Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 410,301, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall; the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, 280 km south-west of Sydney, 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran. Although Canberra is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in state capital cities, as do the Governor-General and the Prime Minister; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being an planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States, or Brasília in Brazil. Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913.
The Griffins' plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, was centred on axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city's design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation; the growth and development of Canberra were hindered by the World Wars and the Great Depression, which exacerbated a series of planning disputes and the ineffectiveness of a procession of bodies that were created in turn to oversee the development of the city. The national capital emerged as a thriving city after World War II, as Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies championed its development and the National Capital Development Commission was formed with executive powers. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority; as the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the official residence of the Monarch's representative the Governor-General, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies.
It is the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, Australian National University, Royal Australian Mint, Australian Institute of Sport, National Gallery, National Museum and the National Library. The Australian Army's officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital; the ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power. The ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, has its own Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states; as the city has a high proportion of public servants, the Commonwealth Government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra, although no longer the majority employer. Compared to the national averages, the unemployment rate is the average income higher. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations.
The word "Canberra" is popularly claimed to derive from the word Kambera or Canberry, claimed to mean "meeting place" in Ngunnawal, one of the Indigenous languages spoken in the district by Aboriginal Australians before European settlers arrived, although there is no clear evidence to support this. An alternative definition has been claimed by numerous local commentators over the years, including the Ngunnawal elder Don Bell, whereby Canberra or Nganbra means "woman's breasts" and is the indigenous name for the two mountains, Black Mountain and Mount Ainslie, which lie opposite each other. In the 1860s, the name was reported by Queanbeyan newspaper owner John Gale to be an interpretation of the name nganbra or nganbira, meaning "hollow between a woman's breasts", referring to the Sullivans Creek floodplain between Mount Ainslie and Black Mountain. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivan's Creek floodplain between these two mountains as "Nganbra". "Nganbra" or "Nganbira" could have been anglicised to the name "Canberry", as the locality soon become known to European settlers.
R. H. Cambage in his 1919 book Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales, Part X, the Federal Capital Territory noted that Joshua John Moore, the first settler in the region, named the area Canberry in 1823 stating that "there seems no doubt that the original was a native name, but its meaning is unknown."' Survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. In 1920, some of the older residents of the district claimed that the name was derived from the Australian Cranberry which grew abundantly in the area, noting that the local name for the plant was canberry. Although popularly pronounced or, the original pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians. Anthropologist Norman Tindale suggested the principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal people, while the Ngarigo lived to the south of the ACT, the Wandandian to the east, the Walgulu to the south, Gandangara people to the north and Wiradjuri to the north-west.
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites as well as stone tools and arrangements. Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some po
Colin Peter Groves was Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. Born in England, Groves completed a Bachelor of Science at University College London in 1963, a Doctor of Philosophy at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine in 1966. From 1966 to 1973, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher and Teaching Fellow at the University of California, Queen Elizabeth College and the University of Cambridge, he emigrated to Australia in 1973 and joined the Australian National University, where he was promoted to full Professor in 2000 and remained Emeritus Professor until his death. Professor Groves' research interests included human evolution, mammalian taxonomy, skeletal analysis, biological anthropology, ethnobiology and biogeography, he conducted extensive fieldwork in Kenya, Rwanda, Iran, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Along with the Czech biologist Professor Vratislav Mazák, Groves was the describer of Homo ergaster.
Groves wrote Primate Taxonomy published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 2001, Ungulate Taxonomy, co-authored by Peter Grubb. He was an active member of the Australian Skeptics and had many published skeptical papers, as well as research papers covering his other research interests, he conducted regular debates with creationists and anti-evolutionists. Groves, C.. A theory of human and primate evolution. New York: Oxford Science Publications. Doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330810314. Groves, C.. Laycock, D, ed. Skeptical, a handbook on pseudoscience and the paranormal. Australian Skeptics. ISBN 0-7316-5794-2. Groves, C.. "From Ussher to Slusher. Archaeology in Oceania. 31: 145–151. Groves, C. P.. "Leopard-cats, Prionailurus bengalensis from Indonesia and the Philippines, with the description of two new subspecies". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 62: 330–338. Groves, C.. Primate Taxonomy. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-872-X. Cameron, D. W.. Bones and Molecules. Boston: Elsevier. P. 402. ISBN 0-12-156933-0.
