University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
The General (1926 film)
The General is a 1926 American silent comedy film released by United Artists. It was inspired by the Great Locomotive Chase, a true story of an event that occurred during the American Civil War; the story was adapted from the memoir The Great Locomotive Chase by William Pittenger. The film stars Buster Keaton. At the time of its initial release, The General, an action-adventure-comedy made toward the end of the silent era, was not well received by critics and audiences, resulting in mediocre box office returns; because of its then-huge budget and failure to turn a significant profit, Keaton lost his independence as a filmmaker and was forced into a restrictive deal with MGM. In 1954 the film entered the public domain in the United States because its claimant did not renew its copyright registration in the 28th year after publication; the General has since been reevaluated, is now ranked among the greatest American films made. Western & Atlantic Railroad train engineer Johnnie Gray is in Marietta, Georgia to see one of the two loves of his life, his fiancée Annabelle Lee —the other being his locomotive, The General—when the American Civil War breaks out.
He hurries to be first in line to enlist in the Confederate Army, but is rejected because he is too valuable in his present job. On leaving, he runs into Annabelle's father and brother, who beckon to him to join them in line, but he sadly walks away, giving them the impression that he does not want to enlist. Annabelle coldly informs Johnnie. A year passes, Annabelle receives word that her father has been wounded, she travels north on the W&ARR with The General pulling the train to see him but still wants nothing to do with Johnnie. When the train makes a stop, the passengers detrain for a quick meal; as planned, Union spies led by Captain Anderson use the opportunity to steal the train. Anderson's objective is to burn all the railroad bridges he passes, thus preventing reinforcement and resupply of the Confederate army facing Union General Parker's army. Annabelle becomes an inadvertent prisoner of the raiders. Johnnie gives chase, first on foot by handcar and boneshaker bicycle, before reaching a station in Chattanooga.
He alerts the army detachment there, which boards another train to give chase, with Johnnie manning the locomotive, Texas. However, the flatcars are not hooked up to the engine, the troops are left behind. By the time Johnnie realizes he is alone, it is too late to turn back; the Union agents try a variety of methods to shake their dogged pursuer, including disconnecting their trailing car and dropping railroad ties on the tracks. As the unusual duel continues northward, the Confederate Army of Tennessee is ordered to retreat and the Northern army advances in its wake. Johnnie notices he is surrounded by Union soldiers and the hijackers see that Johnnie is by himself. Johnnie runs into the forest to hide. At nightfall, Johnnie stumbles upon the Northern encampment. Hungry, he climbs through a window to steal some food, but hides underneath the table when some officers enter, he overhears their plan for a surprise attack and that the Rock River Bridge is essential for their supply trains to support the attack.
He sees Annabelle brought in. Johnnie manages to knock out both free Annabelle, they escape into the woods under cover of a rainstorm. The next day and Annabelle find themselves near a railway station, where Union soldiers and equipment are being organized for the attack. Seeing The General, Johnnie devises a plan to warn the South. After sneaking Annabelle onto a boxcar behind The General, Johnnie steals his engine back. Two Union trains, including the Texas, set out after the pair, while the Union attack is launched. In a reversal of the first chase, Johnnie now has to fend off his pursuers, he starts a fire behind The General in the center of the Rock River Bridge to cut off his pursuers and the Union's important supply line. Reaching friendly lines, Johnnie warns the local Confederate commander of the impending attack. Confederate forces rush to defend the bridge. Meanwhile, Annabelle is reunited with her convalescing father; the Texas drives onto the burning bridge. Union soldiers try to ford the river.
Afterward, Johnnie returns to his locomotive to find the Union officer whom he had knocked out earlier in order to escape regaining consciousness. He is spotted by the general leaving the locomotive with him; as a reward for his bravery, he is commissioned a lieutenant and given the captured officer's sword. Returning to The General with Annabelle, he tries to kiss his girl but has to return the salutes of troops walking past. Johnnie uses his left hand to embrace Annabelle while using his right to blindly salute the passing soldiers while he kisses her as the screen fades to black. Buster Keaton as Johnnie Gray Marion Mack as Annabelle Lee Glen Cavender as Union Captain Anderson Jim Farley as General Thatcher Frederick Vroom as a Confederate General Charles Henry Smith as Annabelle's Father Frank Barnes as Annabelle's Brother Joe Keaton as a Union General Mike Donlin as a Union General Tom Nawn as a Union General In early 1926, Keaton's collaborator Clyde Bruckman to
Film preservation, or film restoration, describes a series of ongoing efforts among film historians, museums and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images which they contain. In the widest sense, preservation nowadays assures that a movie will continue to exist in as close to its original form as possible. For many years the term "preservation" was synonymous with "duplication" of film; the goal of a preservationist was to create a durable copy without any significant loss of quality. In more modern terms, film preservation now includes the concepts of handling, duplication and access; the archivist seeks to share the content with the public. Film preservation is not to be confused with film revisionism, in which long-completed films are subjected to outtakes never seen being inserted, newly inserted music scores or sound effects being added, black-and-white film being colorized or converted to Dolby stereo, or minor edits and other cosmetic changes being made.
