The Omaha Racers were an American minor league basketball team based in Omaha, Nebraska. The franchise played in the Continental Basketball Association from 1989 to 1997; the team's franchise liage started in 1982 as the Wisconsin Flyers. The franchise spent two seasons in Rochester, Minnesota before relocating to Omaha in 1989 to become the Racers; the team's home venue was Ak-Sar-Ben Arena. Throughout the entire history of the Racers, Mike Thibault served as the team's head coach and led Omaha to appearances in two CBA Finals; the team was victorious over the Grand Rapids Hoops during the 1993 CBA Finals. The Rochester Flyers would finish 20-34 in the 1987–88 season, failing to qualify for the CBA playoffs. In 1988–89 the Flyers finished last in the West with a 16-38 record. Despite averaging 2,600 fans per home game, the team moved to Omaha, Nebraska after the season. Before the start of the Racers inaugural season, the CBA ruled that the team's ownership was not financially solvent and franchise would need to be put up for sale.
Terren Peizer purchased the team on September 15, 1989 and announced he would keep the team in Omaha. Team president and general manager Mike Cole told Ray Waddell of Amusement Business, "We're happy with how it has worked out We pulled off something many people said we couldn't do." Under head coach Mike Thibault, the Racers went 29-27 in 1989–90 and made the CBA playoffs in the National Conference, where they lost to the San Jose Jammers in the first round. It was the first post-season appearance for the franchise since Detroit swept them in the 1984–1985 Western Division final. On February 4, 1990, Racers player Roland Gray set a franchise record for points scored in a game with 45 in a game against the San Jose Jammers; the 1990–91 Racers would have the best record in franchise history, but lost to the Quad City Thunder in the American Conference finals. Tim Legler was named the team's most valuable player following the season. Moving back to the National Conference in 1991–92, Omaha finished second in the Northern Division to the Rapid City Thrillers.
After defeating the Oklahoma City Cavalry in the second round of the playoffs, the Racers lost to the Thrillers in the conference finals, 3 games to 2. The 1992–93 Racers made it to the top, after finishing second in the Northern Division again to Rapid City. Omaha beat the Wichita Falls Texans in the first round slipped past Rapid City in a five-game conference final. In the CBA championship, Omaha defeated the Grand Rapids Hoops in six games. A 106-98 win on May 1, 1993 in Grand Rapids would be the high-water mark of the franchise. In spite of their success, the attendance dropped during the 1992–93 season, which promoted team officials to announce that if they failed to sell 3,500 season tickets before the start of the next season the Racers would relocate. Omaha averaged 3,062 attendees per game during the 1992–93 season, down from 3,875 per game the season before. Rapid City finished ahead of Omaha in the Northern Division for the third straight year in 1993–94. Omaha made it back to the CBA finals, after defeating the Tri-City Chinook in round one and Rapid City in the conference finals.
The Quad City Thunder defeated Omaha in five games to win the league title. Omaha moved to the Southern Division in finished second to Oklahoma City, they beat the Sioux Falls SkyForce in the first round, but fell to Oklahoma City in the second round. Thibault missed seven games as head coach, being replaced by Eric Chapman, as he coached the US in the 1995 Pan American Games in Argentina. Omaha moved back to the Northern Division of the National Conference in 1995–96, finished second again, this time to Sioux Falls; the Florida Beachdogs swept the Racers out of the playoffs in round one. With the CBA shrinking to 11 teams in 1996–97, Omaha was placed in the 5-team National Conference and finished in fourth place. In one of the biggest upsets in CBA playoff history, the Racers defeated Sioux Falls in five games, winning the clincher in South Dakota, 98-92. Oklahoma City brought them back down to earth, winning the conference finals, 3 games to 1. During their final season, Kevin Kugler served as the Racers play-by-play announcer.
With a record of 375-413, plus a 42-49 mark in the playoffs, one CBA title, the Wisconsin/Rochester/Omaha Racers franchise was declared inactive in the summer of 1997. At the time, there was some faint hope that the franchise may start up again in 1998–99; the two teams who had made the CBA finals in 1997, Oklahoma City and Florida folded. In 2013, on the 20th anniversary of Omaha's 1993 CBA Championship win, 30 former Racers players and executives gathered for a reunion event at Ralston Arena. 1993 CBA Champions 1993 & 1994 National Conference Champions 1990–91 All-CBA Team: Tim Legler 1990–91 All-CBA Defense Team: Willie Simmons 1990–91 All-CBA Rookie Team: Brian Howard 1992–93 All-CBA First Team: Tim Legler 1993 CBA Playoffs Most Valuable Player: Jim Thomas Corey Gaines led the CBA with 11.6 assists per game during the 1989–1990 season Sources History of the CBA Omaha Professional Basketball Shatel, Tom. "Shatel: Owner, fans had a blast in the heyday of the Racers". Omaha World Herald. Omaha, Nebraska.
Semi-pro Basketball Players: Omaha Racers via Long Haul Productions
Bradley University is a private university in Peoria, Illinois. Founded in 1897, Bradley University enrolls 5,400 students who are pursuing degrees in more than 100 undergraduate programs and more than 30 graduate programs in five colleges; the university is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and 22 national accrediting agencies. The Bradley Polytechnic Institute was founded by philanthropist Lydia Moss Bradley in 1897 in memory of her husband Tobias and their six children, all of whom died early and leaving Bradley a childless widow; the Bradleys had discussed establishing an orphanage in memory of their deceased children. After some study and travel to various institutions, Mrs. Bradley decided instead to found a school where young people could learn how to do practical things to prepare them for living in the modern world; as a first step toward her goal, in 1892 she purchased a controlling interest in Parsons Horological School in LaPorte, the first school for watchmakers in America, moved it to Peoria.
She specified in her will that the school should be expanded after her death to include a classical education as well as industrial arts and home economics: "...it being the first object of this Institution to furnish its students with the means of living an independent and useful life by the aid of a practical knowledge of the useful arts and sciences." In October 1896 Mrs. Bradley was introduced to Dr. William Rainey Harper, president of the University of Chicago, he soon convinced her to establish the school during her lifetime. Bradley Polytechnic Institute was chartered on November 13, 1896. Mrs. Bradley provided 17.5 acres of land, $170,000 for buildings, a library, $30,000 per year for operating expenses. Contracts for Bradley Hall and Horology Hall were awarded in April and work moved ahead quickly. Fourteen faculty and 150 students began classes in Bradley Hall on October 4—with 500 workers still hammering away. Bradley Polytechnic Institute was formally dedicated on October 8, 1897.
Its first graduate, in June 1898, was Cora Unland. The institute was organized as a four-year academy as well as a two-year college. There was only one other high school in the city of Peoria at the time. By 1899 the institute had expanded to accommodate nearly 500 pupils, study fields included biology, food work, English, French, Greek, manual arts, drawing and physics. By 1920 the institute adopted a four-year collegial program. Enrollment continued to grow over the coming decades and the name Bradley University was adopted in 1946; the first music building on Bradley's Campus was built in 1930 and named after Jennie Meta Constance, murdered on August 28, 1928. In 1962 the building was renovated to become the music building of Bradley's Campus. Only $2,500 was spent renovating the building, most of the money was spent turning a kitchen into a classroom. In 2002 more renovations were made to Constance Hall to make it more spacious; the renovation included more office space. Bradley University was ranked 6th among Regional Midwest Universities in the 2017 edition of America's Best Colleges published by U.
S. News & World Report; the annual survey recognized Bradley as the 36th "best value" Midwestern school in the ranking of Great Schools at Great Prices. The Bradley University Department of Teacher Education and College of Education and Health Sciences is NCATE-approved. Additionally, Bradley University's Foster College of Business is one of less than 2% of business schools worldwide to achieve and maintain AACSB International accreditation for both business and accounting programs. Bradley University is organized into the following colleges and schools: College of Education and Health Sciences Caterpillar College of Engineering and Technology College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Foster College of Business Slane College of Communications and Fine Arts Turner School of Entrepreneurship and InnovationStudents without a declared major may be admitted to the Academic Exploration Program; the University is home to the Charley Steiner School of Sports Communication, the first such named school in the U.
S. Through the Graduate School, Bradley University offers Masters level graduate degrees in five of its colleges: business and fine arts and health sciences and liberal arts and sciences; each varies in completion time. The program of physical therapy offers a Doctor of Physical Therapy degree. Bradley University is among the first universities in the nation to have a school of entrepreneurship and the first established as a freestanding academic unit; the Turner School of Entrepreneurship and Innovation is named in honor of Bob and Carolyn Turner, long-time supporters of Bradley. The Turners established the Robert and Carolyn Turner Center for Entrepreneurship in 2002. Dr. Gerald Hills, the School's founding academic executive director, received the Karl Vesper Entrepreneurship Pioneer Award in 2012 and the Babson Lifetime Award in 2011. Hills served as the Turner Chair of Entrepreneurship until he retired in December 2014. Entrepreneur magazine and The Princeton Review ranked Bradley's undergraduate entrepreneurship program among the top 25 programs in the nation.
Bradley is headquarters for the national Collegiate Entrepreneurs' Organization, with CEO student chapters at 240 universities. As of the 2015-2016 school year, students who are enrolled full-time at Bradley University pay $31,110 for tuition. S
Hapoel Holon, for sponsorship reasons Hapoel Unet Holon, is a basketball club based in Holon, Israel. Holon plays in the top division of Israeli basketball; the club won their first Israeli championship in 2008, after beating perennial champions Maccabi Tel Aviv in the Final Four. The club was founded in 1947 and was one of the founding clubs of the top division in 1954 when established, finishing second in their first season. Holon returned to the top division at the end of the 2006–07 season after playing for 7 years in the second and the third divisions, finished the 2007–08 regular season at the top of the table, they reached the Playoff Final, where they defeated Maccabi Tel Aviv 73–72 to claim their first championship, with Malik Dixon scoring the winning shot two seconds to the end of the game. PJ Tucker won the MVP title, it was the first time. The club has reached the final of the State Cup six times, but did not pick up their first prize in that competition until 2009, when Brian Tolbert hit a three-pointer as time expired to give them a 69–68 win over Maccabi Haifa in that year's final.
On January 16, 2010, the club celebrated its 1000th game in the Ligat HaAl. In the 2009–10 season, the club was under scrutiny after failing to pay the balance of last years staff and players throughout the end of the season. In 2018, Holon won its second State Cup after beating Maccabi Tel Aviv in the Final, behind MVP Glen Rice, Jr. Hapoel Holon plays its home games at the 5,600 seat Holon Toto Hall. Total titles: 3 Israeli Championships Winners: 2008 Runners-up: 1954, 1955, 2018 semi-finals: 1983, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1995, 1999, 2008, 2012, 2018 State Cup Winners: 2009, 2018 Runners-up: 1959, 1961, 1986, 1991, 1995 League Cup Runner-up: 2011 The team's colors are yellow and purple after a Jewish American fan of the Los Angeles Lakers donated uniforms in the colors of his favorite club. Before that, the team played in red and white uniforms, like every'Hapoel' team. For many years Holon's mascot was a tiger, it appeared on the team's logo for many years and in the 1990s the team's logo read'Hapoel Tigers Holon'.
After the team won the 2007–08 National League championship, upgraded to the first division, the old symbol was changed and redesigned, keeping Holon's symbol, the tiger. Holon's best homegrown player was Ofer Eshed who played for the club between 1957 and 1972 and he is the all-time points leader in the team, with 7,495 points. Israel Elimelech is considered to be the club's biggest symbol. Played in holon during two decades – and led the team to many successful seasons in the premier league. Played in the legendary home grown team of holon in the 1980s, with Niv Boogin, Avi Maor, the Israeli-American player Micheal Carter, known for driving the fans crazy. Other notable players were: Tzahi Peled, Danny Hadar, Rami Zeig and from early days and the contingent of ex Egyptian players: Marcel Hefetz; the team's 2 titles were won by 2 winning baskets, scored by the 2007–08 PG Malik Dixon, 2008–09 SG Brian Tolbert. Dixon scored a two-pointer 2 seconds to the end of the championship match against Maccabi Tel-Aviv, leaving Maccabi a 2-second possession which they failed to score in.
Tolbert scored a three-point buzzer beater in the cup final, after he got the ball from an inbound pass by Deron Washington. Over the years the club has signed several former NBA players, including P. J. Tucker, Ken Bannister, Clarence Kea, Richard Dumas and Dominic McGuire. John Thomas, who has played in 2009–10 season, is a former NBA player, with a history in five teams, such as New Jersey Nets, Atlanta Hawks, etc. Official website Holoniafans – The Official fansite Fansite – The Kometz From Gate 3
St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
Philippine Basketball Association
The Philippine Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in the Philippines composed of twelve company-branded franchised teams. Founded in 1975, it is the first professional basketball league in Asia and is the second oldest continuously professional basketball league existing in the world after the NBA, established before the "open era" of basketball in 1990 where FIBA allowed longstanding domestic leagues, which had predated the PBA, to become professional; the league's regulations are a hybrid of rules from the NBA and FIBA. The league played its first game at the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City on April 9, 1975, its main offices are located along Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue, Eastwood City, Quezon City; the Philippine Basketball Association was founded when nine teams left the now-defunct Manila Industrial and Commercial Athletic Association, controlled by the Basketball Association of the Philippines, the FIBA-recognized national association at the time. With the BAP controlling the MICAA, the league was de jure amateur, as players were only paid allowances.
