Castleton is a town in Rutland County, United States. Castleton is about 15 miles to the west of Rutland, the county's seat and most populous city, about 7 miles east of the New York/Vermont state border; the town had a population of 4,717 at the 2010 census. Castleton University is located there, with roots dating to 1787. Castleton was settled in 1770, chartered in 1761; the charter for 36 square miles of land was granted by Governor Benning Wentworth of New Hampshire and divided the land into 70 "rights" or "shares". Governor Wentworth retained ownership of two shares, several others were given for churches and a school. Three families had settled in Castleton by 1770. In the spring of 1767, some of the town's first settlers, Amos Bird and Noah Lee, arrived in Castleton from Salisbury, Connecticut. Castleton's favorite landmark, Birdseye Mountain, is named for Colonel Amos Bird, he had acquired 40 shares of land when the town was chartered and built a permanent residence there in the summer of 1769.
More settlers followed, by 1777 the town consisted of 17 families. In May 1775 Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys met in Castleton with Benedict Arnold to plan their next day's attack on Fort Ticonderoga, 30 miles west, on the New York side of Lake Champlain, their successful capture of the fort was a holding action that lasted two years until the British launched a powerful sweep southward on Lake Champlain. The battle at nearby Hubbardton, followed by battles at Bennington and Saratoga, marked the turning point of the Revolutionary War in the North. Although German soldiers were stationed in Castleton for a time in 1777, they left as the fortunes of the war changed, Tory sympathizers were treated with scorn by Castleton settlers. Fort Warren, built in 1777, was located in Castleton; the first medical school in Vermont was chartered here in 1818. Following the war, Castleton continued to grow as an agricultural community. Farmers raised cattle, turned for a while to sheep. Saw mills and gristmills were the first industries established in town.
During the 19th century the slate and marble industries thrived around Castleton. The railroad came in 1854, the last half of the century saw the development of tourism around Lake Bomoseen. In the 19th century Castleton flourished, many residents built elaborate houses to replace their log cabins and primitive frame houses. Several luxury hotels were built around the west end of the lake. A trolley system ran from the center of town to Lake Bomoseen, a destination for tourists vacationing during the summer; the Hydeville area flourished in the mid-19th century as a slate milling center. Between 1900 and 1940 several fires occurred in Castleton Village, Castleton Corners and Hydeville, as well as at the lakeside resorts. Despite this destruction of hotels and the original commercial and industrial areas of its villages, the town of Castleton retains an architectural heritage spanning two hundred years of Vermont history. Castleton's mile-long tree-shaded Main Street, with its array of Federal and Greek Revival style houses and public buildings, many by builder Thomas Royal Dake, has been listed in its entirety on the National Register of Historic Places.
The Higley House was built in 1810 by Erastus Higley, houses antiques and furnishings. Antique carriages are located on the grounds; the house is now maintained by the Castleton Historical Society, was built and lived in by the Higley family until 1973. The Castleton Federated Church was built in 1833 by master builder Thomas Dake; the church is listed in the Historic American Buildings Survey. Castleton is part of the Castleton-Hubbardton Union School District; the town has two schools: Castleton Elementary School, which serves grades K–6, the Castleton Village School, which serves grades 7 and 8. Students from Castleton families attend high school at Fair Haven Union High School. Castleton University is located in Castleton and dates back to 1787, it is a public liberal arts college. In 2009, Castleton began running a depot station through Amtrak; the station is located behind Main Street near the post office. The old train stop was renovated early that year; the train stop runs on the Ethan Allen Express line.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Castleton has a total area of 42.35 square miles, of which 38.9 square miles is land and 3.45 square miles, or 8.1%, is water. Within the bounds of the incorporated town, there are three distinct areas. One is the village, where the post office, town offices, general store, a 1940s style diner and a few other commercial enterprises are located; the university is located on a side street nearby. Lake Bomoseen is the second area, a 5-mile-long resort and fishing spot with its post office in Castleton Corners; the third post office is in an extension of Main Street at the end of Lake Bomoseen. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,367 people, 1,550 households, 1,007 families residing in the town; the population density was 111.9 people per square mile. There were 2,107 housing units at an average density of 54.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.98% White, 0.09% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 1,550 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals
William C Speidel, known as Bill Speidel, was a columnist for The Seattle Times and a self-made historian who wrote the books Sons of the Profits and Doc Maynard, The Man Who Invented Seattle about the people who settled and built Seattle, Washington. Speidel is credited with being one of the leaders of the movement to preserve and restore Pioneer Square, one of Seattle's oldest neighborhoods. By the 1960s, this area was run down and in disrepair, in danger of being rebuilt. Through the efforts of many people, Pioneer Square is once again a bustling center of activity and tourism with dozens of original buildings that have been restored to their original luster. In 1964, Speidel received and printed a letter from a reader asking about the underground areas of Pioneer Square, he replied via the paper that he did not know much about it, but that he would research it and get back to her. Once he did the research, he printed a response telling her to meet him at 3 p.m. the next Saturday in Pioneer Square, he would take her on a tour of the underground and what he had found.
The reader did show up, along with 500 other people. Speidel took up a collection of $1 from each of the visitors and proceeded on the first tour of the Seattle Underground. Since Memorial Day weekend 1965, the Underground Tour has given several tours a day every day except holidays and is one of the city's best known tourist attractions; as a Seattle historian, Speidel was something of a revisionist and the narration of the Underground Tour reflects that. Doc Maynard, whom Speidel called "The Man Who Invented Seattle", was given short shrift in what Speidel characterized as the "Party Line" on the city's history, in part because the longer-lived Arthur Denny was so influential on the writing of that history. Jacob Furth, whom Speidel wrote "may have been the most important citizen Seattle had" was lauded at the time of his death in 1914, but became, in Speidel's words, "a neglected giant", with "scant mention in our history books" and "no streets, parks or public buildings to honor him." Speidel made claims for brothel-owner Lou Graham as a key figure in the growth of the city.
Speidel, William. You Can't Eat Mount Rainier!. Portland, Oregon: Binfords & Mort. LCCN 55041684. Speidel, William. You Still Can't Eat Mount Rainier!. Vashon Island, WA: Nettle Creek. Speidel, William. Seattle underground. Seattle, WA: Seattle Guide. ASIN B0007HLBEA. Speidel, William. Sons of the Profits. USA: Nettle Creek. ISBN 0-914890-06-9. Speidel, William; the Wet Side Of The Mountains. Seattle, WA: Nettle Creek. ISBN 0-914890-01-8. Speidel, William, it Was a Hell of a Blast!. Universal Services. ASIN B00072GEVU. Speidel, William. Doc Maynard, The Man Who Invented Seattle. USA: Nettle Creek. ISBN 0-914890-02-6. Speidel, William. Luck Location & Lunacy. Seattle, WA: Seattle City Light. ASIN B00073BZSG. Speidel, William. Through the Eye of the Needle. USA: Nettle Creek. ISBN 0-914890-04-2
Chief Patkanim was chief of the Snoqualmoo and Snohomish tribe in what is now modern Washington State. During the 1850s, he lived at the largest village of his people located at Toultʷ, a fishing village at the confluence of the Tolt and Snoqualmie rivers in a complex containing sixteen longhouses, he was the dominant power from Whidbey Island to Snoqualmie Pass, between what is today British Columbia and King County, Washington According to historian Bill Speidel, his was the major Indian power on Puget Sound, in no small part due to control of Snoqualmie Pass and therefore the profitable trade between the tribes on either side. Patkanim first gained notoriety among American settlers by arranging a meeting on Whidbey Island in 1848, of 8,000 Puget Sound Indians to discuss the rising threat of white colonists; as Hubert Howe Bancroft recounted: Patkanim opened the conference by a speech, in which he urged that if the Americans were allowed to settle among them they would soon become numerous, would carry off their people in large fire-ships to a distant country on which the sun never shone, where they would be left to perish.
He argued that the few now present could be exterminated, which would discourage others from coming... A Steilacoom band leader, Chew-see-a-kit, rejected the considered attack; the white settlers residing in his land were seen as deterrent to raids by Northern Puget Sound tribes, such as the Snoqualmies. On 1 May 1849 Patkanim led 100 Snoqualmies to Fort Nisqually, a farming and trade post ran by the Hudson's Bay Company's subsidiary Puget Sound Agricultural Company. Rumors stated a daughter of one of their prominent leaders was being abused by her Nisqually husband, father of Leschi; the band declaimed any intentions of attacking white inhabitants in the area. Despite Patkanim being allowed in to Fort Nisqually, relations became a skirmish began; as the fort gate was closing, several Americans unaffiliated with the PSAC remained outside. Fellow American settler Michael Simmons beseeched them to enter the secure station, but they refused to enter. During the ensueing fighting, one American was two wounded.
The officer in charge of Fort Nisqually, Chief Factor William Tolmie, stated that the visiting Snoqualimies had the intention to "kick a row with the Fort Indians" and hold a slave raid. Thereafter, he found it more profitable to co-operate with the settlers turning over his own brothers to be hanged for the raid in exchange for $500. In 1854, Patkanim assisted U. S. Army Captain George McClellan in exploring Snoqualmie Pass as part of the Pacific Railroad Surveys. On January 22, 1855, he signed the Treaty of Point Elliott, trading away several modern counties in exchange for a reservation near Tulalip, Washington. Patkanim maintained excellent relations with the founders of Seattle, such as Doc Maynard and Arthur Denny. With the approach of the Puget Sound War, they persuaded him to ally himself, for a fee, with the forces of the United States, he assisted in constructing forts and encamped at Fort Tilton with 100 of his troops to block Snoqualmie Pass. After the Battle of Seattle in 1856, Governor Isaac Stevens put a bounty on the head of raiders, $20 for ordinary Indians and $80 for a "chief".
Patkanim obligingly provided a great many heads, until the Territorial Auditor put a stop to the practice. According to Speidel, there was a suspicious number of "chiefs" among the heads and many of them were nothing more than Patkanim's slaves from raids on other tribes. Chief Kanim public middle school in Fall City Washington is named after one of his descendent nephews, Chief Jerry Kanim. Patkanim had three daughters, Julia and Elizabeth. A marker was raised to his memory, near Tulalip, but appears not to include a date of birth or death; the descendants of Patkanim and the tribe he led are divided today between the Snoqualmie and the smaller Snoqaulmoo bands
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Chief Seattle was a Suquamish and Duwamish chief. A leading figure among his people, he pursued a path of accommodation to white settlers, forming a personal relationship with "Doc" Maynard; the city of Seattle, in the U. S. state of Washington, was named after him. A publicized speech arguing in favor of ecological responsibility and respect of Native Americans' land rights had been attributed to him; the name Seattle is an Anglicization of the modern Duwamish conventional spelling Si'ahl, equivalent to the modern Lushootseed spelling siʔaɫ IPA:. He is known as Sealth, Seathl, or See-ahth. Seattle's mother Sholeetsa was Dkhw ` Duw ` Absh and. Seattle was born some time between 1780 and 1786 near Blake Island, Washington. One source cites his mother's name as Wood-sho-lit-sa; the Duwamish tradition is that Seattle was born at his mother's village of Stukw on the Black River, in what is now the city of Kent and that Seattle grew up speaking both the Duwamish and Suquamish dialects of Lushootseed.