By the 1980s, it was becoming apparent that the collections of motion picture heritage were at risk of becoming lost. Not only was the preservation of nitrate film an ongoing problem, but the discovery that safety film, used as a replacement for the more volatile nitrate stock, was beginning to be affected by a unique form of decay known as "vinegar syndrome", color film manufactured, in particular, by Eastman Kodak, was found to be at risk of fading. At that time, the best known solution was to duplicate the original film onto a more secure medium. 90 percent of all American silent films made before 1929 and 50 percent of American sound films made before 1950 are lost films. Although institutional practices of film preservation date back to the 1930s, the field received an official status only in 1980, when UNESCO recognized "moving images" as an integral part of the world's cultural heritage; the great majority of films made in the silent era are now considered lost forever. Movies of the first half of the 20th century were filmed on an unstable flammable cellulose nitrate film base, which required careful storage to slow its inevitable process of decomposition over time.
Most films made on nitrate stock were not preserved. Many of them were destroyed in studio or vault fires; the largest cause, was intentional destruction. As film preservationist Robert A. Harris explains, "Most of the early films did not survive because of wholesale junking by the studios. There was no thought of saving these films, they needed vault space and the materials were expensive to house." Silent films had little or no commercial value after the advent of sound films in the 1930s, as such, they were not kept. As a result, preserving the now rare silent films has been a high priority amongst film historians; because of the fragility of film stock, proper preservation of film involves storing the original negatives and prints in climate-controlled facilities. The vast majority of films were not stored in this manner, which resulted in the widespread decay of film stocks; the problem of film decay is not limited to films made on cellulose nitrate. Film industry researchers and specialists have found that color films are decaying at an rapid rate.
A number of well-known films only exist as copies of original film productions or exhibition elements because the originals have decomposed beyond use. Cellulose acetate film, the initial replacement for nitrate, has been found to suffer from "vinegar syndrome"; the ongoing preservation of color films is now presented with an issue, as low temperatures, which inhibit color fading increase the effects of vinegar syndrome, while higher temperatures cause color fading. In 2002, filmmaker Bill Morrison produced Decasia, a film based on fragments of old unrestored nitrate-based films in various states of decay and disrepair, providing a somewhat eerie aesthetic to the film; the film was paired together with a soundtrack composed by Michael Gordon, performed by his orchestra. The footage used was from old newsreel & archive film, was obtained by Morrison from several sources, such as the Fox Movietone Newsfilm Archives at the University of South Carolina, the archives of the Museum of Modern Art.
The "preservation" of film refers to physical storage of the film in a climate-controlled vault, sometimes to the actual repair and copying of the film element. Preservation is different from "restoration", as restoration is the act of returning the film to a version most faithful to its initial release to the public and involves combining various fragments of film elements. Film is best preserved by proper protection from external forces while in storage along with being under controlled temperatures. For most film materials, the Image Permanence Institute finds that storing film media in frozen temperatures, with RH between 30% and 50% extends its useful life; these measures inhibit deterioration better than any other methods and is a cheaper solution than replicating deteriorating films. In most cases, when a film is chosen for preservation or restoration work, new prints are created from the original camera negative or the composite restoration negative, made from a combination of elements for general screening.