This is much like what was done in other countries to circumvent the amateur requirement and to play in FIBA-sanctioned tournaments such as the Olympics. MICAA team owners were not pleased with how BAP led by Gonzalo "Lito" Puyat are taking away their players to join the national team without consulting them first; the teams that bolted away from the MICAA are the Carrier Weathermakers, Crispa Redmanizers, Mariwasa-Noritake Porcelainmakers, Presto Ice Cream, Royal Tru-Orange, Seven-Up Uncolas, Tanduay Distillery, Toyota Comets and the U/Tex Weavers. Leopoldo Prieto, the coach for the Philippines at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics, was appointed as the first commissioner and Emerson Coseteng of Mariwasa-Noritake was chosen as the first president of the league's Board of Governors; the first game of the league was held at the Araneta Coliseum on April 9, 1975, featuring Mariwasa-Noritake and Concepcion Carrier. The league's first 10 years was known for the intense rivalry of the Crispa Redmanizers and the Toyota Tamaraws, still considered as one of the greatest rivalries in league history.
Big names such as Robert Jaworski, Ramon Fernandez, Francis Arnaiz, Atoy Co, Bogs Adornado and Philip Cezar played for those squads before the two teams disbanded in 1983 and 1984 respectively. Following their disbandment, the league moved from the Araneta Coliseum to ULTRA in Pasig. There, the league continued to be popular, as several former Toyota and Crispa players suited up for different teams. During the mid to late 80s, Jaworski and Ginebra San Miguel became the league's most popular squad for their "never say die" attitude; the team had intense rivalries with the Tanduay Rhum Masters, led by Jaworski's ex-Toyota teammate-turned-rival Fernandez, the expansion Purefoods Corporation and younger players Alvin Patrimonio, Jerry Codiñera, Jojo Lastimosa and Fernandez. By the end of the 1980s, San Miguel Beer won numerous championships that included the 1989 Grand Slam, led by coach Norman Black and former national team stars Samboy Lim and Hector Calma. In 1989, FIBA voted to allow professionals to play in their sanctioned tournaments, hence the PBA's players are now able to represent the country internationally.
In 1990, the league sent its first all-professional squad to the Asian Games, earning a silver medal. The PBA would send three more all-pro squads to the event; the early 1990s saw Ginebra and Shell forming an intense rivalry that included Ginebra's walkout in 1990 finals against Shell and the team's dramatic comeback from a 3-1 deficit to beat Shell in the 1991 First Conference. Patrimonio, Allan Caidic, a host of others became the league's main attraction. By 1993, the league moved to the Cuneta Astrodome in Pasay and saw the Alaska Milkmen win the 1996 grand slam and nine titles in the decade. From 1999-2000, the PBA endured controversy. Several expatriate cagers arrived on the scene, their lineage was questionable and most of them were deported for falsifying documents. The arrival of dozens of these players was a counter to the fledgling Metropolitan Basketball Association, a regional-based professional league formed in 1998. After ABS-CBN's 2001 abandonment, the MBA would fold within a year.
Despite the MBA's disbandment and the arrival of those players to the PBA, attendance went sour for the PBA in 2002 and was worse the following year. In 2004, the league introduced drastic scheduling changes, when it decided to begin the season in October instead of January; the change in starting the season allowed the league to accommodate international tournaments held from June to September and it fit better with college hoops, the NCAA and the UAAP, whose seasons run from June to October. The league reduced the number of conferences from three to two, renaming the All-Filipino Cup as the Philippine Cup and introducing a new import laden tournament named as the Fiesta Conference. To accommodate these changes, a transitional tournament, the 2004 PBA Fiesta Conference was held from February to July, won by the Barangay Ginebra Kings; the league began to hold the annual All-Star weekend in the provinces, alternating from Luzon and Visayas/Mindanao provinces every year. The league regained some popularity by this year, thanks in large part to Barangay Ginebra's three PBA championships led by Eric Menk, Jayjay Helterbrand and Mark Caguioa.
