A polychlorinated biphenyl is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were once deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids; because of their longevity, PCBs are still in use though their manufacture has declined drastically since the 1960s, when a host of problems were identified. With the discovery of PCBs' environmental toxicity, classification as persistent organic pollutants, their production was banned by United States federal law in 1978, by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001; the International Agency for Research on Cancer, rendered PCBs as definite carcinogens in humans. According to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, PCBs are probable human carcinogens. Many rivers and buildings, including schools and other sites, are contaminated with PCBs and there has been contamination of food supplies with the substances; some PCBs share a structural similarity and toxic mode of action with dioxins.
Other toxic effects such as endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are known. The maximum allowable contaminant level in drinking water in the United States is set at zero, but because of the limitations of water treatment technologies, a level of 0.5 parts per billion is the de facto level. The bromine analogues of PCBs are polybrominated biphenyls, which have analogous applications and environmental concerns; the compounds are pale-yellow viscous liquids. They are hydrophobic, with low water solubilities: 0.0027–0.42 ng/L for Aroclors, but they have high solubilities in most organic solvents and fats. They have low vapor pressures at room temperature, they have dielectric constants of 2.5–2.7 high thermal conductivity, high flash points. The density varies from 1.182 to 1.566 g/cm3. Other physical and chemical properties vary across the class; as the degree of chlorination increases, melting point and lipophilicity increase, vapour pressure and water solubility decrease. PCBs do not break down or degrade, which made them attractive for industries.
PCB mixtures are resistant to acids, oxidation and temperature change. They can generate toxic dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans through partial oxidation. Intentional degradation as a treatment of unwanted PCBs requires high heat or catalysis. PCBs penetrate skin, PVC, latex. PCB-resistant materials include Viton, polyvinyl acetate, polytetrafluoroethylene, butyl rubber, nitrile rubber, Neoprene. PCBs are derived from biphenyl, which has the formula C12H10, sometimes written 2. In PCBs, some of the hydrogen atoms in biphenyl are replaced by chlorine atoms. There are 209 different chemical compounds in which one to ten chlorine atoms can replace hydrogen atoms. PCBs are used as mixtures of compounds and are given the single identifying CAS number 1336-36-3. About 130 different individual PCBs are found in commercial PCB products. Toxic effects vary depending on the specific PCB. In terms of their structure and toxicity, PCBs fall into two distinct categories, referred to as coplanar or non-ortho-substituted arene substitution patterns and noncoplanar or ortho-substituted congeners.
Coplanar or non-ortho The coplanar group members have a rigid structure, with their two phenyl rings in the same plane. It renders their structure similar to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, allows them to act like PCDDs, as an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in organisms, they are considered as contributors to overall dioxin toxicity, the term dioxins and dioxin-like compounds is used interchangeably when the environmental and toxic impact of these compounds is considered. Noncoplanar Noncoplanar PCBs, with chlorine atoms at the ortho positions can cause neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects, but only at concentrations much higher than those associated with dioxins, they do not activate the AhR, are not considered part of the dioxin group. Because of their lower toxicity, they are of less concern to regulatory bodies. Di-ortho-substituted, non-coplanar PCBs interfere with intracellular signal transduction dependent on calcium which may lead to neurotoxicity.
Ortho-PCBs can disrupt thyroid hormone transport by binding to transthyretin. Commercial PCB mixtures were marketed under the following names: The only North American producer, Monsanto Company, marketed PCBs under the trade name Aroclor from 1930 to 1977; these were sold under trade names followed by a four-digit number. In general, the first two digits refer to the product series. Thus, Aroclor 1260 contains 60 % chlorine by mass, it is a myth. The 1100 series was a crude PCB material, distilled to create the 1200 series PCB product; the exception to the naming system is Aroclor 1016, produced by distilling 1242 to remove the chlorinated congeners to make a more biodegradable product. "1016" was given to this product during Monsanto's research stage for tracking purposes but the name stuck after it was commercialized. Different Aroclors were used for different applications. In electrical equipment manufacturing in the US, Aroclor 1260 and Aroclor 1254 were the main mixtures used before 1950.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane known as DDT, is a colorless and odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine developed as an insecticide, becoming infamous for its environmental impacts. It was first synthesized in 1874 by the Austrian chemist Othmar Zeidler. DDT's insecticidal action was discovered by the Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller in 1939. DDT was used in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods" in 1948. By October 1945, DDT was available for public sale in the United States. Although it was promoted by government and industry for use as an agricultural and household pesticide, there were concerns about its use from the beginning. Opposition to DDT was focused by the 1962 publication of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring, it cataloged environmental impacts that coincided with widespread use of DDT in agriculture in the United States, it questioned the logic of broadcasting dangerous chemicals into the environment with little prior investigation of their environmental and health effects.
