Queen's University Belfast
Queen's University Belfast is a public research university in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The university was chartered in 1845, opened in 1849 as "Queen's College, Belfast", it offers academic degrees at various levels and across a broad subject range, with over 300 degree programmes available. Its president and vice-chancellor is Ian Greer; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £369.2 million of which £91.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £338.4 million. Queen's is a member of the Russell Group of leading research intensive universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, Universities Ireland and Universities UK; the university is associated with one Turing Award laureate. Queen's University Belfast has its roots in the Belfast Academical Institution, founded in 1810 and which remains as the Royal Belfast Academical Institution; the present university was first chartered as "Queen's College, Belfast" in 1845, when it was associated with the founded Queen's College and Queen's College, Galway, as part of the Queen's University of Ireland – founded to encourage higher education for Catholics and Presbyterians, as a counterpart to Trinity College, Dublin an Anglican institution.
Queen's College, opened in 1849. Its main building, the Lanyon Building, was designed by Sir Charles Lanyon. At its opening, it had 195 students; some early students at Queen's University Belfast took University of London examinations. The Irish Universities Act, 1908 dissolved the Royal University of Ireland, which had replaced the Queen's University of Ireland in 1879, created two separate universities: the current National University of Ireland and Queen's University of Belfast; the university was one of only eight United Kingdom universities to hold a parliamentary seat in the House of Commons at Westminster until such representation was abolished in 1950. The university was represented in the Parliament of Northern Ireland from 1920 to 1968, when graduates elected four members. On 20 June 2006, the university announced a £259 million investment programme focusing on facilities and research. One of the outcomes of this investment has been a new university library; the building has been named in honour of Sir Allen McClay, a major benefactor of Queen's University and of the Library.
In June 2010, the university announced the launch of a £7.5m Ansin international research hub with Seagate Technologies. Queen's is one of the largest employers in Northern Ireland, with a total workforce of 3,903, of whom 2,414 were members of academic, academic-related and research staff and 1,489 were administrative employees. In addition to the main campus on the southern fringes of Belfast city centre, the university has two associated university colleges, St Mary's and Stranmillis located in the west and south-west of the city respectively; these colleges offer teacher training for those who wish to pursue teaching careers and a range of degree courses, all of which are centred around a liberal arts core. While the university refers to its main site as a campus, the university's buildings are in fact spread over a number of public streets in South Belfast, principally Malone Road, University Road, University Square and Stranmillis Road, with other departments located further afield. Academic life at Queen's is organised into fifteen schools across three faculties.
The three faculties are the Faculty of Arts, Humanities & Social Sciences, the Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences and the Faculty of Medicine, Health & Life Sciences. Each of the schools operates as a primary management unit of the university and the schools are the focus for education and research for their respective subject areas. School of Biological Sciences School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science School of Arts and Languages School of History, Anthropology and Politics School of Law Queen's Management School School of Mathematics and Physics School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences School of Nursing and Midwifery School of Pharmacy School of Natural and Built Environment School of Psychology School of Social Sciences and Social Work Gibson Institute- involved in education and research in the areas of sustainability, rural development, environmental management, food marketing, renewable energy, physical activity and public health Institute for Collaborative Research in the Humanities – established in 2012, supports interdisciplinary research in the Humanities at all levels.
On Feb 18th 2016 BBC Northern Ireland reported. Institute for Global Food Security Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation and Social Justice Institute of Cognition and Culture- Founded in 2004, this is one of the world's first centres for research in the cognitive science of culture, it has brought together a range of cutting-edge cognitive scientists via a series of visiting fellowships. Institute of Electronics and Information Technology - established in 2003 to commercialise world-class research and expertise in a variety of enabling digital communications technologies at the School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Queen's University Belfast. Institute of Irish Studies- It was the first of its kind to be established in the world and is one of the lead
County Tyrone is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland and one of the thirty-two counties on the island of Ireland. It is no longer used as an administrative division for local government but retains a strong identity in popular culture. Adjoined to the south-west shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3,155 km2 and has a population of about 177,986; the county derives its name and general geographic location from Tyrone, a Gaelic kingdom under the O'Neill dynasty which existed until the 17th century. The name Tyrone is derived from Irish Tír Eoghain, meaning'land of Eoghan', the name given to the conquests made by the Cenél nEógain from the provinces of Airgíalla and Ulaid, it was anglicised as Tirowen or Tyrowen, which are closer to the Irish pronunciation. Tyrone stretched as far north as Lough Foyle, comprised part of modern-day County Londonderry east of the River Foyle; the majority of County Londonderry was carved out of Tyrone between 1610–1620 when that land went to the Guilds of London to set up profit making schemes based on natural resources located there.
