The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference West division. Founded on January 30, 1960, they played their first regular season game on September 11, 1960, as a charter member of the American Football League which merged with the NFL in 1970; the Raiders' off-field fortunes have varied over the years. The team's first three years of operation were marred by poor on-field performance, financial difficulties, spotty attendance. In 1963, the Raiders' fortunes improved with the introduction of head coach Al Davis. In 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time; the team would go on to win its first AFL Championship that year. Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, four AFC Championships, one AFL Championship, three Super Bowl Championships. At the end of the NFL's 2018 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime regular season record of 466 wins, 423 losses, 11 ties.
The team departed Oakland to play in Los Angeles from the 1982 season until the 1994 season before returning to Oakland at the start of the 1995 season. Al Davis owned the team from 1972 until his death in 2011. Control of the franchise was given to Al's son Mark Davis. On March 27, 2017, NFL team owners voted nearly unanimously to approve the Raiders' application to relocate from Oakland to Las Vegas, Nevada, in a 31–1 vote at the annual league meetings in Phoenix, Arizona; the Raiders plan to remain in the Bay Area through 2019, relocate to Las Vegas in 2020, pending the completion of the team's planned new stadium. The Raiders are known for distinctive team culture; the Raiders have 14 former members. They have played at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, Candlestick Park in San Francisco, Frank Youell Field in Oakland, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum in Oakland; the Oakland Raiders were going to be called the "Oakland Señors" after a name-the-team contest had that name finish first, but after being the target of local jokes, the name was changed to the Raiders before the 1960 season began.
Having enjoyed a successful collegiate coaching career at Navy during the 1950s, San Francisco native Eddie Erdelatz was hired as the Raiders' first head coach. On February 9, 1960, after rejecting offers from the NFL's Washington Redskins and the AFL's Los Angeles Chargers, Erdelatz accepted the Raiders' head coaching position. In January 1960, the Raiders were established in Oakland, because of NFL interference with the original eighth franchise owner, were the last team of eight in the new American Football League to select players, thus relegated to the remaining talent available; the 1960 Raiders 42-man roster included 28 rookies and only 14 veterans. Among the Raiders rookies were future Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee center Jim Otto, a future Raiders head coach, quarterback Tom Flores. In their debut year under Erdelatz the Raiders finished with a 6–8 record. Ownership conflicts prevented the team from signing. On September 18, 1961, Erdelatz was dismissed after the Raiders were outscored 77–46 in the first two games of the season.
On September 24, 1961, after the dismissal of Erdelatz, management named Los Angeles native and offensive line coach Marty Feldman as the Raiders head coach. The team finished the 1961 season with a 2–12 record. Feldman began the 1962 season as Raiders head coach but was fired on October 16, 1962 after an 0–5 start. From October 16 through December, the Raiders were coached by Oklahoma native and former assistant coach Red Conkright. Under Conkright, the Raiders went 1–8, finishing the season with 1–13 record. Following the 1962 season the Raiders appointed Conkright to an interim mentor position as they looked for a new head coach. After the 1962 season, Raiders managing general partner F. Wayne Valley hired Al Davis as Raiders head coach and general manager. At 33, he was the youngest person in professional football history to hold the positions. Davis began to implement what he termed the "vertical game", an aggressive offensive strategy inspired by the offense developed by Chargers head coach Sid Gillman.
Under Davis the Raiders improved to 10–4 and he was named the AFL's Coach of the Year in 1963. Though the team slipped to 5–7–2 in 1964, they rebounded to an 8–5–1 record in 1965; the famous silver and black Raider uniform debuted at the regular season opening game on September 8, 1963. Prior to this, the team wore a combination of black and white with gold trim on the pants and oversized numerals. In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner, promoting assistant coach John Rauch to head coach. Two months the league announced its merger with the NFL; the leagues would retain separate regular seasons until 1970. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part-owner of the team, he purchased a 10% interest in the team for $18,000, became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations. Under Rauch, the Raiders matched their 1965 season's 8–5–1 record in 1966 but missed the pl
Plano East Senior High School
Plano East Senior High School is a secondary school in Plano, Texas serving high school juniors and seniors, as well as freshmen and sophomores as a part of the IB World School. It is part of the Plano Independent School District, enrolls students based on the locations of students' homes. Students at Plano East attended one of two high schools: Williams; the school colors are black and gold, the school mascot is the panther. Plano East has been awarded the U. S. Department of Education Blue Ribbon School of Excellence, Best High School in Texas designation by Redbook magazine, Texas Education Agency Blue Ribbon School, State and National Academic Decathlon Championships. Plano East's graduating classes are among the largest for high schools in the United States. Plano East's Class of 2005, with 1220 graduates, was the largest high school graduating class in the U. S. that year. The Class of 2014 was the largest high school graduating class in the U. S. with 1561 graduates. Plano East is the only senior high school in Plano ISD to offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme.