The book claimed that DDT and other pesticides had been shown to cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife birds. Its publication was a seminal event for the environmental movement and resulted in a large public outcry that led, in 1972, to a ban on DDT's agricultural use in the United States. A worldwide ban on agricultural use was formalized under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, but its limited and still-controversial use in disease vector control continues, because of its effectiveness in reducing malarial infections, balanced by environmental and other health concerns. Along with the passage of the Endangered Species Act, the United States ban on DDT is a major factor in the comeback of the bald eagle and the peregrine falcon from near-extinction in the contiguous United States. DDT is similar in structure to the acaricide dicofol, it is hydrophobic and nearly insoluble in water but has good solubility in most organic solvents and oils.
DDT does not occur and is synthesised by a Friedel–Crafts hydroxyalkylation reaction between chloral and chlorobenzene, in the presence of an acidic catalyst. DDT has been marketed under trade names including Anofex, Chlorophenothane, Dinocide, Guesapon, Gyron, Neocid and Zerdane. Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely–related compounds; the major component is p' isomer. The o,p' isomer is present in significant amounts. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane make up the balance. DDE and DDD are environmental breakdown products. DDT, DDE and DDD are sometimes referred to collectively as DDX. DDT has been formulated in multiple forms, including solutions in xylene or petroleum distillates, emulsifiable concentrates, water-wettable powders, aerosols, smoke candles and charges for vaporizers and lotions. From 1950 to 1980, DDT was extensively used in agriculture – more than 40,000 tonnes each year worldwide – and it has been estimated that a total of 1.8 million tonnes have been produced globally since the 1940s.
In the United States, it was manufactured by some 15 companies, including Monsanto, Montrose Chemical Company and Velsicol Chemical Corporation. Production peaked in 1963 at 82,000 tonnes per year. More than 600,000 tonnes were applied in the US before the 1972 ban. Usage peaked in 1959 at about 36,000 tonnes. In 2009, 3,314 tonnes were produced for malaria visceral leishmaniasis. India is the only country still manufacturing DDT, is the largest consumer. China ceased production in 2007. In insects, DDT opens sodium ion channels in neurons, causing them to fire spontaneously, which leads to spasms and eventual death. Insects with certain mutations in their sodium channel gene are resistant to DDT and similar insecticides. DDT resistance is conferred by up-regulation of genes expressing cytochrome P450 in some insect species, as greater quantities of some enzymes of this group accelerate the toxin's metabolism into inactive metabolites. Genomic studies in the model genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster revealed that high level DDT resistance is polygenic, involving multiple resistance mechanisms.
DDT was first synthesized in 1874 by Othmar Zeidler under the supervision of Adolf von Baeyer. It was further described in 1929 in a dissertation by W. Bausch and in two subsequent publications in 1930; the insecticide properties of "multiple chlorinated aliphatic or fat-aromatic alcohols with at least one trichloromethane group" were described in a patent in 1934 by Wolfgang von Leuthold. DDT's insecticidal properties were not, discovered until 1939 by the Swiss scientist Paul Hermann Müller, awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his efforts. DDT is the best-known of several chlorine-containing pesticides used in the 1950s. With pyrethrum in short supply, DDT was used extensively during World War II by the Allies to control the insect vectors of typhus – nearly eliminating the disease in many parts of Europe. In the South Pacific, it was sprayed aerially for malaria and dengue fever control with spectacular effects. While DDT's chemical and insectici
University of Oregon
The University of Oregon is a public flagship research university in Eugene, Oregon. Founded in 1876, the institution's 295-acre campus is along the Willamette River. Since July 2014, UO has been governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon; the university has a Carnegie Classification of "highest research activity" and has 19 research centers and institutes. UO was admitted to the Association of American Universities in 1969; the University of Oregon is organized into five colleges and seven professional schools and a graduate school. Furthermore, UO offers 316 graduate degree programs. Most academic programs follow the 10 week Quarter System. UO student-athletes compete as the Ducks and are part of the Pac-12 Conference in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. With eighteen varsity teams, the Oregon Ducks are best known for their football team and track and field program; the university's motto, Mens agitat molem, is shared by the Military Academy of the German Armed Forces founded in 1957, the University of Warwick founded in 1965, Eindhoven University of Technology founded in 1956.
