New Rochelle, New York
New Rochelle is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state. In 2007, the city had a population of 73,260, making it the seventh-largest in the state of New York; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population had increased to 77,062. In November 2008 Business Week magazine listed New Rochelle as the best city in New York State, one of the best places nationally, to raise children. In 2014, based on analysis of 550 U. S. cities, New Rochelle was voted the 13th best city to live in. The European settlement was started by refugee Huguenots in 1688, who were fleeing religious persecution in France after the revocation by the king of the Edict of Nantes. Many of the settlers were artisans and craftsmen from the city of La Rochelle, thus influencing the choice of the name of "New Rochelle"; some 33 families established the community of la Nouvelle-Rochelle in 1688. A monument containing the names of these settlers stands in Hudson Park, the original landing point of the Huguenots.
Thirty-one years earlier, the Siwanoy Indians, a band of Algonquian-speaking Lenape sold their land to Thomas Pell. In 1689 Pell deeded 6,100 acres for the establishment of a Huguenot community. Jacob Leisler is an important figure in the early histories of the nation, he arrived in America as a mercenary in the British army and became one of the most prominent merchants in New York. He was subsequently appointed acting-governor of the province, it was during this time that he acted on behalf of the Huguenots. Of all the Huguenot settlements in America founded with the intention of being distinctly French colonies, New Rochelle most conformed to the plans of its founders; the colony continued to attract French refugees until as late as 1760. The choice of name for the city reflected the importance of the city of La Rochelle and of the new settlement in Huguenot history and distinctly French character of the community. French was spoken, it was common practice for people in neighboring areas to send their children to New Rochelle to learn the language.
In 1775, General George Washington stopped in New Rochelle on his way to assume command of the Army of the United Colonies in Massachusetts. The British Army occupied sections of New Rochelle and Larchmont in 1776. Following British victory in the Battle of White Plains, New Rochelle became part of a "Neutral Ground" for General Washington to regroup his troops. After the Revolutionary War ended in 1784, patriot Thomas Paine was given a farm in New Rochelle for his service to the cause of independence; the farm, totaling about 300 acres, had been confiscated from its owners by state of New York due to their Tory activities. The first national census of 1790 shows New Rochelle with 692 residents. 136 were African American, including 36 who were the remainder slaves. Through the 18th century, New Rochelle had remained a modest village that retained an abundance of agricultural land. During the 19th century, New York City was a destination from the mid-century on by waves of immigration, principally from Ireland and Germany.
More established American families moved into this area. Although the original Huguenot population was shrinking in relative size, through ownership of land, businesses and small manufactures, they retained a predominant hold on the political and social life of the town; the 1820 Census showed 150 African-Americans residing in New Rochelle, six of whom were still slaves. The state abolished slavery by degrees: children of slave mothers were born free, all slaves were freed by 1827. In 1857 the Village of New Rochelle was established within the borders of the Town of New Rochelle. A group of volunteers created the first fire service in 1861. In 1899, a bill creating the New Rochelle City Charter was signed by Governor Theodore Roosevelt, it was through this bill that the Village and Town of New Rochelle were joined into one municipality. In 1899, Michael J. Dillon narrowly defeated Hugh A. Harmer to become New Rochelle's first mayor; the established city charter designated a board of aldermen as the legislative unit with two members to be elected from each of four wards and 10 elected from the city at-large.
By 1900 New Rochelle had a population of 14,720. Throughout the city, farms and wooded homesteads were bought up by realty and development companies. Planned residential neighborhoods such as Rochelle Park, one of the first planned communities in the country, soon spread across the city, earning New Rochelle the sobriquet "City of Homes". In 1909, Edwin Thanhouser established Thanhouser Film Corporation. Thanhouser's Million Dollar Mystery was one of the first serial motion pictures. In 1923, New Rochelle resident Anna Jones became the first African-American woman to be admitted to the New York State Bar. Poet and resident James J. Montague captured the image of New Rochelle in his 1926 poem "Queen City of the Sound".: No stern and rock bound coast is here, peaceful and at ease The quiet sea lies blue and clear Beside the spreading trees. Afar from din of marts and mills A happy people dwell Among the placid, green clad hills Of lovely New Rochelle... When Nature, seeking upon men To cast a magic spell, She looked the world around – and She fashioned New Rochelle.