Tyrone was the traditional stronghold of the various O'Neill clans and families, the strongest of the Gaelic Irish families in Ulster, surviving into the seventeenth century. The ancient principality of Tír Eoghain, the inheritance of the O'Neills, included the whole of the present counties of Tyrone and Londonderry, the four baronies of West Inishowen, East Inishowen, Raphoe North and Raphoe South in County Donegal. In 1608 during O'Doherty's Rebellion areas of the country were plundered and burnt by the forces of Sir Cahir O'Doherty following his destruction of Derry. However, O'Doherty's men avoided the estates of the fled Earl of Tyrone around Dungannon, fearing Tyrone's anger if he returned from his exile. With an area of 3,155 square kilometres, Tyrone is the largest county in Northern Ireland; the flat peatlands of East Tyrone border the shoreline of the largest lake in the British Isles, Lough Neagh, rising across to the more mountainous terrain in the west of the county, the area surrounding the Sperrin Mountains, the highest point being Sawel Mountain at a height of 678 m.
The length of the county, from the mouth of the River Blackwater at Lough Neagh to the western point near Carrickaduff hill is 55 miles. The breadth, from the southern corner, southeast of Fivemiletown, to the northeastern corner near Meenard Mountain is 37.5 miles. Annaghone lays claim to be the geographical centre of Northern Ireland. Tyrone is connected by land to the county of Fermanagh to the southwest. Across Lough Neagh to the east, it borders County Antrim, it is the eighth largest of Ireland's thirty-two counties by tenth largest by population. It is the second largest of Ulster's nine traditional counties by area and fourth largest by population, it is one of four counties in Northern Ireland which has a majority of the population from a Catholic community background, according to the 2011 census. In 1900 County Tyrone had a population of 197,719, while in 2011 it was 177,986. Omagh Cookstown Dungannon Strabane Coalisland Castlederg Ardboe Carrickmore Dromore Fintona Fivemiletown Killyclogher Moy Newtownstewart Sion Mills Baronies Clogher Dungannon Lower Dungannon Middle Dungannon Upper Omagh East Omagh West Strabane Lower Strabane UpperParishes Townlands There is the possibility of the line being reopened to Dungannon railway station from Portadown.
The major sports in Tyrone are association football, rugby union and cricket. Gaelic football is more played than hurling in Tyrone; the Tyrone GAA football side has had considerable success since 2000, winning three All Ireland titles. They have won fifteen Ulster titles and two National League titles. Association football has a large following in Tyrone. Omagh Town F. C. were members of the Irish Football League. Dungannon Swifts F. C. compete in the NIFL Premiership - the top division. Other teams include NIFL Championship side Dergview F. C.. Rugby union is popular in the county. Dungannon RFC plays in the All-Ireland League. Other teams include Omagh RFC, Clogher Valley RFC, Cookstown RFC and Strabane RFC. International Cricket is played on the Bready Cricket Club Ground, owned by Bready Cricket Club, it is Ireland's fourth venue for International Cricket hosting its first International Cricket match when Ireland played against Scotland in a series of T20I matches in June 2015. It was selected. Abbeys and priories in Northern Ireland High Sheriff of Tyrone List of civil parishes of County Tyrone List of places in County Tyrone List of townlands in County Tyrone Lord Lieutenant of Tyrone Ulster American Folk Park The Moorlough Shore Joost, Augusteijn.
The Memoirs of John M. Regan, a Catholic Officer in the RIC and RUC, 1909–48. Co. Tyrone. ISBN 978-1-84682-069-4. McNeill, I.. The Flora of County Tyrone. National Museums of
Doctor of Public Health
The Doctor of Public Health is a doctoral degree awarded in the field of public health. The DrPH is the highest, terminal, professional degree in the field of public health, it prepares its recipients for a leadership career in advanced public health practice and administration. Many DrPH holders hold positions in academia, including teaching and research. DrPH holders occupy senior or executive leadership roles in private and public sectors, non-governmental organizations, international health entities such as the World Health Organization. A DrPH is a leadership-centered, interdisciplinary degree that equips its holders with the skill set necessary for public health practice as opposed to a Ph. D., purely research-oriented. The DrPH degree is categorized as a terminal professional degree similar to the Doctor of Education, Doctor of Social Work, Doctor of Medicine, or Doctor of Psychology degrees. Admission into a DrPH program requires a master of public health degree as a prerequisite. Furthermore, a DrPH requires several years of public health leadership and practice experience for an admission.
In contrast, one may enter a Ph. D. or ScD program after completing a bachelor degree with no experience or advanced academic training. DrPH: Leadership and public health practice, applied research, academia to a lesser extent. Ph. D.: Research and academia. A typical accredited DrPH program requires a two-year long intensive multidisciplinary coursework in advanced research methodology - similar to a Ph. D. Additionally, as a distinction and addition to a Ph. D. DrPH students take advanced courses to gain analytical skills in leadership, systems thinking and health policy. DrPH students are required to complete a public health practice experience as a critical part of their DrPH program. Students apply the skills learned in public health practice to gain leadership experience and hone their skills through hands-on experience. Most universities require a rigorous comprehensive exam at the end of first two-years of coursework and public health residency before a candidate may be advanced to the dissertation phase.
Some DrPH programs, such as the Tufts University, require a Qualifying Exam - taken at the end of the first year -, along with the comprehensive exam, taken at the end of the second year. DrPH students are required to complete and defend an applied public health practice-related dissertation during their candidacy phase after the comprehensive exams, in order to complete the program; the average time to complete a DrPH is 4-7 years. Some of the universities offering DrPH in the USA are listed below. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Tufts University School of Medicine Boston University School of Public Health Drexel University School of Public Health Florida A & M University Institute of Public Health The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health City University of New York Graduate Center Claremont Graduate University School of Community & Global Health Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Harvard School of Public Health University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center School of Public Health Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health University of California, Berkeley University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Public Health New York Medical College School of Public Health Colorado School of Public Health University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, School of Public Health University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health University of Georgia College of Public Health University of South Florida College of Public Health Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences University at Albany, SUNY School of Public Health Loma Linda University School of Public Health Oakwood University University of Kentucky's College of Public Health University of Iowa College of Public Health East Tennessee State University College of Public Health University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health SUNY Downstate Medical Center Morgan State University School of Community Health and Policy Georgia Southern University Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health Georgia State University School of Public Health University of Mississippi Medical Center Bower School of Population Health Brunel University of West London Imperial College London School of Public Health London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Chester University Teesside University Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Public health, Mahidol University, Thailand Department of Public Health, Faculty of Public health, Naresuan University, Thailand James Cook University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine.
Burke's Peerage Limited is a British genealogical publisher founded in 1826, when Irish genealogist John Burke began releasing books devoted to the ancestry and heraldry of the peerage, baronetage and landed gentry of the United Kingdom. His first publication, a Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom, was updated sporadically until 1847, when the company began releasing new editions every year as Burke's Peerage and Knightage. Other books followed, including Burke's Landed Gentry, Burke's Colonial Gentry, Burke's General Armory. In addition to the peerage, Burke's published books on royal families of Europe and Latin America, ruling families of Africa and the Middle East, distinguished families of the United States and historical families of Ireland; the firm was established in 1826 by progenitor of a dynasty of genealogists and heralds. His son Sir John Bernard Burke was Ulster King of Arms and his grandson, Sir Henry Farnham Burke, was Garter Principal King of Arms.