Solid marketing and arrival of collegiate stars from the UAAP and the NCAA worked in the PBA's favor. By 2005, the league would take on the role of Philippine national representation under Chot Reyes, when FIBA lifted the suspension of the country f
Soldan International Studies High School
Soldan International Studies High School is a public magnet high school in the Academy neighborhood of St. Louis, Missouri, part of the St. Louis Public Schools. From its opening in 1909, Soldan was known for its wealthy and predominantly Jewish student population. Starting in the 1950s, the student population underwent a rapid change in demographics. In the early 1990s, the school was renovated and reopened as a magnet school with a focus on international relations. Soldan offers its students several athletic and academic opportunities, including cross country, soccer, tennis and volleyball, its dropout rate is lower than the state average, it is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. It has several notable alumni and former students, including politicians, authors and athletes. By the end of the 1890s, the population of the city had increased to more than 575,000, but since 1855, the St. Louis Public Schools had operated only one high school. To meet the need for greater space for high school students, the school district built two new high schools in 1904.
Three years the district began building a fourth high school, which would become Soldan. Known during its construction as Union Avenue High School and renamed Soldan High School upon opening, the school was named for Frank Louis Soldan, the superintendent of St. Louis schools from 1895 until his death in 1908. Land acquisition costs for the building were $10,000, construction cost $630,000. William B. Ittner's design for the school received praise from the United States Bureau of Education for its attention to detail and to the needs of students It was designed to stylistically complement the nearby Clark School, designed in Gothic Revival style, with fittings and brickwork to suggest a Tudor period Gothic structure built in 1620. With a capacity of 1,600 students, the building occupied an area of 288 by 256 feet and had three stories; the original design of the building had 41 classrooms, with 23 designed for 48 students and 18 for 35 students. The building's 18 science demonstration rooms and laboratories accommodated physiology, chemistry and physics, in the basement, the building was designed with shops for woodworking and domestic science.
The building had four art rooms with skylights for studio work and three mechanical drafting rooms. The auditorium was the largest in the school system up to that time, with a seating capacity of 1,750, while the music room was built with a capacity of more than 300 students. To provide for ample physical education opportunities, the school was built with two gymnasiums; the school had two separate cafeterias for male and female students, although the practice of gender segregation at lunch was ended in the late 1940s. During the 1930s and 1940s, the school became known as the city's "predominantly Jewish" school, with students from several notable or wealthy families in the Central West End. Although the school remained open on Jewish holidays, it had lower attendance. During its early years, Soldan graduated several notable individuals, including William McChesney Martin, Jr. the longest-serving Chairman of the United States Federal Reserve, Clark Clifford, a presidential adviser and United States Secretary of Defense.
In 1922, Clifford and Martin were tennis doubles partners on the school's team. It was during the 1920s that Tennessee Williams attended the school. In 1948, the school received students after the closure of nearby rival Blewett High School, located one block from Soldan. After the merger, the school was known as Soldan-Blewett. After the Brown v Board of Education decision in 1954, white parents and students of Soldan were among the most welcoming in the city toward integration. On the first day of integration, the school saw no protests, although national media personalities such as NBC evening news anchor John Cameron Swayze covered the event. Neither black nor white students reported significant incidents of racial tensions or problems, although black students chose to eat in separate areas of the building from whites in the cafeteria. Despite the uneventful process, Soldan experienced a rapid change in the demographics of its student population. During the 1940s, more than 90 percent of Soldan students were Jewish whites.
By 1965, only one white student attended Soldan, many of the school's African American students had moved into the area from poorer neighborhoods such as Mill Creek Valley after urban renewal projects had displaced them. Starting in the late 1980s, St. Louis schools were required to improve physical conditions and create magnet schools as part of promoting a court-ordered desegregation program; the international studies magnet program was set for implementation at Northwest High School, but in August 1988, U. S. District Court Judge Stephen N. Limbaugh revised the district magnet school program. Among the changes was that Soldan would become a magnet school for international studies, that it would become the highest part of a "cluster" of magnet schools focused on international relations, with lower-level schools having a focus on foreign languages. Part of the court desegregation plan was the physical improvement of city schools. Significant renovations to Soldan began in late 1989 and included interior renovations and the replacement of the school's two 2,000-square-foot
The Detroit Pistons are an American professional basketball team based in Detroit, Michigan. The Pistons compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Central Division and plays its home games at Little Caesars Arena; the team was founded in Fort Wayne, Indiana as the Fort Wayne Pistons in 1941, a member of the National Basketball League where it won two NBL championships: in 1944 and 1945. The Pistons joined the Basketball Association of America in 1948; the NBL and BAA merged to become the NBA in 1949, the Pistons became part of the merged league. Since moving to Detroit in 1957, the Pistons have won three NBA championships: in 1989, 1990 and 2004; the Detroit Pistons franchise was founded as the Fort Wayne Zollner Pistons, a National Basketball League team, in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Owner Fred Zollner's Zollner Corporation was a foundry that manufactured pistons for car and locomotive engines; the Zollner Pistons were NBL champions in 1944 and 1945.
They won the World Professional Basketball Tournament in 1944, 1945 and 1946. In 1948, the team became the Fort Wayne Pistons. In 1949, Fred Zollner brokered the formation of the National Basketball Association from the BAA and the NBL at his kitchen table. There are suggestions that Pistons players conspired with gamblers to shave points and throw various games during the 1953–54 and 1954–55 seasons. In particular, there are accusations that the team may have intentionally lost the 1955 NBA Finals to the Syracuse Nationals. In the decisive Game 7, the Pistons led 41–24 early in the second quarter before the Nationals rallied to win the game; the Nationals won on a free throw by George King with twelve seconds left in the game. The closing moments included a palming turnover by the Pistons' George Yardley with 18 seconds left, a foul by Frank Brian with 12 seconds left that enabled King's winning free throw, a turnover by the Pistons' Andy Phillip in the final seconds which cost them a chance to attempt the game winning shot.
Though the Pistons enjoyed a solid local following, Fort Wayne's small size made it difficult for them to be profitable as other early NBA teams based in smaller cities started folding or relocating to larger markets. After the 1956–57 season, Zollner decided that Fort Wayne was too small to support an NBA team and announced the team would be playing elsewhere in the coming season, he settled on Detroit. Although it was the fifth largest city in the United States at the time, Detroit had not seen professional basketball in a decade, they lost the Detroit Eagles due to World War II, both the Detroit Gems of the NBL and the Detroit Falcons of the BAA in 1947, the Detroit Vagabond Kings in 1949. Zollner decided to keep the Pistons name, believing it made sense given Detroit's status as the center of the automobile industry; the Pistons played in Olympia Stadium for their first four seasons moved to Cobo Arena. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Pistons were characterized by strong individuals and weak teams.
Some of the superstars who played for the team included Dave DeBusschere, Dave Bing, Bob Lanier. At one point, DeBusschere was the youngest player-coach in the history of the NBA. A trade during the 1968–69 season sent DeBusschere to the New York Knicks for Howard Komives and Walt Bellamy, both of whom were in the stages of their careers. DeBusschere became a key player in leading the Knicks to two NBA titles. In 1974, Zollner sold the team to glass magnate Bill Davidson, who remained the team's principal owner until his death in 2009. While the Pistons did qualify for the postseason in four straight seasons from 1974 to 1977, they never had any real sustained success. In 1978, Davidson became displeased with Cobo Arena, but opted not to follow the Red Wings to the under-construction Joe Louis Arena. Instead, he moved the team to the suburb of Pontiac, where they played in the 82,000 capacity Silverdome, a structure built for professional football; the Pistons stumbled their way out of the 1970s and into the 1980s, beginning with a 16–66 record in 1979–80 and following up with a 21–61 record in 1980–81.
The 1979–80 team lost its last 14 games of the season which, when coupled with the seven losses at the start of the 1980–81 season, comprised a then-NBA record losing streak of 21 games. The franchise's fortunes began to turn in 1981, when they drafted point guard Isiah Thomas from Indiana University. In November 1981, the Pistons acquired Vinnie Johnson in a trade with the Seattle SuperSonics, they would acquire center Bill Laimbeer in a trade with the Cleveland Cavaliers in February 1982. Another key move by the Pistons was the hiring of head coach Chuck Daly in 1983; the Pistons had a tough time moving up the NBA ladder. In 1984, the Pistons lost a tough five-game series to the underdog New York Knicks, 3–2. In the 1985 playoffs, Detroit won its first-round series and faced the defending champion Boston Celtics in the conference semifinals. Though Boston would prevail in six games, Detroit's surprise performance promised that a rivalry had begun. In the 1985 NBA draft, the team selected Joe Dumars 18th overall, a selection that would prove to be wise.
They acquired Rick Mahorn in a trade with the Washington Bullets. However, the team took a step backwards, losing in the first round of the 1986 playoffs to the more athletic Atlanta Hawks. After the series, changes were made in order to make the team more defensive-minded. Prior to the 1986–87 season, the Pistons acquired more key players: John Salley (