The composite restoration negative is a compilation of duplicated sections of the best remaining material, recombined to approximate the original configuration of the original camera negative at some time in the film's release cycle, while the original camera negative
Aelita known as Aelita: Queen of Mars, is a silent film directed by Soviet filmmaker Yakov Protazanov made at the Mezhrabpom-Rus film studio and released in 1924. It was based on Alexei Tolstoy's novel of the same name. Nikolai Tseretelli and Valentina Kuindzhi were cast in leading roles. Though the main focus of the story is the daily lives of a small group of people during the post-war Soviet Union, the enduring importance of the film comes from its early science fiction elements, it tells of a young man, traveling to Mars in a rocket ship, where he leads a popular uprising against the ruling group of Elders, with the support of Queen Aelita who has fallen in love with him after watching him through a telescope. In its performances in the cinemas in Leningrad, Dmitri Shostakovich played on the piano the music he provided for the film. In the United States, Aelita was edited and titled by Benjamin De Casseres for release in 1929 as Aelita: Revolt of the Robots. Moscow, 1921. A mysterious wireless message is received by various stations: its text is'Anta Odeli Uta'.
Someone facetiously suggests it has come from Mars, in order to tease Los, an engineer, obsessed with the idea of going to Mars. This inspires him to daydream about a strange civilization there. We see the queen, they live in a society where aristocrats rule over slaves who are confined underground and put into cold storage when not required. Los's wife Natasha is pestered by Ehrlich, a bourgeois playboy before the revolution, now a dishonest minor official, he uses his connections to steal a large amount of sugar with the intention of selling it on the black market. Los, who has seen Erlich making up to Natasha but has not seen her rejecting him, becomes jealous. Los continues to daydream: he imagines that Aelita has access to a telescope by which she can see people on Earth and has become attracted to him. Spiridnov, an intellectual engineer and friend of Los's, is being swindled by Ehrlich, he disappears. Los's jealousy gets out of control and he shoots Natasha: disguising himself as Spiridnov with a wig, false beard and glasses, he goes into hiding and makes plan to escape to Mars in a rocketship he has been constructing.
A friend of his, Gussev, an ex-soldier, agrees to go with him. They take off. Los confuses Kratsov by removing the disguise, they land on Mars. Tuskub orders them killed, ignoring Aelita's pleas for their safety. Kratsov is taken before Tuskub and demands that the soldiers arrest the other two: he is promptly arrested; the chief astronomer tells her where Los's ship has landed. The maid is arrested and sent to the slave's caves - Gussev, who has taken a fancy to her, follows. Aelita and Los meet and fall in love, though Los sees her as Natasha, they are arrested and sent to the caves. Gussev tells the slaves of his own countries' revolution and foments a revolt, which Aelita takes command of. Tuskub is overthrown and the army sides with Aelita - she commands them to fire on the workers and herd them back to the caves - she intends to rule Mars herself. Disgusted, Los kills Aelita. Back on Earth, it's clear that all this is a daydream. Erlich is arrested for the murder of Spiridnov. A poster on a wall advertises a maker of tyres -'Anta Odeli Uta': the wireless message had been an advertisement.
Los had not injured or killed Natasha and they make up: he burns his spaceship plans and promises to stop daydreaming. One of the earliest full-length films about space travel, the most notable part of the film remains its remarkable constructivist Martian sets by Isaac Rabinovich and Victor Simov and costumes designed by Aleksandra Ekster, their influence can be seen in a number of films, including the Flash Gordon serials and Fritz Lang's Metropolis and Woman in the Moon and in the more recent Liquid Sky. Parts of the plot were loosely adapted for the 1951 film Flight to Mars. While popular at first, the film fell out of favor with the Soviet government and was thus difficult to see until after the Cold War; the 2004 DVD from Ruscico runs 104 min. and has a musical score based on the music of Scriabin and Glazunov. In a retrospective on Soviet science fiction film, British director Alex Cox remarking on BFI Southbank's celebration of "Eastern Bloc science fiction" called Aelita "Strangest of these in which the human pastime of kissing creates turmoil on the red planet."
List of films set on Mars List of films featuring surveillance 1924 in science fiction Aelita on IMDb Aelita at AllMovie "Science Fiction of the Domestic" by Andrew J. Horton The movie complete, with English intertitles on YouTube Multi-language DVD released by RUSCICO An edit consisting of The Martian scenes with modern improvised score on YouTube The Analog Music Project's music video featuring part of The Martian scenes on YouTube
A Farewell to Arms (1932 film)
A Farewell to Arms is a 1932 American pre-Code romance drama film directed by Frank Borzage and starring Helen Hayes, Gary Cooper, Adolphe Menjou. Based on the 1929 semi-autobiographical novel A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway, with a screenplay by Oliver H. P. Garrett and Benjamin Glazer, the film is about a romantic love affair between an American ambulance driver and an English nurse in Italy during World War I; the film received Academy Awards for Best Cinematography and Best Sound, was nominated for Best Picture and Best Art Direction. In 1960, the film entered the public domain in the United States because the last claimant, United Artists, did not renew its copyright registration in the 28th year after publication; the original Broadway play starred Glenn Anders and Elissa Landi. On the Italian front during World War I, Frederic Henry, an American serving as an ambulance driver in the Italian Army, delivers some wounded soldiers to a hospital. There he meets Italian Major Rinaldi, a doctor.
