, having won a record 11 NCAA Division I National Championships and a women's record four in a row, plus over 40 conference regular season and tournament championships. UConn owns the two longest winning streaks of any gender in college basketball history. UConn was founded in 1881 as the Storrs Agricultural School, it was named after Charles and Augustus Storrs, brothers who donated the land for the school as well as initial funding. Women began attending classes in 1891 and were admitted in 1893, when the name was changed to Storrs Agricultural College and it became Connecticut's land grant college. In 1899, the name changed again to Connecticut Agricultural College. In 1940, the school was first divided into individual colleges and schools, reflecting its new university status; this was the year the School of Social Work and School of Nursing were established. The graduate program was started at this time, the schools of law and pharmacy were absorbed into the university.
Ph. D.s have been awarded since 1949. During the 1970s, UConn Health was established in Farmington as a home for the new School of Medicine and School of Dental Medicine. John Dempsey Hospital opened in Farmington in 1975 and has been operated by UConn since. In 1995, a state-funded program called UConn 2000 was passed by the Connecticut General Assembly and signed into law by then-Governor John G. Rowland; this 10-year program set aside $1 billion to upgrade campus facilities, add faculty, otherwise improve the university. An additional $1.3 billion was pledged by the State of Connecticut in 2002 as part of a new 10-year improvement plan known as 21st Century UConn. An agreement was reached in 2012 to launch Jackson Laboratory’s $1.1 billion genomic medicine lab on the Farmington UConn Health campus as part of the Bioscience Connecticut initiative. In 2013, Governor Dannel P. Malloy signed into law Next Generation Connecticut, committing $1.7 billion in funding over a decade to enhance UConn's infrastructure, hire additional faculty, upgrade STEM initiatives.
The primary and original UConn campus is in Storrs, a division of the Town of Mansfield, 22 miles east of Hartford, Connecticut's capital and bordered by the towns of Coventry, Willington and Ashford. The University of Connecticut Libraries form the largest public research collection in the state; the main library is the Homer D. Babbidge Library, on Fairfield Way in the center of campus. In 1882, Charles Storrs donated the first volumes to the university library collection; the university housed its primary library collections in the Old Whitney building, one of the first agriculture school buildings. The library migrated from Old Main to the basement of Beech Hall in 1929; the collection moved to the Wilbur Cross Building and remained there until the 1970s. The current main library, Homer Babbidge, was known as the Nathan Hale Library, it underwent a $3 million renovation, completed in 1998, making it the largest public research library in New England. The Storrs campus is home to the university's Music and Pharmacy libraries, the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, home to the university's archives and special collections, including university records, rare books, manuscript collections.
Each of the regional campuses have their own libraries, including the Jeremy Ri
Jerzy Neyman, born Jerzy Spława-Neyman, was a Polish mathematician and statistician who spent the first part of his professional career at various institutions in Warsaw, Poland and at University College London, the second part at the University of California, Berkeley. Neyman first introduced the modern concept of a confidence interval into statistical hypothesis testing and co-revised Ronald Fisher's null hypothesis testing, he was born into a Polish family in Bendery, in the Bessarabia Governorate of the Russian Empire, the fourth of four children of Czesław Spława-Neyman and Kazimiera Lutosławska. His family was Roman Neyman served as an altar boy during his early childhood. Neyman would become an agnostic. Neyman's family descended from a long line of military heroes, he graduated from the Kamieniec Podolski gubernial gymnasium for boys in 1909 under the name Yuri Cheslavovich Neyman. He began studies at Kharkov University in 1912, where he was taught by Russian probabilist Sergei Natanovich Bernstein.
After he read'Lessons on the integration and the research of the primitive functions' by Henri Lebesgue, he was fascinated with measure and integration. In 1921 he returned to Poland in a program of repatriation of POWs after the Polish-Soviet War, he earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree at University of Warsaw in 1924 for a dissertation titled "On the Applications of the Theory of Probability to Agricultural Experiments". He was examined among others, he spent a couple of years in London and Paris on a fellowship to study statistics with Karl Pearson and Émile Borel. After his return to Poland he established the Biometric Laboratory at the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology in Warsaw, he published many books dealing with experiments and statistics, devised the way which the FDA tests medicines today. Neyman proposed and studied randomized experiments in 1923. Furthermore, his paper "On the Two Different Aspects of the Representative Method: The Method of Stratified Sampling and the Method of Purposive Selection", given at the Royal Statistical Society on 19 June 1934, was the groundbreaking event leading to modern scientific sampling.
He introduced the confidence interval in his paper in 1937. Another noted contribution is the Neyman -- the basis of hypothesis testing, he was an Invited Speaker of the ICM in 1928 in Bologna and a Plenary Speaker of the ICM in 1954 in Amsterdam. In 1938 he moved to Berkeley. Thirty-nine students received their Ph. D's under his advisorship. In 1966 he was awarded the Guy Medal of the Royal Statistical Society and three years the U. S.'s National Medal of Science. He died in Oakland, California in 1981. Fisher, Ronald "Statistical methods and scientific induction" Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 17, 69—78. Neyman, Jerzy. "Note on an Article by Sir Ronald Fisher". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B. 18: 288–294. JSTOR 2983716. Reid, Jerzy Neyman—From Life, Springer Verlag, ISBN 0-387-90747-5 O'Connor, John J.. ASA biographical article by Chin Long Chiang Jerzy Neyman — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences Biography of Jerzy Neyman from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences