An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person, first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone, first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir. Today these terms most describe heirs to hereditary titles or offices when only inheritable by a single person. Most monarchies refer to the heir apparent of their thrones with the descriptive term of crown prince but these heirs may be accorded with a more specific substantive title, such as Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, Duke of Brabant in Belgium, Prince of Asturias in Spain, or Prince of Wales in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. In France the title was le Dauphin, in Imperial Russia; the term is used metaphorically to indicate an "anointed" successor to any position of power, e.g. a political or corporate leader. This article describes the term heir apparent in a hereditary system regulated by laws of primogeniture—as opposed to cases where a monarch has a say in naming the heir.
In a hereditary system governed by some form of primogeniture, an heir apparent is identifiable as the person whose position as first in the line of succession to a title or office is secure, regardless of future births. An heir presumptive, by contrast, can always be "bumped down" in the succession by the birth of somebody more related in a legal sense to the current title-holder; the clearest example occurs in the case of a holder of a hereditary title, one that can only be inherited by a single person, with no children. If at any time he were to produce children, they rank ahead of whatever more "distant" relative had been heir presumptive. Many legal systems assume childbirth is always possible regardless of health. In such circumstances a person may be, in a practical sense, the heir apparent but still speaking, heir presumptive. Indeed, when Queen Victoria succeeded her uncle King William IV, the wording of the proclamation gave as a caveat:...saving the rights of any issue of his late Majesty King William IV, which may be born of his late Majesty's consort.
This provided for the possibility that William's wife, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, was pregnant at the moment of his death, since such a posthumous child, regardless of its sex, would have displaced Victoria from the throne. Adelaide was 44 at the time, so pregnancy was possible if unlikely. Daughters may inherit titles that descend according to male-preference primogeniture, but only in default of sons; that is, both female and male offspring have the right to a place somewhere in the order of succession, but when it comes to what that place is, a female will rank behind her brothers regardless of their ages or her age. Thus even an only daughter will not be heir apparent, since at any time a brother might be born who, though younger, would assume that position. Hence, she is an heir presumptive. For example, Queen Elizabeth II was heir presumptive during the reign of her father, King George VI, because at any stage up to his death, George could have fathered a legitimate son. In a system of absolute primogeniture that disregards gender, female heirs apparent occur.
As succession to titles, positions, or offices in the past most favoured males than females, females considered to be an heir apparent were rare. Absolute primogeniture was not practised by any modern monarchy for succession to their thrones until the late twentieth century with Sweden being the first to adopt absolute primogeniture in 1980 and other Western European monarchies following suit. Since the adoption of absolute primogeniture by contemporary Western European monarchies, examples of female heirs apparent include: Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands, Princess Elisabeth of Belgium. Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway is heir apparent to her father, Victoria herself has a female heir apparent in her oldest child, Princess Estelle. Victoria was not heir apparent from birth, but gained the status in 1980 following a change in the Swedish Act of Succession, her younger brother Carl Philip was thus heir apparent for a few months. In 2015, pursuant to the 2011 Perth Agreement, the Commonwealth realms changed the rules of succession to the 16 thrones of Elizabeth II to absolute primogeniture, except for male heirs born before the Perth Agreement.
The effects are not to be felt for many years. But in legal systems that apply male-preference primogeniture, female heirs apparent are by no means impossible: if a male heir apparent dies leaving no sons but at least one daughter the eldest daughter would replace her father as heir apparent to whatever throne or title is concerned, but only when it has become clear that the widow of the deceased is not pregnant; as the representative of her father's line she would assume a place ahead of any more distant relatives. Such a situation has not to date occurred with the British throne.
Nigel Paul Farage is a British politician, campaigner, political analyst and former businessman serving as Leader of the Brexit Party since 2019 and as a Member of the European Parliament for the South East England constituency since 1999. Outside of his Brexit Party and MEP duties, he serves as a Vice-Chairman of the pro-Brexit organisation Leave Means Leave, is the host of The Nigel Farage Show, a live radio phone-in on the Global-owned station LBC, he is best known as the former Leader of the UK Independence Party from 2006 to 2009 and again from 2010 to 2016. He co-chairs the Europe of Direct Democracy group. Known as a long-time prominent Eurosceptic in the UK, he has been noted for his European Parliament speeches, a critic of the euro currency. Farage was a founding member of UKIP, having left the Conservative Party in 1992 after the signing of the Maastricht Treaty. After unsuccessfully campaigning in European and Westminster parliamentary elections for UKIP since 1994, he was elected MEP for South East England in the 1999 European Parliament election.