Groves, C.. Extended Family: Long Lost Cousins. A Personal Look at the History of Primatology. Arlington, Virginia: Conservation International. P. 227. ISBN 1-934151-25-4. Groves, C.. "Birth of a notion". The Skeptic. Australian Skeptics. 34: 39. Retrieved 2016-03-17; the Colin Groves Pages The Groves Collection at No Answers in Genesis ANU Faculty Homepage ANU Researcher Profile page
University of Canberra
The University of Canberra is a public university in Bruce, Australian Capital Territory. The campus is within walking distance of Westfield Belconnen, close proximity to Canberra's Civic Centre. UC offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses covering five faculties: Health and Design, Business and Law, Education and Science and Technology. UC partners with two local ACT schools: UC Senior Secondary College Lake Ginninderra and University of Canberra High School Kaleen; the University of Canberra College provides pathways into university for domestic and international students. The University of Canberra was first established in 1967 as the Canberra College of Advanced Education; the Canberra CAE became the University of Canberra under sponsorship of Monash University in 1990. Over 70,000 students have graduated from the university since 1970; the University of Canberra has grown by seventy-eight percent since 2007, going from 7,300 students to over 13,000 in 2014. The median Australian Tertiary Admission Rank of UC students is 71.
At the end of the year, after classes finish but before exams, Stone Day was once held, a music festival with local bands, which lasted several days. The day before it was known as Stone Eve, it started as a celebration held annually to mark the placing of the foundation stone by Prime Minister John Gorton on 28 October 1968. As of 2012, Stone Day has not been held as an official University event; the stone is displayed near Building 1 at the University, an inscription on it reads: This Stone was unveiled by the right honourable J. G. Gorton, M. P. Prime Minister of Australia, on 28 October 1968, to mark the establishment of the Canberra College of Advanced Education. Over the years the Stone Day program became larger and larger, taking up a whole week and'Stonefest' was one of Australia's most popular music festivals; the first foundation celebrations were held in 1971. In 1973 Stone Day celebrations were held over two days, expanded to take up a whole week in 1976. In the 1980s and 1990s Stoneweek became a popular Canberra entertainment event, which in 2000 became Stonefest.
The Stonefest event was not held for a number of years at the University of Canberra. In 2014, the University decided to create a'Stonefest' mini music festival where there was a DJ and numerous activities, it wasn't an popular event and has not been held since. Many students who live on Campus still hold unofficial celebrations for Stone Week at the University. An announcement was made on 17 September 2012 that the university would establish a branch campus in Melbourne from 2013, by partnering with Holmesglen Institute of TAFE; the branch campus, to be situated at Holmesglen’s Chadstone location, would be called University of Canberra Melbourne. On 17 October 2012, the University of Canberra was announced to have partnered with Holmesglen Institute of TAFE in Victoria, to establish this branch campus in Chadstone, Melbourne; the article state plans by taking the UC Brand in Queensland through an agreement with Metropolitan South Institute of TAFE in Brisbane. The intention was to create a new higher education model known as a "Polytechnic University".
This model was adopted by the UK Government until 1992. This model was to combine both worlds of TAFE's strong connections to industry, universities' strong connection to scholarly work and research. However, on 24 January 2013, UC expansion plans in Melbourne were blocked by the former Education Minister, Chris Evans; the University had not been granted approval by the federal government for expansion beyond its original campus. This event has been experienced by UC, as the federal Government rejected another deal from UC to merge with the local Canberra TAFE, the Canberra Institute of Technology. Despite this setback, it came to a halt on 3 June 2013. Newly appointed education minister, Craig Emerson, overturned the decision by allowing UC degrees to be taught at four different TAFEs from 2014, therefore reversing an earlier decision to block such arrangements. From 2014, UC degrees were taught at these TAFE Campuses: Holmesglen Institute of TAFE in Victoria Metropolitan South Institute of TAFE in Brisbane, Queensland Northern Sydney Institute of TAFE in New South Wales South Western Sydney Institute of TAFE in New South WalesThe goal is to expand the UC brand outside the Canberra Region.