Because Native descent among the Salish peoples was not patrilineal, Seattle inherited his position as chief of the Duwamish Tribe from his maternal uncle. Seattle earned his reputation at a young age as a leader and a warrior and defeating groups of tribal enemy raiders coming up the Green River from the Cascade foothills. In 1847 he helped lead a Suquamish attack upon the Chimakum people near Port Townsend, which wiped out the Chimakum. Like many of his contemporaries, he owned slaves captured during his raids, he was broad, standing nearly six feet tall. He was known as an orator. Chief Seattle took wives from the village of Tola'ltu just southeast of Duwamish Head on Elliott Bay, his first wife La-Dalia died after bearing a daughter. He had four daughters with his second wife, Olahl; the most famous of his children was his first, Princess Angeline. Seattle was converted to Christianity by French missionaries, was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church, with the baptismal name Noah in 1848 near Olympia, Washington.
For all his skill, Seattle was losing ground to the more powerful Patkanim of the Snohomish when white settlers started showing up in force around 1850. When his people were driven from their traditional clamming grounds, Seattle met Doc Maynard in Olympia. Persuading the settlers at the white settlement of Duwamps to rename their town Seattle, Maynard established their support for Chief Seattle's people and negotiated peaceful relations with the tribes. Seattle kept his people out of the Battle of Seattle in 1856. Afterwards, he was unwilling to lead his tribe to the reservation established, since mixing Duwamish and Snohomish was to lead to bloodshed. Maynard persuaded the government of the necessity of allowing Seattle to remove to his father's longhouse on Agate Passage,'Old Man House' or Tsu-suc-cub. Seattle frequented the town named after him, had his photograph taken by E. M. Sammis in 1865, he died June 1866, on the Suquamish reservation at Port Madison, Washington. The speech or "letter" attributed to Chief Seattle has been cited as a "powerful, bittersweet plea for respect of Native American rights and environmental values".
But this document, which has achieved widespread fame thanks to its promotion in the environmental movement, is of doubtful authenticity. The evolution of the text of Chief Seattle's speech, from a flowery Victorian paean to peace and territorial integrity, into a much briefer environmentalist credo, has been chronicled by several historians; the first attempt to reconstruct this history was a 1985 essay in the U. S. National Archives' Prologue magazine. A more scholarly essay by a German anthropologist followed in 1987. In 1989, a radio documentary by Daniel and Patricia Miller resulted in the uncovering of no fewer than 86 versions of Chief Seattle's speech; this prompted a new discussion, first in the Seattle Weekly and in Newsweek. The historian Albert Furtwangler undertook to analyze the evolution of Chief Seattle's speech in a full-length book, Answering Chief Seattle. More Eli Gifford has written another full-length book, The Many Speeches of Chief Seattle, which assembles further elements of the story, gives accurate transcriptions of 11 versions of the speech, explores possible motivations for manipulating the words in each case.
The oldest extant record of this document is a transcript published in the Seattle Sunday Star in 1887, in a column by Henry A. Smith, a poet and early white settler of the Seattle area. Smith provides a transcript of a speech made by Chief Seattle 30 years earlier, which Smith had attended and taken notes from; the occasion of the speech was a visit by Isaac Stevens. The governor's visit to a council of local tribal chiefs that year is corroborated by the historical record. Chief Seattle was the most influential chief in the area, so it is he would have been in attendance; however the date, the location, the actual words of Chief Seattle's speech are disputed. For instance, Smith's article in the Seattle Sunday Star claims that the purpose of Governor
William Nathaniel Bell
William Nathaniel Bell from Edwardsville, Illinois and a resident of Portland, was a member of the Denny Party, the first group of white settlers in what is now Seattle, Washington. He lived in Seattle from 1851 to 1856 and again from 1870 till his death, his first wife, Sarah Ann Peter, died of tuberculosis in June 1856. With her, he had five children: Laura Keziah 1842–1887 Olive Julia 1846–1921 Mary Virginia 1847–1931 Alvina Lavina 1851–1857 Austin Americus 1854–1889His second wife, Lucy Gamble, was the younger sister of Sarah Ann, his family is remembered in the name Belltown, a neighborhood north of Downtown where his land claim was located. Bell named many of the streets in the area after his own children, including Bell Street and Olive Streets and Olive Way, Stewart Street, named for Olive's husband Joseph H. Stewart
Treaty of Point Elliott
The Treaty of Point Elliott of 1855, or the Point Elliott Treaty,—also known as Treaty of Point Elliot / Point Elliott Treaty—is the lands settlement treaty between the United States government and the Native American tribes of the greater Puget Sound region in the formed Washington Territory, one of about thirteen treaties between the U. S. and Native Nations in what is now Washington. The treaty was signed on 22 January 1855, at Muckl-te-oh or Point Elliott, now Mukilteo and ratified 8 March and 11 April 1859. Lands were being occupied by European-Americans since settlement in what became Washington Territory began in earnest from about 1845. Signatories to the Treaty of Point Elliott included Chief Seattle and Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens. Representatives from the Duwamish, Snoqualmie, Lummi, Skagit and other tribes signed; the treaty established the Suquamish Port Madison, Swin-a-mish, Lummi reservations. The Native American signers included Suquamish and Dwamish Chief Seattle and Sno-ho-mish Chief Patkanim as Pat-ka-nam, Lummi Chief Chow-its-hoot, Skagit Chief Goliah.
