The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England, who speak the English language. The English identity is of medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn. Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD, England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England along with the Danes, Normans, in the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system and these and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire. The concept of an English nation is far older than that of the British nation, many recent immigrants to England have assumed a solely British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities.
Use of the word English to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their national identity. They found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as English and it is unclear how many British people consider themselves English. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words English and British to be used interchangeably, especially overseas. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say English, I mean British. He notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners. Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of Englands dominant position with the UK and it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles.
In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago and it meant indiscriminately England and Wales, Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and even the British Empire. Foreigners used it as the name of a Great Power and indeed continue to do so, bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as Prime Minister of England Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of England except for a geographic area brings protests and this version of history is now regarded by many historians as incorrect, on the basis of more recent genetic and archaeological research. The 2016 study authored by Stephan Schiffels et al, the remaining portion of English DNA is primarily French, introduced in a migration after the end of the Ice Age
The Second Doctor is an incarnation of the Doctor, the protagonist of the BBC science fiction television series Doctor Who. He was portrayed by character actor Patrick Troughton, within the series narrative, the Doctor is a centuries-old Time Lord alien from the planet Gallifrey who travels in time and space in his TARDIS, frequently with companions. When the Doctor is critically injured, he can regenerate his body, in doing so, his physical appearance, the First Doctor grew progressively weaker while battling the Cybermen during the events of The Tenth Planet and eventually collapsed, seemingly from old age. His body renewed itself and transformed into the Second Doctor, the relationship between the Second Doctor and his predecessor was unclear. In his first story, the Second Doctor referred to his predecessor in the person as if he were a completely different person. His companions Ben and Polly are at first unsure how to treat him, in the second story, The Highlanders, Jamie McCrimmon joined the TARDIS crew, and remained with the Second Doctor for the rest of his travels.
The Doctor used the situation to engineer a Dalek civil war that destroyed the Daleks forever. However, Victorias father was among the casualties, now an orphan, Victoria chose to accompany the Doctor and Jamie on their travels. Although she felt great affection for the Doctor and Jamie, she was never able to come to terms with life in the TARDIS. She eventually chose to leave after the events of Fury from the Deep and was adopted by someone in the 20th Century. The Doctor was joined by Zoe Heriot, an intelligent woman from the 21st century. She stowed away in the TARDIS and, despite the Doctors warnings about what she might encounter, during his second incarnation, the Doctor confronted familiar foes such as the Daleks and the Cybermen, as well as new enemies such as the Great Intelligence and the Ice Warriors. It was during this time that he first met Alistair Gordon Lethbridge-Stewart, the Doctor reteamed with him to defeat an invasion of Cybermen in league with industrialist Tobias Vaughan.
Although the Doctor was able to defeat their plan, he realised he would be unable to return the human subjects to their various points in Earths history. He therefore contacted the Time Lords, sacrificing his own freedom in the process and he was put on trial by the Time Lords, for breaking their laws of non-interference. Jamie and Zoe were returned to their own time, with their memories of all but their first encounter with the Doctor wiped and this theory of continuity is described as Season 6B. The Second Doctor has been nicknamed the Cosmic Hobo, as the impish Second Doctor appeared to be far more scruffy and childlike than his first incarnation. Sometimes this appears simply as a joke, such as in The Tomb of the Cybermen, where he finishes the archaeologists calculations behind their backs, but at other times, it seems much darker
Doctor Who is a British science-fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called The Doctor and he explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, which was a sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes, while working to save civilisations, the show is a significant part of British popular culture, and elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series, the programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot. The programme was relaunched in 2005, and since has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff, twelve actors have headlined the series as the Doctor. The conceit is that this is a Time Lord trait through which the character of the Doctor takes on a new body, each actors portrayal differs, but all represent stages in the life of the same character and form a single narrative.
The time-travelling feature of the means that different incarnations of the Doctor occasionally meet. The current lead, Peter Capaldi, took on the role after Matt Smiths exit in the 2013 Christmas special The Time of the Doctor, in 2017, Capaldi confirmed he would be leaving at the end of the tenth series. Doctor Who follows the adventures of the character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey. He fled from Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS – Time and Relative Dimension in Space – a machine which allows him to travel across time, the TARDIS has a chameleon circuit which normally allows the machine to take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. However, the Doctors TARDIS remains fixed as a blue British police box due to a malfunction in the chameleon circuit, the Doctor rarely travels alone and often brings one or more companions to share these adventures. His companions are usually humans, as he has found a fascination with planet Earth, as a Time Lord, the Doctor has the ability to regenerate when his body is mortally damaged, taking on a new appearance and personality.
The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during his travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, and the Master, another renegade Time Lord. Doctor Who first appeared on BBC TV at 17,16,20 GMT, eighty seconds after the programme time,5,15 pm. It was to be a weekly programme, each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year, writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert heavily contributed to the development of the series
Terence Joseph Terry Nation was a Welsh television writer and novelist. Nation first made his name as a writer before becoming a prolific writer for drama. Nation was the creator of two series for the BBC, Survivors and Blakes 7, which became much-loved cult television classics, although Nation accompanied Hancock as his chief screenwriter on tour in 1963, Hancock would regularly neglect Nations scripts in favour of recycling his old material. Following an argument over this, Hancock fired Nation, now unemployed, and with a young family to support, Nation contacted Whitaker and accepted the offer, writing the second Doctor Who serial, The Daleks. The serial introduced the eponymous extraterrestrial villains that would become the series most popular and enduring monsters. Having risen in the consciousness, Nation went on to contribute further scripts to Doctor Who. Various other Dalek tie-in material appeared, including comic strips in the childrens weekly TV Century 21 and annuals, such material was credited to Nation.
Between 1966 and 1972, appearances by the Daleks in Doctor Who became less frequent and were written for the series by other authors. In 1973, following an absence from scriptwriting for the series. In 1998, readers of Doctor Who Magazine voted Nations 1975 serial Genesis of the Daleks the greatest Doctor Who story of all time, in the story, Nation introduced the character of Davros, the creator of the Daleks, who went on to appear in further storylines. Nation wrote two scripts for Doctor Who, The Keys of Marinus in 1964, which introduced the Voord and The Android Invasion in 1975. During this time, Nation worked in commercial TV, contributing scripts to series such as The Avengers, The Baron, The Champions, Department S, The Persuaders. and The Saint. Nations work on Doctor Who was the subject of the documentary Terror Nation, having returned to writing for Doctor Who, the BBC commissioned Nation to create a new science-fiction drama series. First broadcast in 1975, Survivors is the story of the last humans on Earth after the worlds population has been devastated by plague.
Although the series was received, Nations creative vision conflicted with that of producer Terence Dudley. Although the case was brought before the High Court, both sides withdrew from the proceedings after their legal costs mounted. The production of Nations next BBC creation, Blakes 7, experienced fewer problems and this series follows a group of criminals and political prisoners who are on the run from the evil Terran Federation, piloting a stolen spaceship of unknown origin. Running for four seasons from 1978 to 1981, Blakes 7 acquired a fan following
The Sensorites is the seventh serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It was first broadcast in six parts from 20 June to 1 August 1964. The story is notable for its demonstration of Susans telepathy and its references to the Doctors, the TARDIS travellers land on a moving spaceship and find the crew apparently dead. However, one of the members, Captain Maitland, regains consciousness and Ian Chesterton fully revives him and another woman. These two tell the travellers that they are on a mission from Earth and are orbiting Sense-Sphere. However, its inhabitants, the Sensorites, refuse to let them leave orbit, the Sensorites visit and stop the travellers from leaving, while sending them on a collision course, which the Doctor diverts. The travellers meet John and find out that he is Carols fiancé, returning to plague the crew, the Sensorites freeze Carol and Maitland once more. The Doctor breaks Maitlands mental conditioning, but cannot help John, Susans telepathic mind is flooded with the many voices of the Sensorites who remain scared of the humans and are trying to communicate with her.