In 1930, New Rochelle recorded a population of 54,000, up from 36,213 only ten years earlier. During the 1930s, New Rochelle was the wealthiest city per capita in New York state and the third wealthiest in the country. By the end of the century, the Metro North railroad station was rebuilt along with a $190 million entertainment complex, nicknamed New Roc City, which fe
WCW Monday Nitro
WCW Monday Nitro is a professional wrestling television program, produced by World Championship Wrestling and broadcast weekly every Monday night on TNT from September 4, 1995 to March 26, 2001, when WCW's assets were purchased by the WWF. For its entirety, the program went head-to-head with the World Wrestling Federation's Monday Night Raw. Created by Eric Bischoff and Ted Turner, the debut of Nitro began the Monday Night Wars, a television ratings battle between the WWF and WCW that saw each company resort to cutthroat tactics. Although comparable to Raw in popularity from the beginning, Nitro began to dominate its rival in television ratings, based on the strength of the New World Order, a rebellious group of wrestlers that wanted to take over WCW. Beginning in June 1996, Nitro beat Raw in the ratings for 83 consecutive weeks, forcing WWF owner Vince McMahon to usher in the more adult-oriented "Attitude Era"; as the nWo storyline grew stagnant, fan interest waned and Raw began to close the ratings gap.
In April 1998, a few weeks after Stone Cold Steve Austin won his first WWF Championship, Raw beat Nitro in the ratings for the first time in two years. The shows would continue to trade ratings wins back and forth until November 1998 when Raw pulled ahead of Nitro for good. Besides broadcasting from various arenas and locations across the United States and Canada, Nitro organized special broadcasts from the Disney-MGM Studios in Orlando in 1996, aired annual Spring Break-Out episodes from Panama City Beach, Florida or South Padre Island, Texas starting in March 1997, filmed some episodes in Australia and the United Kingdom during the fall of 2000; the rights to Nitro now belong to WWE. As of June 30, 2016, all episodes have been made available for streaming on the WWE Network. WWE has released three Best of WCW Monday Nitro DVD sets; the first episode of Nitro was broadcast from the Mall of America in Minneapolis, Minnesota on September 4, 1995. The featured matches on the one-hour broadcast were Brian Pillman versus Jushin Thunder Liger, Ric Flair versus WCW United States Heavyweight Champion Sting, WCW World Heavyweight Champion Hulk Hogan taking on Big Bubba Rogers.
The show was highlighted by the return of Lex Luger to WCW after having spent the previous two plus years wrestling for the WWF, where he had been one of the promotion's top stars. Luger's appearance was jarring because he had just wrestled a match for the WWF the previous evening; the event set the tone for Nitro's "anything can happen" atmosphere, prefigured the similar defections of WWF wrestlers Scott Hall and Kevin Nash the following year. The title video for the debut episode of Nitro featured multiple shots of Big Van Vader, who parted ways with WCW following a backstage altercation with Paul Orndorff. Absent from the first episode, he had been scheduled to face Hogan for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship on the September 11 edition, but was replaced by Lex Luger, who issued a challenge to Hogan on the debut show. Vader would never perform on Nitro, embarked on a WWF career in January 1996; the advent of Monday Nitro brought with it an intense rivalry between that show and the WWF's Monday Night Raw program.
This rivalry is known to wrestling fans as the "Monday Night Wars". Throughout the Monday Night Wars between Eric Bischoff and Vince McMahon, Nitro was gaining on its WWF counterpart popularity-wise. Soon Nitro would surpass Raw in the TV ratings. Nitro beat Raw in the ratings for 84 consecutive weeks until Raw regained ground in the ratings war. At its peak, the rivalry resulted in performers on either show trading verbal insults and challenges. At one point, Eric Bischoff challenged Vince McMahon to face him in a match to be held at Slamboree 1998. McMahon never did not appear. Nitro became popular as result of WCW's extensive roster of stars. Randy Savage and Hulk Hogan were some of the major stars signed with WCW and appearing on the Nitro program at this time. WCW's lineup of cruiserweights – smaller wrestlers known for their crowd-pleasing high-flying wrestling maneuvers – provided a strong set of setup matches for their main events. With the introduction of the New World Order, Nitro started its unprecedented run of ratings domination.