They are interrupted by a bombing raid. Frederic and English Red Cross nurse Catherine Barkley take shelter in the same place; the somewhat drunk Frederic makes a poor first impression. Rinaldi persuades Frederic to go on a double romantic date with him and two nurses and her friend Helen Ferguson. However, Rinaldi becomes annoyed when Frederic prefers Catherine, the woman the major had chosen for himself. Away by themselves, Frederic learns that she was engaged to a soldier, killed in battle. In the darkness, he romantically seduces her, over her half-hearted resistance, is surprised to discover she is a virgin, their romantic relationship is discovered. At Rinaldi's suggestion, Catherine is transferred to Milan; when Frederic is wounded by artillery, he finds himself in the hospital. They continue their affair. Now pregnant, Catherine runs away to Switzerland, but her many letters to her beloved sweetheart/lover are intercepted by Rinaldi, who feels he needs to rescue his friend from the romantic entanglement.
Meanwhile, Frederic's letters to her are sent to the hospital. After a time, Frederic cannot stand being away from Catherine any longer, he heads out in search of her. Returning first to the hospital in Milan, he attempts to convince the reluctant Ferguson to reveal Catherine's whereabouts to him. Displaying animosity toward Frederic, all she reveals is that Catherine has left and is pregnant with Frederic's child. Rinaldi visits him at the hotel where he is hiding, upon hearing of Catherine's pregnancy, out of remorse for having interfered with their correspondence, tells Frederic where she is living, he rows across a lake to her. Meanwhile, Catherine is delighted when she is told she has received some mail, but faints when she is given all of her romantic love letters, marked "Return to Sender", she is taken to the hospital. She herself is in grave danger. Frederic arrives, just as an armistice between Italy and Austria-Hungary is announced, Catherine tragically dies, with him at her side. Helen Hayes as Catherine Barkley Gary Cooper as Lieutenant Frederic Henry Adolphe Menjou as Major Rinaldi Mary Philips as Helen Ferguson Jack La Rue as Priest Blanche Friderici as Head Nurse Mary Forbes as Miss Van Campen Gilbert Emery as British Major Herman Bing as Swiss Postal Clerk Agostino Borgato as Giulio In his review in The New York Times, Mordaunt Hall wrote, "There is too much sentiment and not enough strength in the pictorial conception of Ernest Hemingway's novel... the film account skips too from one episode to another and the hardships and other experiences of Lieutenant Henry are passed over too abruptly, being suggested rather than told...
Gary Cooper gives an earnest and splendid portrayal Helen Hayes is admirable as Catherine... another clever characterization is contributed by Adolphe Menjou... it is unfortunate that these three players, serving the picture so well, do not have the opportunity to figure in more dramatic interludes."Dan Callahan of Slant Magazine notes, "Hemingway... was grandly contemptuous of Frank Borzage's version of A Farewell to Arms... but time has been kind to the film. It launders out the writer's... pessimism and replaces it with a testament to the eternal love between a couple."Time Out London calls it "not only the best film version of a Hemingway novel, but one of the most thrilling visions of the power of sexual love that Borzage made... no other director created images like these, using light and movement like brushstrokes, integrating naturalism and a daring expressionism in the same shot. This is romantic melodrama raised to its highest degree." The film won two Academy Awards and was nominated for another two: Academy Award for Best Picture Academy Award for Best Art Direction Academy Award for Best Cinematography Academy Award for Sound - Franklin Hansen Also, the film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2002: AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – Nominated List of films in the public domain in the United States The House That Shadows Built A Farewell to Arms on IMDb A Farewell to Arms at AllMovie A Farewell to Arms is available for free download at the Internet Archive A Farewell to Arms on Studio One, February 17, 1948 A Farewell to Arms on NBC University Theater, August 6, 1948
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York