Meanwhile, the Doctor works out that the Sensorites attacked the human craft because John, Susan reports that the Sensorites want to make contact with travellers, asking the crew to go aboard Sense-Sphere and reveal that a previous Earth expedition caused them great misery. The Doctor refuses but Susan, under duress and begins to leave the ship, the Doctor deduces that the Sensorites need plenty of light, so Ian reduces the lighting on the ship, rendering the Sensorites helpless and rescuing Susan. The Doctor asks the Sensorites to return his lock, and is invited to go to Sense-Sphere to speak with the leader, Ian and John join him, while Barbara and Maitland stay behind. John is promised that his condition will be reversed, on their journey to Sense-Sphere, the party learn that the previous visitors from Earth exploited Sense-Sphere for its wealth, argued. Half of them stole the spacecraft, which exploded on take-off and their first plot is foiled by the other Sensorites, but they continue to plot in secret.
The humans are not told of the first plot, and John, in the main conference room, Ian starts coughing violently and collapses. Suffering from the disease that has blighted the Sensorites, he is told that he will soon die and it turns out that he was actually poisoned by drinking water from the general aqueduct. The Doctor finds the problematic aqueduct and starts work with the Sensorite scientists. The plotting Sensorites capture and impersonate a Sensorite leader, the Second Elder and steal the new cure, before it is given to Ian, investigating the aqueduct, the Doctor finds strange noises and darkness. He finds and removes deadly nightshade, but on going back and Ian find him unconscious with his coat torn, but otherwise unharmed
The Reign of Terror (Doctor Who)
The Reign of Terror is the partly missing eighth serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in six weekly parts from 8 August to 12 September 1964. The story was set in France during the period of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror and it is the second now-incomplete Doctor Who serial to be released with full-length animated reconstructions of its two missing episodes. The Doctor, Ian and Susan arrive outside Paris in 18th-century France and they find it is being used as a staging post in an escape chain for counter-revolutionaries during the Reign of Terror. They are discovered by two counter-revolutionaries, DArgenson and Rouvray, who knock the Doctor unconscious and hold the others at gunpoint, the soldiers capture Ian and Susan and march them to Paris to be guillotined. The soldiers set fire to the farmhouse – unaware of the Doctor inside, the Doctor awakes the next morning to find he has been saved by a young boy, who tells him that his friends have been taken to the Conciergerie Prison in Paris.
Ian and Susan are all sentenced to death as traitors, Ian is confined in one cell, while the women are taken to another. It was Websters job to him and he only knows that Stirling can be found through Jules Renan at the sign of Le Chien Gris. Once Webster is dead, a government official named Lemaitre arrives and probes any conversation between Ian and the dead man, Lemaitre crosses Ians name off the execution list. En route to the guillotine and Susans transport is hijacked by two men and Jean, who take them to a safe house and they are told that they will be smuggled out of France through the escape chain. Jules and Jean reassure Barbara that they try to reunite them with Ian. They are joined by another counter-revolutionary, named Leon Colbert, the Doctor reaches Paris and exchanges his clothes for those of a Regional Officer of the Provinces. He heads for the Conciergerie, but finds his companions gone, Ian has successfully stolen the key to his cell and escaped. Lemaitre arrives and takes the Doctor to visit Maximilien Robespierre to report on his province, Ian follows Websters words and finds Jules Renan, who turns out to be the man sheltering Barbara and Susan, who is ill in bed.