He was re-elected in the 2009 and 2014 European Parliament elections. In September 2006, Farage became the Leader of UKIP and led the party through the 2009 European Parliament election, when it won the second highest share of the UK popular vote, defeating Labour and the Liberal Democrats with over two million votes, he stepped down in November 2009 to concentrate on contesting Buckingham, the constituency of the Speaker, John Bercow, at the 2010 general election, coming third. In November 2010, Farage stood in the 2010 UKIP leadership contest, becoming Leader of the Party once again following the resignation of Lord Pearson of Rannoch, who voluntarily stepped down as Leader in August that year. Farage announced his resignation as leader when he did not win the South Thanet seat in Kent at the 2015 general election, but his resignation was rejected and he remained in his post. In June 2016, Farage was a prominent supporter of the successful campaign for a vote in favour of leaving the EU in the UK EU membership referendum.
On 4 July 2016, Farage again announced his resignation as leader of UKIP, triggering a leadership election. Diane James was elected to succeed him, but she resigned as leader after just 18 days and Farage became interim leader on 5 October 2016. A second leadership election was held in November, won by Paul Nuttall, who thus succeeded Farage. Farage was ranked second in The Daily Telegraph's Top 100 most influential right-wingers poll in October 2013, behind Prime Minister David Cameron, he was named "Briton of the Year" by The Times in 2014. In 2017, Farage began contributing to the American television network Fox News. In 2018, Farage joined Leave Means Leave. On 4 December 2018, Farage announced his resignation from UKIP over the appointment of Tommy Robinson as an adviser to the UKIP leader Gerard Batten and the decision of the National Executive of UKIP to keep Batten as leader of the party. On 13 February 2019, Farage confirmed on his Twitter account that he would now sit as a member of the Brexit Party in the European Parliament.
On 22 March 2019, Farage was announced as the new Leader of the Brexit Party after Catherine Blaiklock's resignation. Farage was born in Downe in Kent, the son of Barbara and Guy Justus Oscar Farage; the Farage name comes from a distant Huguenot ancestor. One of his great-grandfathers was born to German parents, his grandfather, Private Harry Farage and was wounded in the First World War. His father was a stockbroker. A 2012 BBC Radio 4 profile described Guy Farage as an alcoholic who left the family home when Nigel was five years old. In 1971, Guy Farage gave up alcohol and entered the antiques trade, having lost his Stock Exchange position. From 1975 to 1982, Farage was educated at Dulwich College, a fee-paying independent school in south London. In his autobiography he pays tribute to the careers advice he received there from England Test cricketer John Dewes, "who must have spotted that I was quite ballsy good on a platform, unafraid of the limelight, a bit noisy and good at selling things".
After leaving school in 1982, Farage decided to seek employment in the City of London, trading commodities at the London Metal Exchange. He joined the American commodity operation of brokerage firm Drexel Burnham Lambert, transferring to Crédit Lyonnais Rouse in 1986, he joined Refco in 1994, Natexis Metals in 2003. Farage was active in the Conservative Party from his school days, having seen a visit to his school by Enoch Powell and Keith Joseph. In 1981, an English teacher, Chloe Deakin, wrote to the head teacher of Dulwich College, David Emms, asking him to reconsider his decision to appoint Farage as a prefect. Farage stated that some teachers were hostile to him because he was an admirer of Enoch Powell. Farage said: "Any accusation I was involved in far right politics is utterly untrue." He voted for the Green Party in 1989 because of what he saw as their "sensible" and Eurosceptic policies. He left the Conservatives in 1992 in protest at Prime Minister John Major's government's signing of the Treaty on European Union at Maastricht.