With former WWF wrestlers Scott Hall, Kevin Nash and Hogan as rebellious heels, the company seemed to have a winning story and a great future. Since Nitro was live and Raw was taped, Nitro was seen as far less predictable and thus more entertaining than its WWF counterpart. Only sixty minutes in length, Nitro was expanded to two hours following the 1996 NBA Playoffs while Raw waited until February 1997 to expand to a second hour. Nitro remained a two-hour program from May 27, 1996 until January 1998, when WCW and TNT agreed to a third hour for the still-#1 wrestling program in the country. Eric Bischoff soon became the voice of Nitro and began to air Nitro a couple of minutes before Raw so he could give away the results of the WWF program so fans had no reason to switch over to the competition provided that week's Raw was taped. While Raw was taking a new approach to programming with its "WWF Attitude Era", Nitro would start producing lackluster shows with the same storylines. Hogan and the rest of the nWo never lost and the once elite group was now bloated in size and recruiting midcard wrestlers.
Glossary of professional wrestling terms
Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable nomenclature throughout its existence. Much of it stems from the industry's origins in the days of circuses. In the past, professional wrestlers used such terms in the presence of fans so as not to reveal the worked nature of the business. In recent years, widespread discussion on the Internet has popularized these terms. Many of the terms refer to the financial aspects of professional wrestling in addition to in-ring terms. A-show A wrestling event where a company's biggest draws wrestle. Compare B-show and C-show. A-team A group of a wrestling promotion's top stars who wrestle at an A-show. Compare B-team. Abort To discontinue a feud, angle, or gimmick due to a lack of fan interest without explanation. Ace A term only used in Japanese puroresu for a wrestler designated as the face of the promotion. Not the same as the top champion. Examples of aces include Hayabusa in Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, Hiroshi Tanahashi in New Japan Pro Wrestling and Suwama in All Japan Pro Wrestling.
Agent Also producer. A management employee a former wrestler, who helps wrestlers set up matches, plan storylines, give criticisms on matches, relay instructions from the bookers. Agents act as a liaison between wrestlers and higher-level management and sometimes may help in training younger wrestlers, they are referred to by WWE as "producers". Alliance A cooperative relationship developed between two or more wrestlers, whether wrestling as a tag team or in individual matches. Differentiates from a stable and a faction as the wrestlers are not packaged together, but are presented as a group of individuals working together for a common short term goal. Alliances are formed for the specific purpose of retaining titles between the members of the alliance, or to counter a specific foe or group of foes; the formation of an alliance can be a storyline of its own. Angle A fictional storyline. An angle begins when one wrestler attacks another, which results in revenge. An angle may be as small as a vendetta that lasts for years.
It is not uncommon to see an angle become retconned due to it not getting over with the fans, or if one of the wrestlers involved in the angle is fired. Apter mag An old-style professional wrestling magazine; the term refers to the magazines at one time connected to journalist Bill Apter, such as Pro Wrestling Illustrated. B-show A wrestling event featuring the middle and lower-level talent of a wrestling promotion. Sometimes includes well-known wrestlers making a return or finishing up their career. Compare A-show and C-show. B-team The group of wrestlers on a B-show; the B-team will wrestle at a venue the same night wrestlers on the A-team are wrestling in a different event, although a promotion will sometimes schedule an event with B-team wrestlers to test a new market. Compare A-team. Babyface See face. Beat down An angle in which a wrestler or other performer is the recipient of a one-sided beating by a group of wrestlers. Blading Also juicing and getting color. A wrestler intentionally cutting themselves to provoke bleeding to sell the opponent's offense.
Blind tag 1. A tag made in a tag team match where the wrestler on the apron tags his partner unbeknownst to them or without their consent. 2. A tag where the tagger's opponent is unaware a tag has occurred, leaving them open to a blindside attack. Most occurs when the partner in the ring is thrown against the ropes or backed into their own corner. Blown spot See missed spot. Blow off The final match in a feud. While the involved wrestlers move onto new feuds, sometimes it is the final match in the promotion for one or more of the wrestlers. Blow up To become exhausted during a match. Book Also booking. To determine and schedule the events of a wrestling card; the person in charge of setting up matches and writing angles is a "booker". It is the wrestling equivalent of a screenwriter. A booker can be described as someone who recruits and hires talent to work in a particular promotion; the United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa defined a booker in 1956 as " any person who, for a fee or commission, arranges with a promoter or promoters for the performance of wrestlers in professional wrestling exhibitions".