When Barbara takes her to a physician they are recaptured by revolutionary police, Ian meets Leon Colbert only to find he is the mole in the escape chain and there are armed troops waiting for him. Jules Renan rescues Ian, killing Colbert in the process and they return to Jules house and are stunned to meet Barbara. The Doctor has returned to the Conciergerie, where Lemaitre reports that Robespierre wishes to see him again the following day, Lemaitre ensures that the Doctor spends the night in the Conciergerie in order that he remain in Paris for his second audience with Robespierre. He is still there when Barbara and Susan are brought in as prisoners, with Susan too weak to be moved, he engineers Barbaras release on the pretext that she can be trailed to lead the security forces to the core of the escape chain. Robespierre suspects his deputy, Paul Barras, is conspiring against him, when Lemaitre heads back to the Conciergerie he privately unmasks the Doctor as an impostor
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
The Keys of Marinus
The Keys of Marinus is the fifth serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in 6 weekly parts from 11 April to 16 May 1964. The serial takes on an unusual quest format, where each episode is its own mini-adventure in pursuit of a larger goal, on a small island with a glass beach, surrounded by an acid sea, on the planet Marinus stands a tower with many secret entrances. Within the tower is Arbitan, Keeper of the Conscience of Marinus, for seven hundred years, the Conscience was absolute, radiating its power across the planet Marinus, and eliminating all thought of evil. But a man named Yartek, whose followers were called Voord, worked out how to resist its impulses allowing them to rob and kill. When The Doctor and his companions arrive on the island, they are brought into the tower to an audience with Arbitan, several submersibles containing Voord, humanoid creatures protected by amphibian-like black rubber wet suits, have washed up on the beach.
Inspired by Yartek, the Voord are seeking to enter the tower, Arbitan explains that the Conscience has now been upgraded sufficiently to control the Voord again, but needs to be activated. Years earlier Arbitan had prevented the Conscience from falling into Voord control by separating the five Keys needed to regulate it, the five keys are in different locations - one is in Arbitans possession, but the other four are scattered over Marinus. The keys can only be found by following directions pre-set into travel dials, Arbitan asks that the Doctor and his friends help him fend off the Voord by gathering the keys together. Others have tried to accomplish this task - even Arbitans own daughter -, the Doctor refuses Arbitans request, but is unable to access the TARDIS due to a force field Arbitan places around the ship. And so the Doctor and his companions are coerced into aiding Arbitan, as the four teleport away from the tower using the travel dials, Arbitan is attacked and stabbed to death by a Voord that has secretly gained access to the tower.
The first location visited by the travellers is the City of Morphoton, the seemingly advanced and pacifist inhabitants impress the travellers with the luxuries and aesthetics of the city. But all is not as it seems, the Brains of Morphoton use hypnosis to control the human population, and the entire City is subjugated to their will. Once the Brains realize Barbara has seen the truth and is impervious to their hypnotic control. Barbara escapes and hides in the city, there making contact with the slave girl Sabetha, Barbara deduces Sabetha is Arbitan’s missing daughter, and sees Sabetha wears one of the Keys about her neck. Barbara helps break Sabethas conditioning, and together they escape and destroy the jars, with their life-support ruined, the Brains die, and all the human subjects of the city are freed. Another slave called Altos remembers he too was sent to Morphoton by Arbitan, the six now split up, with the Doctor going ahead to find the final key in the City of Millennius, while the others attempt to find the second key in the next destination.
The next location for the five searchers is a dangerous screaming jungle, in the jungle is an ancient temple overgrown with plants. Much of the flora is hostile and the travellers are relieved to find the next Key so easily, this Key is a decoy and, when touched, activates ancient machinery that causes the statue to move
Planet of Giants
The story was the first since An Unearthly Child to be set on a contemporary Earth. He leads his companions Ian and Susan to the world beyond and they seem to have died immediately. After some deduction the travellers realise they have arrived on Earth but have shrunk in size to about an inch, Ian is investigating a discarded matchbox when someone picks it up and he is hurled around inside. That someone is a government scientist called Farrow and he is met by a callous industrialist named Forester to tell him that his application for DN6, a new insecticide, has been rejected. In reality DN6 should not be licensed, it is far too deadly to all insect life, when they fall out over this news, Forester shoots Farrow and leaves him for dead on the lawn. The Doctor and Susan hear the gunshot as an enormous explosion and they find Ian unhurt near the dead body and surmise a murder has taken place but can do little about it. They are determined, however, to ensure the murderer is brought to justice despite their microscopic size, while avoiding a cat, the travellers get split up again with Ian and Barbara hiding in a briefcase.