Book VI, line 727 of the Aeneid by Virgil has been identified as the first written record of this thought. The Oregon State Legislature established the university on October 12, 1872, despite the new state's funding woes; the residents of Eugene struggled to help finance the institution, holding numerous fundraising events such as strawberry festivals, church socials, produce sales. They raised $27,500, enough to buy eighteen acres of land at a cost of $2,500; the doors opened in 1876 with the name of Oregon State University and Deady Hall as its sole building. The first year of enrollment contained 155 students taught by five faculty members; the first graduating class was in 1878. In 1881, the university was nearly closed. In 1913 and 1932, there were proposals to merge the university with what is now Oregon State University. Both proposals were defeated. During Prince Lucien Campbell's tenure as president from 1902 to 1925, the university experienced tremendous growth; the budget, enrollment and faculty members all grew several times its amount prior to his presidency.
Numerous schools were established during his tenure, including the School of Music in 1902, the School of Education in 1910, the School of Architecture, the College of Business in 1914, the School of Law in 1915, the School of Journalism in 1916, the School of Health and Physical Education in 1920. However, the University of Oregon lost its School of Engineering to Oregon Agricultural College, now known as Oregon State University. In 1917, a "three term" calendar was adopted by the university faculty as a war-time measure; this academic calendar has remained since then. However, it is now referred to as the Quarter System; the Zorn-MacPherson Bill in 1932 proposed the University of Oregon State College merge. The bill lost in a landslide vote of over 6 to 1; the University of Oregon Medical School was founded in 1887 in Portland and merged with Willamette University's program in 1913. However, in 1974 it became an independent institution known as Oregon Health Sciences University. In 1969, the UO was admitted into the Association of American Universities.
With financial support from the state dwindling from 40% to 13% of the university budget, in January 2001, University President Dave Frohnmayer began Campaign Oregon with the goal of raising $600 million by December 2008, the most ambitious philanthropic fundraising campaign in the state's history at the time. With contributions exceeding $100 million from benefactors such as Phil Knight and Lorry I. Lokey, the campaign goal was exceeded by over $253 million; the university occupies over 80 buildings. There are several ongoing campus construction projects such as a $95 million expansion and renovation of the Erb Memorial Union scheduled to open in September 2016 as well as a $16.75 million successor to the Science Library complex. These projects, among others, were commissioned in part to support current student enrollment as well as possible future increases. In reaction to a growing movement to establish an independent university board, the Oregon Legislature in 2013 passed SB 270, requiring local governing boards for the state's three largest institutions.
Effective July 1, 2014, the University of Oregon became an independent public body governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon. Proponents of local governing boards believe an independent board will give the university more autonomy, free it from relying on inadequate state funding. On August 6, 2014, Michael R. Gottfredson resigned as president. In the summer of 2014, former UO president Robert Berdahl told the president of the university's board of trustees he believes UO risks losing its membership in the Association of American Universities. To address this growing concern, UO began preparing several initiatives which include a cluster-hire and a capital campaign. In the fall of 2014 the institution announced; this number was revised to $3 billion in the fall of 2018. Michael H. Schill became the university's president in the summer of 2015. In June 2015, UO's endowment surpassed the $700 million mark. Eugene will host the 2021 World Championships in Athletics. University facilities, such
California's 33rd congressional district
California's 33rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California based in Los Angeles County. The district is represented by Democrat Ted Lieu. In 2014, after 40 years in Congress, previous representative Henry Waxman announced his retirement. People announcing their campaigns for this seat in the 2014 election cycle included: author Marianne Williamson, director Brent Roske, producer/historian Vince Flaherty and Deputy District Attorney for L. A. County Elan Carr.. State Senator Ted Lieu succeeded Henry Waxman in Congress in January 2015, after having defeated Los Angeles County deputy district attorney Elan Carr in the November 4 general election; the district includes cities and districts on the West side of Los Angeles, the South Bay beach cities including portions of Torrance and the entire Palos Verdes Peninsula within Los Angeles County. They include: Agoura Hills Bel Air Beverly Hills Brentwood Calabasas El Segundo Fairfax District, Los Angeles Hermosa Beach Holmby Hills Malibu Manhattan Beach Marina del Rey Pacific Palisades Palos Verdes Estates Playa del Rey Rancho Palos Verdes Redondo Beach Rolling Hills Rolling Hills Estates Santa Monica Santa Monica Mountains communities and parks Topanga Torrance University of California, Los Angeles campus Venice Westwood District created January 3, 1963 As of January 2019, there are five former members of the U.