After his death, ownership passed through a variety of people. Apart from the Burke family, editors have included Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, Alfred Trego Butler, Leslie Gilbert Pine, Peter Townend, Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd. From the start, Burke's works suffered from pomposity and carelessness. Readers may have accepted as a minor eccentricity of style the idolisation of medieval figures who were little more than brigands and the ludicrously reverential tone adopted towards otherwise insignificant people who happened to possess a title or were related to a titled person; the major fault of substance, was the frequent and evident inaccuracy of the articles. Without much knowledge of history or genealogy, one could see improbabilities and inconsistencies both within articles and between articles. Errors in existing articles remained uncorrected between editions and new errors were added in new articles. A minor example can be found as late as 1953, where the article on the Baden-Powell barony contained a statement about the relationship of the first baron to the family of the first Earl Nelson, not supported by the article on the Nelson earldom, because there was no relationship and the statement was untrue.
When such carelessness was shown over recent links, what hope had readers of finding accurate guidance over titles with complicated ascents going back to remote medieval times? Serious scholars have always taken little account of Burke's books, exposing their flaws from time to time. In 1877, the Oxford professor Edward Augustus Freeman attacked in language of unexampled scorn, the fables and the fictions in Burke's, where he could find a pedigree, purely mythical – if indeed mythical is not too respectable a name for what must be in many cases the work of deliberate invention …. All but invariably false; as a rule, it is not only false, but impossible … not fictions, but that kind of fiction which is, in its beginning and interested falsehood. The reputation of the imprint in informed circles was well established by 1893 when Oscar Wilde in the play A Woman of No Importance wrote: "You should study the Peerage, Gerald, it is the one book a young man about town should know and it is the best thing in fiction the English have done!"
Such barbs had little effect for, writing in 1901, the historian J. Horace Round aimed many blows at the old fables and grotesquely impossible tales still being perpetuated by Burke's. More recent editions have been more scrupulously checked and rewritten for accuracy, notably under the chief editorship, from 1949-59, of L. G. Pine-, sceptical regarding many families' claims to antiquity: - and Hugh Massingberd. Almanach de Gotha Burke’s Landed Gentry Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage European royalty Hereditary peers Life Peers Baronets Burke's Peerage website Burke's Peerage Foundation website College of Arms website Lyon Court website Standing Council of the Baronetage website 1st edition - 1826 - Hathitrust 3rd edition - 1830 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Google Books 4th edition - corrected to 1833 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 5th edition - 1838 - Google Books 6th edition - 1839 - Hathitrust 7th edition - 1843 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 10th edition - 1848 - Hathitrust 12th edition - 1850 - Hathitrust 20th edition - 1858 - Hathitrust 22nd edition - 1860 - Hathitrust 23rd edition - 1861 - Hathitrust 27th edition - 1865 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 37th edition - 1875 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 48th edition - 1886 - University of Dusseldorf 53rd edition - 1891 - University of Dusseldorf 76th edition - 1914 - Archive.org 99th edition - 1949 - Archive.org 102nd edition - 1959 - Hathitrust
Doctor of Medicine
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States and other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who hold a professional degree in medicine. In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine. University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century.
The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB. Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Harvard, McGill; these first few North American medical schools that were established were founded by physicians and surgeons, trained in England and Scotland. A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. A doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction. In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country.
Entry to medical school is competitive, only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum, during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they begin to practice, they may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency; the MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine".
After the civil wars, medical education has changed, the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor". In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation. Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's degrees which permits the use of the term'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have renamed their previous medical research doctorates; the University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science. In French-speaking Belgium, the medical degree awarded after six years of study is "Docteur en Médecine". Physicians would have to register with the Ordre des Medicins to practice medicine in the country. At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine.