The giant Forester returns to the lawn and collects the briefcase and his aide, Smithers and suspects him of murder, but does not report him for fear of undermining the DN6 project to which he has given his life. The Doctor and Susan scale a drainpipe to gain access to the house and locate their friends, meanwhile and Barbara examine the laboratory and encounter a giant fly, which is killed instantly when it contacts sample seeds that had been sprayed with DN6. Barbara foolishly touched one seed earlier and soon starts to feel unwell, attracted by Susan’s voice in the reverberating plughole, the four friends are reunited. Forester has meanwhile doctored Farrow’s report so as to give DN6 the licence he wants and, disguising his voice as Farrow’s and this is overheard by the local telephone operator, Hilda Rowse, and her policeman husband, who start to suspect something is wrong. The Doctor has meanwhile realised the deadly and everlasting nature of DN6 and they try to alert someone by hoisting up the phone receiver with corks, but cannot make themselves heard.
Hilda notes the engaged signal and she and Bert become even more concerned and Smithers return to the lab and correct the engaged handset and Hilda rings to check things are okay. She rings again moments and asks for Farrow and, when Forester impersonates him, immediately spots the faked voice, Bert heads off to the house to investigate. The Doctor and his companions decide to start a fire to attract attention to the house and succeed in setting up an aerosol can of insecticide and this coincides with Smithers discovering the true virulence of DN6 - its lethal to everything - and demanding Forester stop seeking a licence. Forester spots the makeshift bomb, which goes off in his face, Smithers retrieves the gun as PC Rowse arrives and places both under arrest. Their work done, the return to the TARDIS and the Doctor reconfigures the machine to return them to normal size. Barbara, who was on the verge of death, recovers on being returned to full size, an early version of this concept – by C. E.
Webber and entitled The Giants – was originally meant to be the first story of the first season
Marco Polo (Doctor Who)
Marco Polo is the completely missing fourth serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in seven weekly parts from 22 February to 4 April 1964. The story is set in China, in the year 1289, with the series characters interacting with Venetian merchant-explorer Marco Polo. The historical period and context avoids science fiction elements beyond establishing the way by which the Doctor, although audio recordings and still photographs of the story exist, no footage of this serial is known to have survived. This is the earliest known serial that has no recovered episodes, the TARDIS crew lands in the Himalayas of Cathay in 1289, their ship badly damaged, and are picked up by Marco Polos caravan on its way along the fabled Silk Road to see the Emperor Kublai Khan. The Doctor and his companions attempt to regain the TARDIS. Susan gets the key from Ping-Cho but is captured by Tegana before they can depart and they are finally able to thwart Tegana, who kills himself, and, in doing so, regain the Emperors respect for Marco Polo, who allows them to depart.
Historical episodes, stories that no science fiction elements beyond the basic premise of the show, were relatively common for the first few seasons of Doctor Who. Marco Polo features many elements, both historical and scientific, as was part of the shows original remit. The format enjoyed a revival in 1982 with Black Orchid. The historical format is employed in the 1995 novel Sanctuary, veteran Bollywood actress Zohra Sehgal appeared in several episodes in an uncredited role as an attendant. She appeared in episode two The Knight Of Jaffa of The Crusade, zienia Merton appeared in The Wedding of Sarah Jane Smith, an episode of the Doctor Who spin-off The Sarah Jane Adventures,45 years after her appearance in this serial. Jimmy Gardner played Idmon in Underworld, philip Voss played Wahed in The Dominators. Tutte Lemkow played Ibrahim in The Crusade and Cyclops in The Myth Makers, derren Nesbitt has appeared in two Doctor Who audio plays, as Thomas Dodd in Spare Parts and as Quences in Auld Mortality.