S. House of Representatives from California's 33rd congressional district that are living; the most recent representative to die was Wayne R. Grisham on January 19, 2011, he was the most serving representative to die. From 2003 to 2013, the district encompassed the incorporated city of Culver City, in the Baldwin Hills unincorporated areas such as Ladera Heights, some of the western neighborhoods within the city of Los Angeles such as Baldwin Hills. List of United States congressional districts Mark Leibovich, "Real House Candidates of Beverly Hills", New York Times GovTrack.us: Current map of California's 33rd congressional district GovTrack.us: Representative Henry Waxman RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions
An environmentalist is a supporter of the goals of the environmental movement, "a political and ethical movement that seeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activities". An environmentalist believes in the philosophy of environmentalism. Environmentalists are sometimes referred to using informal or derogatory terms such as "greenie" and "tree-hugger"; some of the notable environmentalists who have been active in lobbying for environmental protection and conservation include: Edward Abbey Ansel Adams Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad David Attenborough Sundarlal Bahuguna Patriarch Bartholomew I David Bellamy Wendell Berry Chandi Prasad Bhatt Murray Bookchin Stewart Brand David Brower Lester Brown Kevin Buzzacott Helen Caldicott Rachel Carson Charles, Prince of Wales Barry Commoner Jacques-Yves Cousteau Leonardo DiCaprio Rolf Disch René Dubos Paul R. Ehrlich Hans-Josef Fell Jane Fonda Mizuho Fukushima Rolf Gardiner Peter Garrett Al Gore James Hansen Denis Hayes Nicolas Hulot Tetsunari Iida John James Audubon Jorian Jenks Naomi Klein Aldo Leopold A.
Carl Leopold Charles Lindbergh James Lovelock Amory Lovins Hunter Lovins Caroline Lucas Mark Lynas Kaveh Madani Peter Max Bill McKibben David McTaggart Mahesh Chandra Mehta Chico Mendes George Monbiot John Muir Hilda Murrell Ralph Nader Gaylord Nelson Eugene Pandala Medha Patkar Alan Pears River Phoenix Jonathon Porritt Phil Radford Bonnie Raitt Theodore Roosevelt Ken Saro-Wiwa E. F. Schumacher Shimon Schwarzschild Vandana Shiva Gary Snyder Jill Stein Swami Sundaranand David Suzuki Candice Swanepoel Shōzō Tanaka Henry David Thoreau Greta Thunberg J. R. R. Tolkien Jo Valentine Dominique Voynet Harvey Wasserman Paul Watson Robert K. Watson Franz Weber Henry Williamson Shailene Woodley In recent years, there are not only environmentalist for natural environment but environmentalist for human environment. For instance, the activists who call for "mental green space" by getting rid of disadvantages of internet, cable TV, smartphones have been called "info-environmentalists". Environmentalism Global 500 Roll of Honour Grantham Prize for Excellence in Reporting on the Environment Heroes of the Environment Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement Conservationist Conservation movement Conservation ethic Ecology movement Goldman Environmental Prize Green libertarianism Ecofascism Green conservatism List of peace activists List of people associated with renewable energy List of pro-nuclear environmentalists Greenpeace School strike for climate EnviroLink Network - A non-profit clearinghouse of environmental news and information
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
Henry Arnold Waxman is an American politician who served as the U. S. Representative for California's 33rd congressional district from 1975 until 2015. Waxman is a member of the Democratic Party, his district included much of the western part of the city of Los Angeles, as well as West Hollywood, Santa Monica and Beverly Hills, was numbered the 24th district from 1975 to 1993, the 29th district from 1993 to 2003, the 30th district from 2003 to 2013, changing due to redistricting after the 1990, 2000 and 2010 censuses. He now serves as Chairman at Waxman Strategies, a DC-based communications and lobbying firm, working on issues like health care, energy and telecommunications. In addition, he serves as a Regent Lecturer for University of California, Los Angeles, as an advisor and lecturer at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Waxman was considered to be one of the most influential liberal members of Congress and was instrumental in passing laws including the Infant Formula Act of 1980, the Orphan Drug Act of 1983, the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, the Clean Air Act of 1990, the Ryan White CARE Act of 1990, the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, the State Children's Health Insurance Program of 1997, the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act of 2006, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.