" needs to expand and diversify in order to get scale and sustainability" according to UC vice-chancellor, Stephen Parker. The arrangement allows for some 6500 UC students across the four TAFEs by 2018. Parker said he expected just one or two degrees to be offered but it was too early to say what they would be; the degrees would be jointly developed by UC and the TAFEs but the students would enrol as UC students receiving UC qualifications. This deal formed a new group called the Australian Polytechnic Network between UC and the four TAFEs; the University has one campus, located in the suburb of Bruce, which covers 290 acres of buildings and access routes. Being a small University with a small campus, there are just over 28 buildings, each dedicated to a particular purpose. Most of these buildings are arranged around the main concourse. New students are always advised during orientation week that the buildings are not numbered in order; the University of Canberra Library is located in Building 8.
The Library'aims to provide a range of high quality scholarly information resources and services to the University community.' The Refectory is the main food hall operated by the UC Union. It provides a laid-back area to study or socialise, with cafes, post office, general shop, pool tables, lounges, is concert venue. Upstairs there are study rooms which can be booked
Men at Birth
Men at Birth is an award-winning book from Australian writer David Vernon. The book is an edited anthology of birth experiences, written by men; the experiences described are diverse, ranging from caesarean births and VBAC births, to births that take place at home and in a birth centre or labour ward. Steve Biddulph stated: On a big journey into the unknown, you need people who have been there, who know the practicalities, as well as the emotions and strange, that go with it; this book of men telling the stories of their children's births is a gift. The book has caused some controversy with its view that men who are poorly prepared for birth should not attend the birth of their child, as it may make the birth more difficult for the woman. On 13 December 2007 Men at Birth was the winner of the ACT Writing and Publishing Awards for Best Non-fiction Book of the Year; the award was made by Jon Stanhope. Canberra Times, Men in Labour, by Karen Hardy, 29 August 2006 Rebirth of the Father Herald Sun, 1 Sept 2006 Interview with Sylvia Tobler, Canberra FM91.1, Bretzelfunk, 7 Sept 2006 Book Review - Accessed 19 Feb 2007 David Vernon's Home Page
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper owned by Nine in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia and a national online news brand; the print version of the newspaper is published six days a week. The Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety including the magazines Good Weekend. There are a variety of lift-outs, some of them co-branded with online classified advertising sites: The Guide on Monday Good Food and Domain on Tuesday Money on Wednesday Drive, Shortlist on Friday News Review, Domain, Drive and MyCareer on SaturdayAs of February 2016, average week-day print circulation of the paper was 104,000; the editor is Lisa Davies. Former editors include Darren Goodsir, Judith Whelan, Sean Aylmer, Peter Fray, Meryl Constance, Amanda Wilson, William Curnow, Andrew Garran, Frederick William Ward, Charles Brunsdon Fletcher, Colin Bingham, Max Prisk, John Alexander, Paul McGeough, Alan Revell and Alan Oakley.
The February 2016 average circulation of the paper was 104,000. In December 2013, the Audit Bureau of Circulations's audit on newspaper circulation states a monthly average of 132,000 copies were sold, Monday to Friday, 228,000 copies on Saturday, both having declined 16% in 12 months. According to Roy Morgan Research Readership Surveys, in the twelve months to March 2011, the paper was read 766,000 times on Monday to Friday, read 1,014,000 times on Saturdays; the newspaper's website smh.com.au was rated by third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb as the 17th and 32nd most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspaper's website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month, it is available nationally except in the Northern Territory. Limited copies of the newspaper are available at newsagents in New Zealand and at the High Commission of Australia, London. In 1831 three employees of the now-defunct Sydney Gazette, Ward Stephens, Frederick Stokes and William McGarvie, founded The Sydney Herald.
In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published. The original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily. In 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for 150 years, based his editorial policies "upon principles of candour and honour. We have no wish to mislead. During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there; the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the country's metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch. In 1949, the newspaper launched The Sunday Herald. Four years this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, which continues to this day. In 1995, the company launched the newspaper's web edition smh.com.au. The site has since grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition.
Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, in the city's west. The SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a broadsheet format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times, for both The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year. However, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013. Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the entire group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers' websites; the subscription type is to be a freemium model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. The announcement was part of an overall "digital first" strategy of digital or on-line content over printed delivery, to "increase sharing of editorial content", to assist the management's wish for "full integration of its online and mobile platforms".
In July 2013 it was announced that the SMH's news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, replacing Sean Aylmer. On 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014, ahead of the decommissioning of the printing plant at Chullora in June 2014. According to Irial Glynn, the newspaper's editorial stance is centrist, it is seen as the most centrist among the three major Australian non-tabloids. In 2004, the newspaper's editorial page stated: "market libertarianism and social liberalism" were the two "broad themes" that guided the Herald's editorial stance. During the 1999 referendum on whether Australia should become a republic, the Herald supported a "yes" vote; the newspaper did not endorse the Labor Party for federal office in the first six decades of Federation, but did endorse the party in 1961, 1984, 1987. During the 2004 Australian federal election, the Herald annou
The Canberra Times
The Canberra Times is a daily newspaper in Canberra, published by Fairfax Media part of Nine Entertainment Co.. The Canberra Times was launched in 1926 by Thomas Shakespeare along with his oldest son Arthur Shakespeare and two younger sons Christopher and James; the newspaper's headquarters were located in the Civic retail precinct, in Cooyong Street and Mort Street, in blocks bought by Thomas Shakespeare in the first sale of Canberra leases in 1924. The newspaper's first issue was published on 3 September 1926, it was the second paper to be printed in the first being The Federal Capital Pioneer. Between September 1926 and February 1928, the newspaper was a weekly issue; the first daily issue was 28 February 1928. In June 1956, The Canberra Times converted from broadsheet to tabloid format. Arthur Shakespeare sold the paper to John Fairfax Ltd in 1964, on the condition that it continue to advocate for Canberra. Soon after, in July 1964, the format was switched back to broadsheet and printing was moved to Fairfax's newly installed press in Fyshwick.
Offices remained open in the civic retail precinct until April 1987 when The Canberra Times moved its entire operation to the new office of The Federal Capital Press of Australia in Fyshwick. The paper was sold to Publishing and Broadcasting Limited, which in turn sold it to Kerry Stokes in 1989 for $110 million. Rural Press Limited bought the paper from Stokes in 1998 for $160 million; the Times rejoined the Fairfax stable in 2007. The paper first went online on 31 March 1997. In 2008, The Canberra Times printed a formal apology after the paper published an essay in which Irfan Yusuf falsely accused American historian Daniel Pipes of suggesting that Muslims deserved to be slaughtered as Jews were during the Holocaust. On 17 October 2008, The Canberra Times was distributed with a sticker advertising the ACT Labor Party on the front page. Complaints about the sticker prompted Ken Nichols, to issue an explanation. In October 2013, Fairfax Media announced that The Canberra Times would be restructured to join the Australian Community Media Group of regional and community newspapers, shifting from the metropolitan news division of Fairfax.
A new editorial leadership team was appointed in November 2015, with Grant Newton as editor of the newspaper and Scott Hannaford as deputy editor and news director. In March 2016, staff at the newspaper were told there would be a restructure at The Canberra Times and that the paper would move from a broadsheet format to a tabloid. Fairfax Media announced they would be cutting 12 jobs from the newspaper's staff; the paper's editors have included Jack Waterford and Michelle Grattan, the first female editor of a metropolitan daily newspaper in Australia. A recent editor-in-chief, Peter Fray, left in January 2009 to edit The Sydney Morning Herald, he was succeeded by Rod Quinn, who announced the formation of a new senior editorial team in 2012. Editorial cartoonists have included David Pope and Pat Campbell. List of newspapers in Australia The Canberra Times The Canberra Times at Trove
Griffith University is a public research university in South East Queensland on the east coast of Australia. Formally founded in 1971, Griffith opened its doors in 1975, introducing Australia's first degrees in environmental science and Asian studies; the university is named after Sir Samuel Walker Griffith, twice Premier of Queensland and the first Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia. Sir Samuel Griffith played a major role in the Federation of Australia and was the principal author of the Australian constitution. Opening with the one campus at Nathan and 451 students, the University now has five physical campuses spanning three cities, the largest of which are the Gold Coast campus at Southport and the Nathan campus in Brisbane; the Mount Gravatt and South Bank campuses are located in Brisbane, while the Logan campus is at Meadowbrook. In 2018, the University launched its Digital campus, now its sixth campus, which offers a range of online degrees. Griffith has over 44,000 students and offers a full suite of undergraduate and research degrees in the areas of business and government and law, education and information technology, environment and architecture, health and languages, music and aviation, visual and creative arts.