Mark Eden appeared in Mark Gatisss 50th anniversary Docudrama An Adventure in Space and this is one of only three stories of which no footage whatsoever is known to have survived. Telesnaps of Episodes 1-3 and 5-7 are held by the serials director, the audio soundtrack is intact, having been recorded off air during the original transmissions. The last known TV broadcast of this story was in Ethiopia, the fate of the prints is unknown. A novelisation of this serial, written by John Lucarotti, was published by Target Books in December 1984. The Tele-Snaps of episodes 1,2,3,5,6 and 7 were published in the Doctor Who Magazine Special Edition, in 2003, a three-CD set of the audio soundtrack was released, as part of Doctor Whos 40th anniversary
The Daleks is the second serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in seven weekly parts from 21 December 1963 to 1 February 1964. It is the first serial to be set on an alien planet. It was written by Terry Nation and directed by Christopher Barry and this story marks the first appearance of the Doctors greatest extraterrestrial enemies, the Daleks, and is the first to feature recurring Skaro people, the Thals. This story introduces two plotlines in Doctor Who, one being the TARDIS navigational circuits malfunctioning and the other being the destruction of the Dalek race. In this case, instead of bringing its crew back to Earth, the TARDIS lands in a jungle. The Doctor insists they explore a city they spot beyond the forest but Ian Chesterton. In the forest someone touches Susans shoulder, but the Doctor doesnt believe her, a box of vials is found outside the TARDIS. The Doctor claims the fluid link of the TARDIS is running low on mercury, Barbara becomes separated from her colleagues in the city and, in the iconic first episode cliffhanger, is threatened by an unseen creature with a metal arm - the first appearance of a Dalek.
Before long, the crew is captured by the Daleks. Susan is eventually sent to retrieve anti-radiation drugs from the TARDIS, Susan encounters a second species, the Thals, who used to be at war with the Daleks. The Thal who left the drugs reveals he encountered her in the forest, the Daleks try using the anti-radiation drugs, but discover that they are fatal to Daleks. They conclude that Daleks need radiation to survive and decide to bombard the atmosphere with more radiation, in the ensuing chaos, the Doctor and his companions escape with the Thals, and learn their version of the history of their planet. They learn that the Thals are avowed pacifists and they are unable to leave Skaro, however, as the fluid link has been taken by the Daleks. In order to them from the Daleks, the TARDIS crew convinces the Thals of the importance of aggression and warfare. At the end, it is believed the Dalek race has been destroyed when their supply is knocked out. The TARDIS crew leave Skaro, but an explosion in the TARDIS knocks them out, the serial marks the first appearance of the TARDIS food machine.
The mercury-filled fluid links in the TARDIS console feature again in subsequent stories including The Wheel in Space, written by The Daleks script editor David Whitaker. Anti-radiation drugs are shown to be required to survive on the surface of Skaro in this plot point repeated in Destiny of the Daleks when the Doctor next returns to the post-war planet
Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations, and has been called a literature of ideas. Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a range of subgenres and themes. Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying science fiction is what we point to when we say it, a definition echoed by author Mark C. Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography, you do not know what it is, in 1970 or 1971William Atheling Jr. According to science fiction writer Robert A, rod Serlings definition is fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science fiction is the improbable made possible, Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures. Science fiction elements include, A time setting in the future, in alternative timelines, a spatial setting or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, or on subterranean earth. Characters that include aliens, androids, or humanoid robots, futuristic or plausible technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, and humanoid computers.
Scientific principles that are new or that contradict accepted physical laws, for time travel, wormholes. New and different political or social systems, e. g. utopian, post-scarcity, paranormal abilities such as mind control, telekinesis Other universes or dimensions and travel between them. A product of the budding Age of Reason and the development of science itself. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Keplers work the first science fiction story and it depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earths motion is seen from there. Later, Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon, more examples appeared throughout the 19th century. Wells The War of the Worlds describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines equipped with advanced weaponry and it is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth. In the late 19th century, the scientific romance was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction. This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland, the term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon.
In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine. In 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his series of Barsoom novels, situated on Mars