He served as Chairman of the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform from 2007 to 2009, Chairman of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce from 2009 to 2011 and was the ranking member of the Energy and Commerce Committee from 2011 until 2015. On January 30, 2014, Waxman announced he would not seek re-election to a 21st term in 2014. State senator Ted Lieu defeated district attorney Elan Carr in the midterm election on November 4, 2014, succeeded Waxman on January 3, 2015. Waxman was born in Los Angeles, the son of Esther and Ralph Louis Waxman, his father was born in Montreal and his mother was from Pennsylvania. He attended college at UCLA, earning a bachelor's degree in political science in 1961 and a J. D. degree from UCLA School of Law in 1964. After graduating, he worked as a lawyer, he served three terms. Along with Congressman Howard Berman, Waxman co-founded the Los Angeles County Young Democrats. In 1974, Democratic congressman Chet Holifield retired after 16 terms in Congress.
Waxman gave up his state assembly seat to run for the district, renumbered from the 19th to the 24th in a mid-decade redistricting. Waxman won the Democratic nomination for the district, won the general election, as this was tantamount to election in this Democratic district, he was re-elected 17 times with no substantive opposition. He faced no major-party opposition in 1986, was unopposed in 2008, his district changed numbers four times in his tenure—from the 24th to the 29th to the 30th to the 33rd. At the time of his retirement, he was one of the last two members, along with George Miller of California, of the large Democratic freshman class of 1975. From 2003 to 2013, Waxman's district included Santa Monica, Beverly Hills, Agoura Hills, Hidden Hills, West Hollywood, Westlake Village as well as such areas of western Los Angeles as West Los Angeles, Pacific Palisades, Beverlywood, Chatsworth, Westwood, West Hills, Westside Village, Woodland Hills, but through the creation of a new 33rd Congressional District by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission, in the November 2012 general election Waxman won re-election in an area including his home community of Beverly Hills and stretching to Malibu and Pacific-coastal communities heading south including Santa Monica, Manhattan Beach, Redondo Beach, Hermosa Beach, the Palos Verdes Peninsula and Northwest San Pedro.
Before the Democrats lost control of the House of Representatives in 1995, Waxman was a powerful figure in the House as chair of the Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Health and the Environment from 1979. In this role he conducted investigations into a range of health and environmental issues, including universal health insurance and Medicaid coverage, AIDS and air and water pollution. In 1994, Waxman forced the chief executives of the seven major tobacco companies to swear under oath that nicotine was not addictive. Waxman's stated legislative priorities are environmental issues; these include universal health insurance and Medicaid coverage, tobacco, AIDS, air and water quality standards, nursing home quality standards, women's health research and reproductive rights, the availability and cost of prescription drugs, the right of communities to know about pollution levels. As an example of Waxman's thoughts regarding tobacco, on April 13, 2010, he requested that Major League Baseball ban smokeless tobacco in all its various forms - snuff, dipping tobacco.
Chewing tobacco, etc. With the Democrats' victory in the 2006 midterm elections, Waxman became chairman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, the principal investigative committee of the House, he was the committee's ranking Democrat from 1997 to 2007. In 1998, while he was still ranking member, he created a "Special Investigations Division" to investigate matters that he felt the full committee had neglected; this was possible because the committee has broad powers to investigate any matter with federal policy implications if another committee has jurisdiction over it. He has harshly criticized the Republican