It is a verdant university and a member of the IRU. In 1965, 174 hectares of natural bushland at Nathan were set aside for a new campus; the site was to be part of the University of Queensland, experiencing strong demand in humanities and social sciences. By 1970 a new institution was being mooted, Theodor Bray was asked by the Queensland Government to establish a second for Brisbane and the third for the state. After several months of discussion, the Queensland Government announced on 24 December 1970 that Bray would head a committee charged with establishing Griffith University; the Mount Gravatt site was set to become Griffith's first campus. On 30 September 1971, the Queensland Government created and recognised Griffith University with the passing of the Assent to Griffith University Act 1971. On 5 March 1975, Griffith University began teaching 451 students in four schools: Australian Environmental Studies, Modern Asian Studies and Science; the university was distinguished by its "problem-based" rather than disciplinary approach to course design and research.
In the 1990s, the Dawkins Revolution saw a number of tertiary education reforms in Australia, resulting in a series of amalgamations of colleges and universities. In 1990, the Mount Gravatt Teacher's College and Gold Coast College of Advanced Education became official campuses of Griffith University; the Queensland Conservatorium of Music continued the higher education mergers and became an official part of Griffith University in 1991. Established in 1957, the new entity became known as Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University. In 1992, the amalgamations were completed for Griffith, with the Queensland College of Art, established in 1881 and recognised as the oldest continuous operating art training institution in Australia becoming part of the university. Griffith’s fifth campus, opened in 1998. Located in the suburb of Meadowbrook, on an area of green fields south of Brisbane, the Logan campus was established to address the interests and needs of the Logan City area. Griffith University’s campuses are distinctive for their nature-based settings within urban environments.
The Gold Coast campus is located in the Gold Coast suburb of Southport. Set in native bushland, on the land of the Aboriginal Yugambeh and Kombumerri peoples, this campus plays host to over 18,200 students from all over Australia and the world, it is Griffith University's largest campus. The campus has seen significant growth and development over the last few years, with the opening of the $150 million Griffith Health Centre and the neighbouring Gold Coast University Hospital in 2013, the launch of the $38 million Griffith Business School building in 2014; the campus is serviced by two Gold Coast light rail stations, is a major interchange for bus routes. Logan is Griffith University’s community-focused campus. Hosting 2500 students, the campus offers degrees in human services and social work and midwifery, business and commerce, education; the campus has strong connections with the local community, hosting numerous sorting and cultural events throughout the year. Nathan, Griffith’s foundation campus, is situated in tranquil, native bushland on the edge of Toohey Forest and less than 10 kilometres from the Brisbane CBD.
Nathan hosts over 13,000 students and offers degrees in business and government and information technology, environment and languages, science and aviation. The buildings at the Nathan campus were designed to fit into the environment by Roger Kirk Johnson the founding architectural designer of the campus, following the slope of the land and using architectural means of cooling; the library building was designed by Robin Gibson and won the first national award for library design. The clusters of buildings, sports facilities, bushland reserves and recreational areas are connected by integrated networks of walking paths. On the northern edge of the campus lies the Dunn Memorial, a fitting tribute. In 2013, the six-star, green-rated Sir Samuel Griffith Centre was opened on the Nathan campus; the building is powered by a combination of photovoltaics and hydrogen. The campus has a range of sporting facilities; the Mount Gravatt campus, adjacent to the Nathan campus, hosts 4400 student