Students who would attend either Plano or Plano West are allowed to transfer to Plano East to participate in the IB Programme without forfeiting UIL eligibility. Beginning with the 2014-2015 school year, Plano East became the 2nd campus to host part of the Plano ISD Health Sciences Academy for Juniors and Seniors after the Health Sciences Academy was established in the 2013-2014 school year at Williams High School for Freshmen and Sophomores. To meet the demand of the growing population in Plano, Plano East Senior High School opened in 1981 as the second senior high school in the city; the school opened with 3 academic buildings connected by second-floor walkways, a fine arts building, a gymnasium. The athletics complex was added as a result of Title IX laws which require equal space for male and female athletics. In 1987, a new student activity center was constructed for indoor athletic practice. Fourth and fifth buildings were added; the construction project for Building Five concluded the fall of 2010, preceding the 2010-2011 academic school year.
An extension to Building 1 was completed in the fall of 2018 and included 19 classrooms, 4 smaller rooms, a large meeting room, several collaboration spaces. The school has had a rivalry with the oldest high school in Plano Senior High School. However, in the 21st century Plano West Senior High School has become the nemesis to both Plano and Plano East; as a result, Plano East has developed a fierce rivalry with their cross town counterparts, the Plano West Wolves. Plano East maintains a rivalry with Allen High School to the north because they are the two largest schools in the state, but the football aspect of this rivalry has weakened in recent years as Allen has continued to compete for multiple state championships, while Plano East has struggled to qualify for the postseason. However, this rivalry was reignited during the 2015-2016 school year, when Plano East had a nominally good season, though lost to Allen. District Champs: 1985 12-5A, 1988 12-5A, 1994 11-5A, 1998 9-5A, 1999 9-5A, 2000 9-5A In 1994, Plano East was on the losing end of a wild and memorable regional semi final game against John Tyler High School in which five touchdowns were scored in the last two and a half minutes.
The game received the 1995 Showstopper of the Year ESPY Award and in 2006, ESPN ranked the game among its top 10 premature celebrations of all-time. The Plano East Swim Team is a Division 6A swim team in Texas, part of UIL Region 2, District 7 for the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 swim seasons; the district comprises the following programs: Plano East placed 7th at State in 2005, the highest placement for the Plano East swim program. Representing the Panthers that year were seniors Tim Sablick, Steven Lazar, PJ Giovannini and junior MacKenzie LeBlanc; the group set multiple Plano East records. MacKenzie LeBlanc would go on to become the most decorated swimmer in Plano East history. In the fall of 2006 after the group of stellar swimmers graduated, the Plano East swim team became rather weak. However, new coaches Amanda Valentini and Colin McGrane took over changing the direction of the team. After a few down years, the team went from being one of the worst teams in its district to becoming a competitive swimming powerhouse.
Plano East's most recent accomplishments include finishing 1st at Dallas Cup in 2010 and 1st at the JV District Championships in 2011. In the 2012-2013 season, the Boys team finished 25th at the UIL State Championships, the 2nd highest position of any team from its district. In the 2013-2014 season, the Boys team placed 12th out of 40 total teams at the North Zone TISCA Invitational, behind district members Plano, Plano West, Dallas Jesuit; the Girls team placed 26th out of 36 total teams, behind district members Allen, McKinney and Plano West. Plano East sent 6 swimmers to the UIL state competition. In March 2014, UIL Texas released the new alignments for the 2014-2015 season. Plano East was classified in the new "6A" qualification, was aligned into the same district as Southlake Carroll regarded as the best swim team in the state. In May 2014, coaches Amanda Valentini and Colin McGrane both announced that the 2013-2014 season would be their last. In June 2014, coach Lena Harrington, former assistant swim coach at Plano West Senior High School, was named the head coach of
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Florida State Seminoles football
The Florida State Seminoles football team represents Florida State University in the sport of American football. The Seminoles compete in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Atlantic Division of the Atlantic Coast Conference; the team is known for its storied history, distinctive helmet, fight song and colors as well as the many traditions associated with the school. Florida State has won three national championships, eighteen conference titles and six division titles along with a playoff appearance; the Seminoles have achieved three undefeated seasons, finished ranked in the top four of the AP Poll for 14 straight years from 1987 through 2000 and completed 41 straight winning seasons from 1977 through 2017. The 1999 team received votes from ESPN as one of the top teams in college football history; the team has produced three Heisman Trophy winners: quarterbacks Charlie Ward in 1993, Chris Weinke in 2000 and Jameis Winston in 2013.
The Biletnikoff Award, presented annually to the top receiver in college football, is named for Florida State hall of famer Fred Biletnikoff. Other awards won by Florida State players include the Walter Camp Award, the Maxwell Award, the Davey O'Brien Award, the Lombardi Award, the Dick Butkus Award, the Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award, the Lou Groza Award, the Dave Rimington Trophy and the Bobby Bowden Award. Florida State coaches have been honored with the Bobby Dodd Coach of the Year Award, the Walter Camp Coach of the Year Award, the Home Depot Coach of the Year Award, the Broyles Award, the Paul "Bear" Bryant Award. Many former Seminoles have gone on to have successful careers in the NFL; the program has produced 250 professional players. Florida State has had six members inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, two members inducted into the College Football Coaches Hall of Fame and four members inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame; the Seminoles have the tenth-highest winning percentage among all college football programs in Division I FBS history with over 500 victories.
Florida State has appeared in forty-eight postseason bowl games and rank ninth nationally for bowl winning percentage and fourth for bowl wins. The Seminoles' archrivals are Florida, whom they meet annually in the last game of the regular season, Miami. A rivalry with Clemson has developed and grown due to both teams competing yearly for the ACC Atlantic division; the team is coached by Willie Taggart and plays its home games at Bobby Bowden Field at Doak Campbell Stadium the 18th largest stadium in college football and the 2nd largest in the ACC, located on-campus in Tallahassee, Florida. As early as the 1890s, Florida State had a football team. Florida State University traces the start of its athletic program to 1902, when Florida State College played the first of its three seasons. From 1902 to 1904, the institution known as Florida State College fielded a varsity football team called "The Eleven" that played other teams; the Florida State players wore gold uniforms with a large purple F on the front.
Their pants were padded, but their upper bodies were unprotected. Leather helmets with ear guards covered their heads, shoehorn-shaped metal nose guards were strapped across their faces. In 1905, the state reorganized its secondary education under the Buckman Act and the football team moved to the University of Florida. In 1947, Florida's university system faced a heavy influx of returning soldiers taking advantage of the G. I. Bill. To accommodate the demand, on May 15, 1947, the Governor signed an act of the Legislature returning Florida State College for Women to coeducational status and naming it The Florida State University; this is recognized as the beginning of Florida State University's current American football program. In 1902 Florida State College students, supported by president Albert A. Murphree, organized the school's first official football club to play against other schools and teams; the team was known as the "Florida State College Eleven" and W. W. Hughes, professor of Latin and the head of men's sports at the school, served as the first coach.
They played their first game against the Bainbridge Giants, a city team from Bainbridge, defeating them 5–0. The team played back-to-back matches against Florida Agricultural College one week apart, winning the first 6–0 and losing the second 0–6; the following season student enthusiasm grew more, the Eleven arranged a full schedule of six games. They competed against teams such as the University of Florida in Lake City, Georgia Tech, the East Florida Seminary, finished the season by competing against Stetson College in Jacksonville for The Florida Times-Union's Championship Cup; the following year Jack Forsythe the first head coach of the Florida Gators, replaced Hughes as coach, the Eleven won the unofficial "state championship" by defeating Stetson in Tallahassee. Jock Hanvey assisted Forsythe; this would be The Eleven's last season, however, as the Florida State Legislature passed the Buckman Act, which reorganized Florida's six colleges into three institutions segregated by gender and race: a school for white males, a school for white females, a school for African Americans.
Florida State College became Florida Female College until 1909, when it became Florida State College for Women. Four other institutions were merged into the
Ted Ginn Jr.
Theodore Ginn Jr. is an American football wide receiver and return specialist for the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League. He played college football at Ohio State, was drafted by the Miami Dolphins ninth overall in the 2007 NFL Draft. Ginn has played for the San Francisco 49ers, Arizona Cardinals and Carolina Panthers. Ginn played for his father, Ted Ginn Sr. in high school at Glenville High School in Cleveland, where he played defensive back and wide receiver for the football team. Ginn was selected as the 2004 USA Today Defensive Player of the Year, a 2004 Parade All-American, named the 2004 SuperPrep National Defensive Player of the Year, he participated in the U. S. Army All-American Bowl as a member of the East team, along with former Dolphins teammates Ryan Baker and Chad Henne, was named the Most Valuable Player of the game. Ginn intercepted eight passes as a senior. One of his interception returns went for a state-record 102-yard touchdown, while another went for a 98-yard score.
Ted has Tiffany Ginn and Jason Lucas in Akron, Ohio. In addition to football, Ginn was a standout track athlete for the Glenville track team; as a junior, he became the national champion in the 110 meter hurdles and recorded the best time in the nation as a senior when he won the state title for the second consecutive year. He captured the state title in the 200 meters in a time of 21.51 seconds, after posting a time of 21.44 seconds in the preliminary rounds. He helped the track team to take the 4 x 400 metres relay crown in a time of 3:15.04 minutes. He was timed at 10.5 in the 100 meters as a high school junior. As a senior, he ran the 60 meter hurdles in 7.98 seconds, 200 meters in 21.16 seconds, 400 meters in 46.57 seconds and posted personal bests of 13.26w seconds and 13.40 seconds in the 39" 110 meter hurdlesThe Ohio State University track coach Russ Rogers recruited Ginn to run track, believing that he could qualify for the 2008 Summer Olympics. However, his track career was put on hold.
He was timed at 10.2 in the 100 meters in his freshman year. USA Today Defensive Player of the Year Parade All-American Pete Dawkins Trophy Ginn was recruited as a defensive back by Ohio State University; as a freshman, Ginn saw moderate playing time at wide receiver and finished the 2004 season with 25 receptions for 359 yards and two touchdowns. He rushed for 113 yards and 2 touchdowns on the ground, led the nation with a 25.6 yards per punt return average, returned four punts for touchdowns. One of the most memorable moments in his freshman season was in the 30-7 win over Indiana. A pass at the beginning of the first quarter was tipped by a diving Buster Larkins, only to be grabbed by Ginn, he broke four tackles on his way to a 59-yard touchdown. Ginn was converted to wide receiver in his sophomore year of 2005, was named a starter, he finished the season with 51 receptions for four touchdowns. He returned 18 kickoffs for 532 yards, along with 25 punts for 250 yards. Entering the 2006 season, Ginn was considered by many to be a preseason candidate for the Heisman Trophy and the Biletnikoff Award.
He was a second team All-American selection and finished as the Buckeyes top receiver with 59 catches for 781 yards, while adding another 706 yards and two touchdowns on special teams. Ginn returned the opening kickoff of the 2007 BCS National Championship Game for 92 yards and a touchdown. Ginn sprained his left foot when fellow Buckeye Roy Hall slid into him during the celebration following the touchdown and sat on his foot, he didn't return. Ginn finished his career at Ohio State with 125 receptions for 1,943 yards and 15 touchdowns in 37 games, he rushed for 213 yards, returned 38 kickoffs for 1,012 yards, gained 900 yards on 64 punt returns, the second highest total in Ohio State history. Overall, he scored 26 touchdowns. Ginn set a Big Ten record for most career punt return touchdowns with six. 2004 First-team All-American as a returner by SI.com, Pro Football Weekly, Rivals.com 2005 Honorable mention All-Big Ten 2005 First-team All-American as a returner by Rivals.com 2006 First-team All-American as an All-Purpose player by Rivals.com 2006 Second-team All-American as an All-Purpose player by AP 2006 First-team All-Big Ten After having to bypass the field drills at the 2007 NFL combine and Ohio State's official pro day due to a lingering foot injury suffered in the 2007 BCS Title Game, Ginn ran between 4.37 and 4.45 in a private workout for NFL Scouts held on April 12, 2007.