Booking is the term a wrestler uses to describe a scheduled match or appearance on a wrestling show. Botch Something which does not go as planned due to a mistake. Bret's rope The second rope of a wrestling ring, the middle rope. Broadway Also going broadway. A match that ends in a time limit draw. Bump To fall on the mat or ground. A flat back bump is a bump in which a wrestler lands solidly on their back with high impact, spread over as much surface as possible. A "phantom bump" occurs when a referee takes a bump without a plausible reason. Burial Also buried; the worked lowering of a wrestler's status in the eyes of the fans. The opposite of a push, it is the act of a promoter or booker causing a wrestler to lose popularity and credibility through means such as forcing them to lose in squash matches, losing continuously, allowing opponents to no-sell or kick out of said wrestler's finisher, or forcing them to participate in unentertaining or degrading storylines. A burial is used a form of punishment due to real-life backstage disagreements between the wrestler and the booker, the wrestler falling out of favor with the company, or sometimes to demote an unpopular performer or gimmick.
Business Professional wrestling. Bust
DK known as Dorling Kindersley, is a British multinational publishing company specialising in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages. It is an imprint of Penguin Random House, a subsidiary of German media conglomerate Bertelsmann and British publishing company Pearson plc. Established in 1974, DK publishes a range of titles in genres including travel and crafts, history, gaming, gardening and fitness, natural history, parenting and reference, they publish books for children and babies, covering such topics as history, the human body and activities, as well as licensed properties such as LEGO, Disney and DeLiSo, licensor of the toy Sophie la Girafe. DK has offices in New York, London, New Delhi and Toronto. DK was founded as a book-packaging company by Christopher Dorling and Peter Kindersley in London in 1974, in 1982 moved into publishing; the first book published under the DK name was a First Aid Manual for the British voluntary medical services. DK Inc. began publishing in the United States in 1991.
That same year, Microsoft bought a 26 percent stake in DK. In 1999 it overestimated the market for Star Wars books and was left with millions of unsold copies, resulting in crippling debt; as a direct result, DK was taken over the following year by the Pearson plc media company and made part of Penguin Group, which owned the Penguin Books label. DK has continued to sell Star Wars books after the takeover. In 2013 Bertelsmann and Pearson completed a merger to form Penguin Random House. Bertelsmann Pearson 47 % of the company. Penguin's trade publishing activity continued to include DK under the newly formed Penguin Random House. DK publishes a range of titles internationally for children. Most of the company's books are produced by teams of editors and designers who work with freelance writers and illustrators; some are endorsed by "imprimaturs": well-known and respected organisations such as the British Medical Association, the Royal Horticultural Society and the British Red Cross. Some DK books produced by celebrity authors such as Carol Vorderman are ghostwritten by the company's own writers and editors.
BradyGames is a publishing company in the United States operating as a DK imprint, which specializes in video game strategy guides, covering multiple video game platforms. It published their first strategy guide in November 1993 as a division of MacMillan Computer Publishing. In 1998, Simon & Schuster divested BradyGames as part of its educational division to Pearson plc. BradyGames has grown to publish 90-100 guides per year. On 1 June 2015, BradyGames merged with Prima Games, future strategy guides made by the publishing company will be published under the Prima Games label. During the 1990s, the company published educational videos and a successful range of educational CD-ROMs under the brand DK Multimedia. During the late 1990s CD-ROMs were rebranded as DK Interactive Learning to reflect a changed emphasis toward the educational sector. Following dwindling sales and increasing competition from websites, the company tried to rebrand the digital part of its business as DK Online before opting to sell the UK publishing rights to its CD-ROM backlist in 2000 to an separate company, Global Software Publishing, part of the Avanquest Software Group.
The DK Online section of the business transferred into development work on the anglicised version of the Pearson Education KnowledgeBox product. In December 2010 DK opened an app store, selling digital versions of some of its books as well as products from other publishers. DK commenced publishing books aimed at teens with the release of Heads Up Psychology in May 2014 and further titles following every two to three months. Reception of the first title was favorable with Publishers Weekly writing "Attention-getting headers should hook curious readers, while the findings of psychological studies should deepen their understanding of this field. Infographics and photos both create an inviting visual layout and underscore the concepts discussed." While Booklist called it an "attractive book" and "a busy but appealing companion for high-school psychology textbooks." Other book series published include: DK Eyewitness Travel Guides The Big Ideas RHS Encyclopedia Doodlepedia The Little Courses Line of World Atlases.