He was a founding member of UKIP in 1993. Farage was elected to the European Parliament in 1999 and re-elected in 2004, 2009 and 2014. In 1999 the BBC spent four months filming a documentary about his European election cam
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t
Royal Shakespeare Theatre
The Royal Shakespeare Theatre is a 1,040+ seat thrust stage theatre owned by the Royal Shakespeare Company dedicated to the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is located in the town of Stratford-upon-Avon – Shakespeare's birthplace – in the English Midlands, beside the River Avon; the Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatres re-opened in November 2010 after undergoing a major renovation known as the Transformation Project. The Royal Shakespeare Theatre opened in 1932 on the site adjacent to the original Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, destroyed by fire on 6 March 1926, whose name it took; the architect was Elisabeth Scott, so the theatre became the first important work erected in Britain from the designs of a woman architect. It was renamed the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in 1961, following the establishment of the Royal Shakespeare Company the previous year. In the building designed by Scott, the theatre had a proscenium-arch stage, a seating capacity of about 1,400 people, on three tiers.
Two tiers of seating were added to the side walls of the theatre and the stage extended beyond the proscenium, by means of an'apron'. Balcony seats could only be accessed by means of a staircase to the side of the building, separate from the main foyer and bar; the theatre has several notable Art Deco features, including the staircase and corridors at either side of the auditorium. It is a Grade II* listed building; the Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatres are on the western bank of the River Avon, with the adjacent Bancroft Gardens providing a scenic riverside setting. The Rooftop Restaurant and Bar overlooks both the Bancroft Gardens; the Royal Shakespeare Company has renovated the Royal Shakespeare Theatre as part of a £112.8m Transformation project which included the creation of a new 1040+ seat, thrust stage auditorium which brings actors and audiences closer together, with the distance of the furthest seat from the stage being reduced from 27 metres to 15 metres. The Transformation project included improvements to the Swan Theatre, the creation of an array of new public spaces, including a new Riverside Cafe and Rooftop Restaurant, a 36-metre observation tower, improved backstage conditions for the actors and crew.
The new theatre is more accessible to people with disabilities and offers a more comfortable theatre experience. The theatre is a "one-room" theatre, which allows the actors and the audience to share the same space, as they did when Shakespeare's plays were first produced; the stage reaches out into the audience. This one-room theatre creates a more traditional Shakespearean performance area, allowing the audience to draw closer to the actors and creating a more personal theatre experience; the funding for the project came from many different sources including. The Transformation project incorporated the creation of the temporary Courtyard Theatre to house performances in Stratford-upon-Avon during the time the Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatres were closed, new offices at Chapel Lane, a nursery and refurbished rehearsal rooms at Arden Street; the project reached over a total of £100 million in cost and drew in financial support from RSC America and its own board members. Plans to redevelop the theatre were finalised and work commenced in 2007, with a scheduled completion date of 2010.
The RSC had its own project team, led by Project Director, Peter Wilson OBE. Other members of the project team included: Bennetts Associates, Buro Happold, Mace, Acoustic Dimensions, Drivers Jonas Deloitte and Gardiner and Theobald. An urn containing the ashes of Actor Ian Richardson who had died on 9 February 2007 was placed into the foundations of the auditorium of the building during its renovation in 2008 by his widow Maroussia Frank and his son Miles Richardson. Meanwhile, performances were transferred to the temporary Courtyard Theatre, a full-sized working prototype for the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, built on the site of the RSC's studio theatre, The Other Place; the new theatre opened in November 2010, with preview events and activities, in advance of the first full Shakespeare performances from the RSC's existing repertoire from February 2011. The first new productions designed for the Royal Shakespeare Theatre's stage began from April 2011, with Michael Boyd's Macbeth, part of the RSC's 50th Birthday Season celebrations, which ran from April to December 2011.
The Royal Shakespeare Theatre was opened on 4 March 2011 by Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, who were given a performance of the balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet. The theatre has a new Rooftop Restaurant and Bar with views over the River Avon, a Riverside Cafe and Terrace, a Colonnade linking the Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatres together for the first time, the PACCAR Room exhibition space, a 36-metre-high tower which provides circulation and views across Stratford-upon-Avon and the surrounding area from its 32-metre-high viewing platform. There is a riverside walk which stretches from the Bancroft Gardens, past the theatre, towards Holy Trinity Church; the whole building is now accessible for the first time for visitors and staff with disabilities. There are three times as many dedicated wheelchair spaces in the new Royal Shakespeare Theatre auditorium in comparison to the previous auditor
John Verney, 20th Baron Willoughby de Broke
Air Commodore John Henry Peyto Verney, 20th Baron Willoughby de Broke, MC, AFC was a British peer. The son of Richard Verney, 19th Baron Willoughby de Broke, Marie Frances Lisette Hanbury, Verney was educated at Eton and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, he succeeded his father in 1923. During the First World War, he was awarded the Military Cross. At the end of hostilities, he became aide-de-camp to the Governor of Bombay, Sir George Lloyd, from 1919 to 1922 and adjutant of the Warwickshire Yeomanry from 1925 to 1929. In 1939 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire, a post he held until 1967. Between the wars both Lord and Lady Willoughby were keen aviators with their own aeroplane and private aerodrome at their home in Kineton, Warwickshire, he was Commanding Officer from 1936–1939 of 605 County of Warwick squadron. During the Second World War, he was a Duty Controller in the No. 11 Group Operations Room at RAF Uxbridge, responsible for the fighter protection of the south-east and became Deputy Director of Public Relations at the Air Ministry and Director from 1945-46.
Joint Master of the Warwickshire Hounds and chairman of the Wolverhampton Racecourse Company, he was President of the Hunters' Improvement Society. On 4 October 1933 Lord Willoughby de Broke married Rachel Wrey, daughter of Sir Bourchier Sherard Wrey, 11th Baronet of Tawstock in Devon and Lutterworth in Leicestershire, they had two children: David Verney, 21st Baron Willoughby de Broke The Honourable Susan Geraldine Verney. Crozier, Hazel. RAF Uxbridge 90th Anniversary 1917 – 2007. RAF High Wycombe: Air Command Media Services The Birmingham Post Year Book and Who's Who 1973–74, Birmingham Post and Mail Ltd. July 1973 Imperial War Museum Interview
The Warwickshire Hunt is an English fox hunting pack founded in 1791. The hunt was founded in 1791 near Shrewsbury. John Corbet established the Hunt Club at the White Lion Inn, Stratford-upon-Avon, where once a fortnight the club’s members would meet for a dinner, during the dinner the first toast was always to "the King" and the second to "the blood of the Trojans", Trojan being a favourite hound from which most of the hunt’s hounds descended. During this time, John Corbet hunted the entire county of Warwickshire with the hunt. John Corbet kenneled the pack at the White Lion during the hunting season, whilst he would return it to his seat at Sundorne Castle during the summer months; the pack comprised about 70 couples of hounds and were hunted in two packs, a bitch pack and a dog pack, the bitch pack being preferred by many huntsmen for their quickness of scent, activity. In 1811, the pack was purchased by Henry Willoughby, 6th Baron Middleton for 1200 guineas and he became master of the hunt.
Lord Middleton disbanded the Hunt Club at the White Lion and divided the hunt's country with other hunts. During this period, the pack was temporarily kennelled at Kenilworth prior to Lord Middleton building a large range of stables and kennels for the pack in Stratford-upon-Avon. In 1821 Evelyn Shirley of Ettington Hall succeeded Lord Middleton as master of the hunt after Lord Middleton suffered a nasty fall from a horse. At this time the hunt started accepting subscriptions and Mr Shirley, assisted by the famous huntsman Jack Wood, built a new kennel for the hunt in Butlers Marston; the current Grade II listed kennels in Little Kineton were built in 1839. Between World War I and World War II the Warwickshire Hunt was considered one of the premier hunts in the midland shires, with a succession of famous huntsmen including Bob Champion, Ted Cox and George Gillson; the hunt’s country covers areas of Warwickshire, Oxfordshire and Worcestershire and is 21 miles long and 24 miles across. The country is a mixture of pasture and arable, crossed by means of hedges and hunt jumps.
Adjacent hunts include the Atherstone Hunt, the Pytchley Hunt, the Bicester with Whaddon Chase Hunt, the Heythrop Hunt, the North Cotswold Hunt, the Croome and the West Warwickshire Foxhounds. Fox hunting List of foxhound packs of the United Kingdom Baily’s hunting directory, "Warwickshire Hunt", www.bailyshuntingdirectory.com, retrieved 25 August 2017
European Communities Act 1972 (UK)
The European Communities Act 1972 known as the ECA 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC, the Coal and Steel Community. The Treaty of Accession was signed by the Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath and the President of the European Commission Franco Maria Malfatti in Brussels on 22 January 1972; the Act provided for the incorporation into UK law of the whole of European Community law and its "acquis communautaire": its Treaties and Directives, together with judgments of the European Court of Justice. By the Act, Community Law became binding on all legislation passed by the UK Parliament. Arguably the most significant statute to be passed by the Heath government of 1970-74, the Act is one of the most significant UK constitutional statutes passed; the act has been amended from its original form, incorporating the changes wrought by the Single European Act, the Maastricht Treaty, the Amsterdam Treaty, the Nice Treaty, the Treaty of Lisbon.
On 13 July 2017, the Brexit Secretary, David Davis, introduced what became the European Union Act to Parliament which makes provision for repealing the 1972 Act on "exit day", when enacted defined as 29 March 2019 at 11 p.m. but postponed by EU decision to either 22 May 2019 or 12 April 2019. When the European Communities came into being in 1958, the UK chose to remain aloof and instead join the alternative bloc, EFTA; the British government regretted its decision, in 1961, along with Denmark and Norway, the UK applied to join the three Communities. However, President Charles de Gaulle saw British membership as a Trojan horse for US influence, vetoed it; the four countries resubmitted their applications in 1967, the French veto was lifted upon Georges Pompidou succeeding de Gaulle in 1969. In 1970, accession negotiations took place between the UK Government, led by Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath, the European Communities and various European leaders. Despite disagreements over the CAP and the UK's relationship with the Commonwealth, terms were agreed.
In October 1971, after a lengthy Commons debate, MPs voted 356-244 in favour of joining the EEC. For the Treaty to take effect upon entry into the Communities on 1 January 1973, for the UK to embrace the EEC Institutions and Community law, an Act of Parliament was required. Only three days after the signing of the Treaty, a European Communities Bill of just 12 clauses was presented to the House of Commons by Geoffrey Rippon; the European Communities Act came into being, Edward Heath signed the Treaty of Accession in Brussels on 22 January 1972. Denmark and Ireland joined the Community on the same day, 1 January 1973, as the UK; the European Communities Bill was introduced the House of Commons for its first reading by Geoffrey Rippon, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster on 26 January 1972. On 17 February 1972, the House of Commons voted narrowly by 309-301 in favour of the Bill at its second reading, after three days of intense debate. Just before the vote the Prime Minister Edward Heath argued his case in the debate with the following words.
The Bill passed on to Committee Stage before its third reading. During this discussion in the House of Commons, MPs pointed out that the Government had structured the European Communities Bill so that Parliament could debate the technical issues about how the treaty enactment would occur but could not debate the treaty of accession itself and decried this sacrifice of Parliament's sovereignty to the Government's desire to join the European project. On 13 July 1972, the House of Commons voted 301-284 in favour of the Bill in its third and final reading before passing on to the House of Lords. Before the vote took place, Geoffrey Rippon argued in the House of Commons before the vote: The Bill passed to the House of Lords; the Act received Royal Assent on 17 October, the UK's instrument of ratification of the Treaty of Accession was deposited the next day with the Italian government as required by the Treaty. Since the Treaty specified its effective date as 1 January 1973 and the Act specified only "entry date" for its actions, the Act and the Treaty took effect 1 January 1973, when the United Kingdom became a member state of the European Communities along with Denmark and the Republic of Ireland.
The European Communities Act was the instrument whereby the UK Parliament effected the changes required by the Treaty of Accession by which the UK joined the European Union. Section 2 says "the Treaties are without further enactment to be given legal effect" in the UK, it enables, under section 2, UK government ministers to make regulations to transpose EU Directives and rulings of the European Court of Justice into UK law. The Treaty itself says the member states will conform themselves to the European Communities existing and future decisions; the Act and the Treaty of Accession have been interpreted by UK courts