After 6 years of general medical education, all students will graduate with
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Paddington is an area within the City of Westminster, in central London. First a medieval parish a metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1965. Three important landmarks of the district are Paddington station, designed by the celebrated engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel and opened in 1847. A major project called Paddington Waterside aims to regenerate former railway and canal land between 1998 and 2018, the area is seeing many new developments. Offshoot districts are Maida Vale and Bayswater including Lancaster Gate; the earliest extant references to Padington a part of Middlesex, appear in documentation of purported 10th-century land grants to the monks of Westminster by Edgar the Peaceful as confirmed by Archbishop Dunstan. However, the documents' provenance is much and to have been forged after the 1066 Norman conquest. There is no mention of the place in the Domesday Book of 1086, it has been reasonably speculated that a Saxon settlement was located around the intersection of the northern and western Roman roads, corresponding with the Edgware Road and the Harrow and Uxbridge Roads.
A more reliable 12th-century document cited by the cleric Isaac Maddox establishes that part of the land was held by brothers "Richard and William de Padinton". In the Elizabethan and early Stuart era, the rectory and associated estate houses were occupied by the Small family. Nicholas Small was a clothworker, sufficiently well connected to have Holbein paint a portrait of his wife, Jane Small. Nicholas died in 1565 and his wife married again, to Nicholas Parkinson of Paddington who became master of the Clothworker's company. Jane Small continued to live in Paddington after her second husband's death, her manor house was big enough to have been let to Sir John Popham, the attorney general, in the 1580s, they let the building. As the regional population grew in the 17th century, Paddington's ancient Hundred of Ossulstone was split into divisions. By 1773, a contemporary historian felt and wrote that "London may now be said to include two cities, one borough and forty six antient villages... Paddington and Marybone."Roman roads formed the parish's north-eastern and southern boundaries from Marble Arch: Watling Street and.
They were toll roads in much of the 18th century and after the dismantling of the permanent Tyburn gallows "tree" at their junction in 1759 a junction now known as Marble Arch. By 1801, the area saw the start-point of an improved Harrow Road and an arm of the Grand Junction Canal. In the 19th century the part of the parish most sandwiched between Edgware Road and Westbourne Terrace, Gloucester Terrace and Craven Hill, bounded to the south by Bayswater Road, was known as Tyburnia; the district formed the centrepiece of an 1824 masterplan by Samuel Pepys Cockerell to redevelop the Tyburn Estate into a residential area to rival Belgravia. The area was laid out in the mid-1800s when grand squares and cream-stuccoed terraces started to fill the acres between Paddington station and Hyde Park. Despite this, Thackeray described the residential district of Tyburnia as "the elegant, the prosperous, the polite Tyburnia, the most respectable district of the habitable globe." Derivation of the name is uncertain.
Speculative explanations include Padre-ing-tun, Pad-ing-tun, Pæding-tun the last being the cited suggestion of the Victorian Anglo-Saxon scholar John Mitchell Kemble. There is another Paddington in Surrey, recorded in the Domesday Book as "Padendene" and associated with the same ancient family. A lord named Padda is named in the Domesday Book, associated with Suffolk. An 18th-century dictionary gives "Paddington Fair Day. An execution day, Tyburn being in the parish or neighbourhood of Paddington. To dance the Paddington frisk. Public executions were abolished in England in 1868; the Paddington district is centred around Paddington railway station. The conventional recognised boundary of the district is much smaller than the longstanding pre-mid-19th century parish; that parish was equal to the borough abolished in 1965. It is divided from a northern offshoot Maida Vale by the Regent's Canal. In the east of the district around Paddington Green it remains divided from Marylebone by Edgware Road. In the south west it is bounded by western offshoot Bayswater.
A final offshoot, rises to the north west. A lagoon created in the 1810s at the convergence of the Paddington Arm of the Grand Union Canal, the Regent's Canal and the Paddington Basin, it is an important focal point of the Little Venice area. It is reputedly named after the poet. More known as the "Little Venice Lagoon" it contains a small islet known as Browning's Island. Although Browning was thought to have coined the name "Little Venice" for this spot there are strong arguments Lord Byron was responsible. Paddington station is the iconic landmark associated with the area. In the station are statues of