Pocket Genius Touch & Feel Follow the Trail Peekaboo! Baby Sparkle Sophie la girafe My First Nature Explorers Ultimate Sticker Books Ultimate Factivity Collection DK Knowledge Encyclopedia All About DK Braille Made History DK Eyewitness Pocket Eyewitness Eyewitness Activities Utterly Amazing Eyewonder DKfindout! Alpha DK Eyewitness Travel Cartopedia DK website DK Travel DK Findout! DK English for Everyone BradyGames' official website Official YouTube channel
Spitting is the act of forcibly ejecting saliva or other substances from the mouth. It is considered rude and a social taboo in many parts of the world including the West, while in some other parts of the world it is considered more acceptable, it is believed that it is possible to transmit infectious diseases in this way, including tuberculosis and the common cold but the epidemiological evidence that this is the case is not present and it is that this belief, although intuitive, is not reflective of meaningful risk. Spitting upon another person onto the face, is a global sign of anger, disrespect or contempt, it can represent an act of intentional contamination. Social attitudes towards spitting have changed in Western Europe since the Middle Ages. Frequent spitting was part of everyday life, at all levels of society it was thought ill-mannered to suck back saliva to avoid spitting. By the early 1700s, spitting had become seen as something which should be concealed, by 1859 many viewed spitting on the floor or street as vulgar in mixed company.
Spittoons were used during the 19th century to provide an acceptable outlet for spitters. Spittoons became far less common after the influenza epidemic of 1918, their use has since disappeared, though each justice of the Supreme Court of the United States continues to be provided with a personal cuspidor. In the first half of the 20th century the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, the precursor to the American Lung Association, state affiliates had educational campaigns against spitting to reduce the chance of spreading tuberculosis. After coffee cupping, tea tasting and wine tasting, the sample is spit into a'spit bucket' or spittoon. There are some places where spitting is a competitive sport, with or without a projectile in the mouth. For example, there is a Guinness World Record for cherry pit spitting and cricket spitting, there are world championships in Kudu dung spitting. Gleeking is the projection of saliva from the sublingual gland upon compression by the tongue.
In general, gleeking occurs when an accumulation of saliva in the sublingual gland is propelled out in a stream when the gland is compressed by the tongue. The stream of saliva is released in the general direction of the front of the mouth. If the mouth is open the jet may project several feet. Gleeking may occur spontaneously due to accidental tongue pressure on the sublingual gland while talking, yawning, or cleaning the teeth. Gleeking can be induced, for instance, by pressing the underside of the tongue upwards against the palate pushing the tongue forward while moving the jaw forward. Practice is required to induce gleeking and induction is more to be successful under conditions of salivary stimulation. In rural parts of North India, it was customary in olden days for mothers to spit at their children to imply a sense of disparagement and imperfection that protects them from evil eye. Excessive admiration from well-meaning people, is believed to attract the evil eye, so this is believed to protect children from nazar that could be caused by their own mothers' "excessive" love of them.
However, because of hygiene, transmission of disease and social taboos, this practice has waned and instead a black mark of kohl or kajal is put on the forehead or cheek of the child to ward off the evil eye. Adults use an amulet worn on the body for this purpose. Sometimes, this is done with brides and others by their loved ones to protect them from nazar. Shopkeepers in the region used to sometimes make a spitting gesture on the cash proceeds from the first sale of the day, a custom believed to ward-off nazar from the business; such a habit existed in some Eastern European countries like Romania, Moldova, although it is no longer practiced. People would spit in the face of younger people they admire in order to avoid deochi, an involuntary curse on the individual being admired or "strangely looked upon", claimed to be the cause of bad fortune and sometimes malaise or various illnesses. In Greece, it is customary to "spit" three times after making a compliment to someone, the spitting is done to protect from the evil eye.
This applies to all people, it is not just between children. The spitting is light and from a distance, so it is not actual spitting on the face etc. of the person—which if done is derogatory. This practice sometimes extended to spitting on living plants and animals so as to protect them from sudden death or diseases, spells which were claimed to break the curse of the evil eye exist. A similar-sounding expression for verbal spitting occurs in modern Hebrew as "Tfu, tfu", which some say that Hebrew-speakers borrowed from Russian; when a suspect in a criminal case is arrested, they will sometimes try to spit at their captors, which causes a fear of infection by Hepatitis C and other diseases that may be transmitted by contact with another person's spittle. Spit hoods are a hood invented to deal with this risk. Spitting hoods are in use in Australia and England, where they were once used in handling a drunk airline passenge
John Stanley Hansen II is an American actor and retired professional wrestler. Hansen is known for his stiff wrestling style, he is known for his gimmick as a loud, violent cowboy who wanted to fight everybody, which he further emphasized by appearing in interviews with a cowboy hat, leather vest and bullrope while chewing on tobacco. Considered the most successful and popular gaijin in professional wrestling history, he became more well-known and revered in Japan than in his native United States, where he won championships. In 1989, he played a small role in the movie No Holds Barred. In 2011, he released The Last Outlaw. Hansen played college football for the West Texas State Buffaloes. Hansen made his professional wrestling debut in 1973. A part-time job while playing football for the Detroit Wheels, he began wrestling full-time when the team folded. In 1975, Hansen first teamed with future partner Frank Goodish, who adopted the ring name Bruiser Brody, while competing in Leroy McGuirk's Tri-State territory.