The Duwamish signatories to the Point Elliott Treaty of 22 January 1855 were si'áb Si'ahl as Chief Seattle, Duwamish si'áb Ts'huahntl, si'áb Now-a-chais, si'áb Ha-seh-doo-an. The treaty guaranteed both fishing reservations. Reservations were not designated for the Duwamish, Skagit and Snoqualmie peoples; the Nonintercourse Act of 1834 prohibited White American intrusion into Indian territories. The Oregon Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 opened Oregon Territory to European-American settlement; the law sunset 1 December 1855. Under the laws encouraging settlement, each male settler could homestead and receive 320 acres free for himself and 640 acres with his wife. Settlers arriving before 1850 could receive 1 Regular Section, one square mile. Claims were made by unilateral occupation, implicitly backed by militia if not military. Native Americans were disconcerted by the encroachment of the settlers on their territory, sometimes reacted by making raids or forming uprisings against them. By and large, Native leaders were willing to sell their land.
They rejected proposals for their relocation from Puget Sound country. The courts have said that the power of Congress in Indian affairs is plenary —great but under present law not absolute; the federal government and tribes are co-equal sovereign entities. One of the basic principles underlying Indian nations is that they "retain all the inherent powers of any sovereign nation", retaining all original sovereign rights and powers "which have not been given up or taken away by due process" of law. Courts have ruled that the "intent of Congress to limit the sovereign powers of Indian governments by legislation must be expressed in the law in order to be effective"; the U. S. Constitution, Article 6, states: This Constitution, the laws of the United States which shall be made in persuance thereof. Since the rise of Native American activism in the late twentieth century, there have been new legal challenges to numerous treaties, land settlements, terms of treaties; the Supreme Court has ruled" for interpreting treaties.
The Supreme Court has ruled that "Treaties are to be construed as a grant of rights from the Indians, not to them—and a reservation of those not granted." (This principle has guided, for instance, the retention of Native Americans of traditional rights to fish and hunt on land ceded to the government, unless those rights were restricted. A treaty broken is not rescinded. Only a following treaty or agreement can relieve signatories of the original treaty. "Treaties are as venerable as the Constitution of the United States. Age does not impair their validity or legality." Indian tribes, for the most part, were not parties to and agreed with the diminution in their sovereign powers by the alien tradition of European law. With significant justification, they have claimed, in cases since the late twentieth century, to retain greater sovereign powers than federal Indian law is prepared to concede; the resulting political dynamic has resulted in tensions and disputes among tribal and state governments about sovereign powers and jurisdiction denied to tribes by the colonial justifications underlying federal law, which tribes and members point out they never voluntarily surrendered.
Diminution of sovereignty is absent from accession of lands. Washington Territory Governor Isaac Stevens made oral promises to tribal representatives that were not matched by what his office