Preceding the workout it was reported that a healthy Ginn had been timed as great as 4.28 in individual team drills during his tenure at Ohio State. In addition, in a 2007 interview with Stack Magazine while discussing his own personal improvement in the 40 yard dash, Ginn himself suggests that he had been timed at a personal best of 4.22 in the 40 yard dash. In the interview, while discussing his improvement since training at one of Tim Robertson's facilities, Ginn states "...as far as my running, it's changed me a lot. When I first got here I was running like a 5.1 40, 5.2 40 to a 4.22". Ginn was selected by the Miami Dolphins with the ninth overall pick in the first round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Many were expecting the Dolphins to select Notre Dame quarterback Brady Quinn with the Dolphins in need of a quarterback, although they would end up drafting BYU quarterback John Beck in the second round. Although Ginn was considered the fastest, one of the most athletic picks going into the draft, Miami's selection of Ginn w
2001 NFL Draft
The 2001 NFL draft was the 66th annual meeting of National Football League franchises to select newly eligible football players. The draft, referred to as the "NFL Player Selection Meeting," was held at the Theater at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York on April 21–22, 2001; each team is assigned one pick per round with the order based on the reverse order of finish in the previous season with the team with the worst record receiving the first draft slot. Exceptions to this are the Super Bowl participants from the previous season — the champion Baltimore Ravens were assigned the final draft slot and the runner-up New York Giants assigned the 30th slot in each round; the draft was broadcast on ESPN and ESPN2. Due to previous trades, the Dallas Cowboys and Tennessee Titans did not have selections in the first round. More than half of the players selected in the draft's first round would be elected to at least one Pro Bowl; the first player selected in the draft was quarterback Michael Vick from Virginia Tech, selected by the Atlanta Falcons after they acquired the first pick in a trade with the San Diego Chargers.
Vick spent six seasons with the Falcons before being sentenced to 21 months in prison for his involvement in an illegal interstate dog fighting ring rebounding his career with the Philadelphia Eagles after being released from prison and winning the NFL's Comeback Player of the Year Award in 2010. Florida State quarterback Chris Weinke, the 2000 winner of the Heisman Trophy, awarded to the player deemed most outstanding in college football, was selected in the fourth round by the Carolina Panthers. After being a regular starter for the Panthers in his first season, during which Carolina posted a 1–15 record, Weinke played only 12 games over his final five seasons before being released; the last player selected, who traditionally receives the unofficial title Mr. Irrelevant, was Tevita Ofahengaue of Brigham Young University, chosen by the Arizona Cardinals. Ofahengaue never played in the NFL, in 2011 was charged with stealing gasoline from a construction company in Salt Lake City, he is the Player Personnel Director at BYU.
There were 31 compensatory selections distributed among 16 teams during rounds three through seven, with the Jacksonville Jaguars and Buffalo Bills receiving 4 picks each. The University of Miami was the college with the most players selected in the first round, with Dan Morgan, Damione Lewis, Santana Moss and Reggie Wayne all picked at that stage. Across the whole draft, Florida State University had the most players selected, a total of nine compared to Miami's seven. No teams elected to claim any players in the 2001 supplemental draft. In the explanations below, denotes trades that took place during the draft, while indicates trades completed pre-draft. Round one Round two Round three Round four Round five Round six Round seven The 246 players chosen in the draft were composed of: General references"2001 NFL Draft". NFL.com. Archived from the original on December 8, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008. "2001 NFL Draft Pick Transactions". ProSportsTransactions.com. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013.
Retrieved November 6, 2013. "Pro Football Hall of Fame – 2001 Draft History". Archived from the original on May 15, 2007. Retrieved May 3, 2007. Trade references Specific references
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company. The newspaper has a centrist audience. Founded by Al Neuharth on September 15, 1982, it operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters on Jones Branch Drive, in McLean, Virginia, it is printed at five additional sites internationally. Its dynamic design influenced the style of local and national newspapers worldwide, through its use of concise reports, colorized images, informational graphics, inclusion of popular culture stories, among other distinct features. With a weekly circulation of 1,021,638 and an approximate daily reach of seven million readers as of 2016, USA Today shares the position of having the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States with The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. USA Today is distributed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, an international edition is distributed in Asia, Canada and the Pacific Islands.
The genesis of USA Today was on February 29, 1980, when a company task force known as "Project NN" met with Gannett Company chairman Al Neuharth in Cocoa Beach, Florida to develop a national newspaper. Early regional prototypes included East Bay Today, an Oakland, California-based publication published in the late 1970s to serve as the morning edition of the Oakland Tribune, an afternoon newspaper which Gannett owned at the time. On June 11, 1981, Gannett printed the first prototypes of the proposed publication; the two proposed design layouts were mailed to newsmakers and prominent leaders in journalism, for review and feedback. The Gannett Company's board of directors approved the launch of the national newspaper, titled USA Today, on December 5, 1981. At launch, Neuharth was appointed president and publisher of the newspaper, adding those responsibilities to his existing position as Gannett's chief executive officer. Gannett announced the launch of the paper on April 20, 1982. USA Today began publishing on September 15, 1982 in the Baltimore and Washington, D.
C. metropolitan areas for an newsstand price of 25¢. After selling out the first issue, Gannett expanded the national distribution of the paper, reaching an estimated circulation of 362,879 copies by the end of 1982, double the amount of sales that Gannett projected; the design uniquely incorporated color graphics and photographs. Only its front news section pages were rendered in four-color, while the remaining pages were printed in a spot color format; the paper's overall style and elevated use of graphics – developed by Neuharth, in collaboration with staff graphics designers George Rorick, Sam Ward, Suzy Parker, John Sherlock and Web Bryant – was derided by critics, who referred to it as "McPaper" or "television you can wrap fish in," because it opted to incorporate concise nuggets of information more akin to the style of television news, rather than in-depth stories like traditional newspapers, which many in the newspaper industry considered to be a dumbing down of the news. Although USA Today had been profitable for just ten years as of 1997, it changed the appearance and feel of newspapers around the world.
On July 2, 1984, the newspaper switched from predominantly black-and-white to full color photography and graphics in all four sections. The next week on July 10, USA Today launched an international edition intended for U. S. readers abroad, followed four months on October 8 with the rollout of the first transmission via satellite of its international version to Singapore. On April 8, 1985, the paper published its first special bonus section, a 12-page section called "Baseball'85," which previewed the 1985 Major League Baseball season. By the fourth quarter of 1985, USA Today had become the second largest newspaper in the United States, reaching a daily circulation of 1.4 million copies. Total daily readership of the paper by 1987 had reached 5.5 million, the largest of any daily newspaper in the U. S. On May 6, 1986, USA Today began production of its international edition in Switzerland. USA Today operated at a loss for most of its first four years of operation, accumulating a total deficit of $233 million after taxes, according to figures released by Gannett in July 1987.
On January 29, 1988, USA Today published the largest edition in its history, a 78-page weekend edition featuring a section previewing Super Bowl XXII. On April 15, USA Today launched a third international printing site, based in Hong Kong; the international edition set circulation and advertising records during August 1988, with coverage of the 1988 Summer Olympics, selling more than 60,000 copies and 100 pages of advertising. By July 1991, Simmons Market Research Bureau estimated that USA Today had a total daily readership of nearly 6.6 million, an all-time high and the largest readership of any daily newspaper in the United States. On September 1 of that year, USA Today launched a fourth printsite for its international edition in London for the United Kingdom and the British Isles; the international edition's schedule was changed as of April 1, 1994 Monday through Friday, rather than from Tuesday through Saturday, in order to accommodate business travelers.