In 1976, Hansen made his debut for the World Wide Wrestling Federation and only two months after he began competing for the company, he began feuding with the WWF Heavyweight Champion Bruno Sammartino over the title. During a title match, Hansen broke Sammartino's neck while they were wrestling and it was from this incident that both Hansen and promoters claimed that Sammartino's injury came about from the enormous power of his lariat. However, a botched powerslam is what caused Sammartino's injury. After Sammartino recovered, Hansen faced him for the WWWF Heavyweight Championship once again, but was unsuccessful, he left the promotion soon after. He returned in 1980, rekindling his feud with Sammartino and facing Pedro Morales and Andre the Giant on several occasions, he developed a heated feud with then-WWF Champion Bob Backlund which culminated in a steel cage match at Madison Square Garden. Hansen first came to New Japan Pro Wrestling in May 1980 doing one off shows where teamed and fought Bob Backlund.
From November 21 to December 13, 1980, Hansen did a tour for New Japan Pro Wrestling, where he competed in the first MSG league. He teamed with Hulk Hogan, he returned. He returned for several more one off shows until leaving the promotion in early 1981. Hansen returned at NJPW's Super Fight in Tokyo Dome event in 1990, where he had an infamous interpromotional match against Vader; the match for the IWGP Heavyweight Championship saw Big Van Vader get struck in the eye during the entrances by Hansen's Bullrope. Both men were known to use a stiff style of wrestling, resulting in a nasty exchange where each man threw legitimate punches; the match ended in a draw, Hansen never returned to New Japan. In 1981, Hansen abruptly left NJPW to join All Japan Pro Wrestling. While in AJPW, Hansen became the only man to pin Antonio Inoki and Giant Baba in championship singles matches, he continued wrestling from 1982 to 1999 in World's Strongest Tag Determination League. He wrestled in tag matches, where he formed many teams with the likes of Bruiser Brody, Terry Gordy, Ted DiBiase, Genichiro Tenryu, Dan Spivey, Bobby Duncum Jr. and Big Van Vader.
Hansen engaged in a renowned brawl with André the Giant in Japan. In addition to championship matches, Hansen competed in other high-profile matches. At the NJPW Super Fight in Tokyo Dome show on February 2, 1990, Hansen competed in another notable match as he represented AJPW against NJPW representative Big Van Vader; this particular match became renowned for its stiffness, as Hansen and Vader exchanged blows until Hansen unintentionally poked Vader's right eye with his thumb, which caused the eye to pop out of its socket. After removing his mask, pushing the eye back into its socket and holding it in place with his eyelid, Vader continued wrestling Hansen until the match was rendered a no contest; as a result of the injury, Vader required a metal plate to be surgically placed under his eye. On April 13, 1990, the World Wrestling Federation and AJPW held a supershow called Wrestling Summit at the Tokyo Dome in Tokyo, in which Hansen lost to Hulk Hogan in the main event. Hansen won his first Triple Crown Heavyweight Championship by defeating Terry Gordy on June 8, 1990, wrestled a rematch in NJPW against Vader on June 12.
Hansen competed in the American Wrestling Association from 1985 to 1986. He won the World Heavyweight Championship on December 1985, from Rick Martel. On June 29, 1986, he no-showed a title defense against the number one contender Nick Bockwinkel due to disagreements with management, forcing the AWA to default the title to Bockwinkel. Rumors suggest that Hansen was in the building that evening and had been informed by AWA promoter Verne Gagne of the pending loss to Bockwinkel. Hansen called All Japan Pro Wrestling president Giant Baba to ask if losing the championship was acceptable, but Baba had lined up challengers for Hansen and did not permit Hansen to drop the championship. In the end, Hansen was stripped of the championship. Hansen returned to Japan and defended the AWA World Heavyweight Championship, despite being stripped of it; the AWA threatened legal action if Hansen continued to carry the belt and refer to himself as the organization's champion, so Hansen responded by running over t
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti