John R. Chambliss
John Randolph Chambliss Jr. was a career military officer, serving in the United States Army and during the American Civil War, in the Confederate States Army. A brigadier general of cavalry, Chambliss was killed in action during the Second Battle of Deep Bottom. Chambliss was born at Hicksford in Virginia, his father, John R. Chambliss Sr. was a lawyer and politician who served in the Confederate States Congress. The younger Chambliss was appointed to the United States Military Academy, graduating 31st of 52 in the Class of 1853, distinguished by having 15 future Civil War generals in it, including fellow Confederates John S. Bowen, John Bell Hood, Henry B. Davidson. Chambliss was commissioned as a brevet second lieutenant in the mounted infantry, taught at the cavalry school at Carlisle, Pennsylvania until the following spring, when he resigned, he returned home to Hicksford, where his father was a wealthy planter, was engaged in agriculture until the spring of 1861. Taking advantage of his military education, he served as aide-de-camp to Governor Henry A. Wise, with the initial rank of major, from 1856–61.
Chambliss was colonel of a regiment of Virginia militia from 1858–61. He was the brigade inspector general for the Commonwealth for two years, his father was a delegate to the secession convention in 1861, the younger Chambliss maintained a strong allegiance to Virginia. With the outbreak of the Civil War, Chambliss was commissioned colonel of the 13th Virginia Cavalry in July 1861, until the fall of 1862 was under the orders of Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill, in the department south of the James River. During the Maryland Campaign, he was put in command of the forces on the Rappahannock River, between Warrenton and Fredericksburg, with the 13th Virginia, 2nd North Carolina Cavalry, 61st Virginia Infantry, he received a commendation for his performance from General Robert E. Lee. In November he was assigned with his regiment to W. H. F. "Rooney" Lee's cavalry brigade. In April 1863, when the cavalry corps of the Union Army of the Potomac attempted to cross the Rappahannock and cut Lee's communications with Richmond, Chambliss was prominent in turning back this movement.
At Beverly Ford with 50 men, he drove two Federal squadrons into the river, capturing a number of prisoners. He and his men were commended for bravery by both Generals R. E. Lee and J. E. B. Stuart. In the Battle of Brandy Station, after Rooney Lee was wounded and Col. Solomon Williams killed, Chambliss took command of the brigade, served in that capacity during the fighting in Aldie and Middleburg. Riding with Stuart into Pennsylvania, Chambliss attacked the 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry of Judson Kilpatrick's division at Hanover, driving the Union force through the town, capturing its ambulances and a number of prisoners, his brigade and Fitzhugh Lee's reached Gettysburg late on July 2. On July 3, he engaged in the fierce fighting at East Cavalry Field. Upon the withdrawal of the army to safety in Virginia, his brigade covered the movement of the Confederate trains. During the subsequent Bristoe Campaign, still in command of the brigade, Chambliss reinforced Lunsford L. Lomax at Morton's Ford and defeated the enemy.
Engaged again near Brandy Station, the same two brigades fought with gallantry and Chambliss again received Stuart's written commendation. Promoted to brigadier general, Chambliss continued in command of the brigade, through the cavalry fighting from the Rapidan River to the James, gaining fresh laurels in the defeat of the Federals at Stony Creek. In a cavalry battle on the Charles City Road, on the north side of the James River, Chambliss was killed while leading his men, his body was buried with honor by the Federals, soon afterward, On Wednesday the 17th of August 1864, a detachment of confederate soldiers came across the union lines under a flag of truce to retrieve Chambliss's body. Thereafter, he was delivered to his friends, it was buried in the family graveyard in Virginia. Robert E. Lee wrote that "the loss sustained by the cavalry in the fall of General Chambliss will be felt throughout the army, in which, by his courage and skill, he had won for himself an honorable name." List of American Civil War generals Bergeron, Arthur W. "John Randolph Chambliss Jr."
In The Confederate General, vol. 1, edited by William C. Davis and Julie Hoffman. Harrisburg, PA: National Historical Society, 1991. ISBN 0-918678-63-3. Bird, Kermit M. "Quill of The Wild Goose:Civil War Diaries and Letters of Joel Molyneux". Shippensburg, PA: White Mane Publishing Company, 1996. ISBN 1572490381. Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Evans, Clement A. ed. Confederate Military History: A Library of Confederate States History. 12 vols. Atlanta: Confederate Publishing Company, 1899. OCLC 833588. Patterson, Gerard A. Rebels from West Point. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2002. ISBN 0-8117-2063-2. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9
William E. Jones
William Edmondson "Grumble" Jones was a planter, a career United States Army officer, a Confederate cavalry general, killed in the Battle of Piedmont in the American Civil War. Jones was born in Virginia. After graduating from Emory and Henry College in Virginia in 1844, he graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1848, ranking twelfth out of 48 cadets, was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the U. S. Mounted Rifles, he served with the cavalry fighting Indians in the west and was promoted to first lieutenant in 1854. His nickname, "Grumble", reflects his irritable disposition, undoubtedly exacerbated by the death of his wife, washed from his arms in a shipwreck shortly after their marriage in 1852 while en route to Texas, he resigned his commission in 1857, became a farmer near Glade Spring, Virginia. At the start of the Civil War, Jones joined the 1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment as a captain, commanding a company he had raised. On May 9 he was promoted to major in Virginia's Provisional Army, that month both Jones and the regiment were transferred into the Confederate Army.
Jones served under Col. J. E. B. Stuart in the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861; the following month he was promoted to the rank of colonel and was given command of the 1st Virginia Cavalry. In the fall of 1861 the Confederate forces underwent a massive reorganization, during which the enlisted men could elect their officers; as a result, Jones was not re-elected to his post as commander of the 1st Virginia Cavalry. That September he was appointed to command the 7th Virginia Cavalry, he led the regiment along the Potomac River. In March 1862 Jones was given command of all cavalry in the Valley District. Returning to eastern Virginia, Jones's cavalry was distinguished in the Second Bull Run Campaign, he was part of Stuart's ostentatious raid around Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's army preceding the Seven Days battles, he was promoted to brigadier general on September 19, 1862, on November 8, was assigned to command the 4th Brigade of Stuart's Cavalry Division in the Army of Northern Virginia. This brigade was known as Robertson's, or the "Laurel brigade," and consisted of Virginians commanded by Turner Ashby.
Based on the request of Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, on December 29, 1862, he assumed command of the Valley District. In the spring of 1863, Jones and Brig. Gen. John D. Imboden raided the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad west of Cumberland, destroying much of the railroad and public property in the area, including the Burning Springs Complex on May 9, 1863. Rejoining Stuart, he fought in the largest cavalry engagement of the war, the Battle of Brandy Station, June 9, 1863, at the start of the Gettysburg Campaign, he was surprised, as was all of Stuart's command, to be hit out of blue by Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton. Jones's brigade was outnumbered by the division of his West Point classmate, Brig. Gen. John Buford, but it held its own and ended the fight with more horses and more and better small-arms than at the beginning, capturing two regimental colors, an artillery battery, about 250 prisoners; as the Gettysburg Campaign continued, Jones screened the Army of Northern Virginia's rear guard during the advance north through the Shenandoah Valley, by holding gaps in the mountains that separated them from Union observation and interference.
As the Battle of Gettysburg commenced on July 1, 1863, Jones' brigade crossed the Potomac River at Williamsport, but stayed away from the principal battlefield, guarding the trains and Harpers Ferry. Jones was disgruntled that Stuart had not taken him on his movement around the Union flank to join up with General Richard S. Ewell's Second Corps on the Susquehanna River. Before moving into Pennsylvania, General Robert E. Lee ordered Ewell to capture Harrisburg if practicable; the disagreeable Jones clashed with Stuart. On July 3, Jones's brigade fought a sharp battle with the 6th U. S. Cavalry at Fairfield, Pennsylvania again at Funkstown, Maryland, a few days later. Following the Battle of Culpeper Court House, Stuart's dissatisfaction with Jones reached a boil and he court-martialed Jones for insulting him. Although Grumble was found guilty, Robert E. Lee intervened, he was transferred to the Trans-Allegheny Department in West Virginia. Jones recruited a brigade of cavalry there and campaigned in eastern Tennessee with Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's forces during the winter and spring of 1864.
In May, Jones assumed command of the Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley who were defending against the halting advance of Maj. Gen. David Hunter towards Lynchburg, Virginia, in the Valley Campaigns of 1864. In the Battle of Piedmont on June 5, 1864, Jones was shot in the head and killed while leading a charge against a superior attacking force. Grumble Jones is buried in the Old Glade Spring Presbyterian Church graveyard, Glade Spring, Virginia, his fellow cavalry general, Brig. Gen. Imboden, wrote that Jones... was an old army officer, brave as a lion and had seen much service, was known as a hard fighter. He was a man, however, of high temper and fretful, he held the fighting qualities of the enemy in great contempt, never would admit the possibility of defeat where the odds against him were not much over two to one. The bluegrass band The Dixie Bee-Liners have a biographical ballad about Jones on their 2008 album Ripe entitled "Grumble Jones"; the song was co-written by band members Buddy Woodward, Brandi Hart, Blue Highway guitarist Tim Stafford.
A street in Centreville, Virginia is named Grumble Jones Court. List of American Civil War Generals Eicher, J
James Longstreet was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse." He served under Lee as a corps commander for many of the famous battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Eastern Theater, with Braxton Bragg in the Army of Tennessee in the Western Theater. After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, Longstreet served in the Mexican–American War, he was wounded in the thigh at the Battle of Chapultepec, afterward married his first wife, Louise Garland. Throughout the 1850s, he served on frontier duty in the American Southwest. In June 1861, Longstreet resigned his U. S. Army joined the Confederate Army, he commanded Confederate troops during an early victory at Blackburn's Ford in July and played a minor role at the First Battle of Bull Run. Longstreet's talents as a general made significant contributions to several important Confederate victories in the Eastern Theater as one of Robert E. Lee's chief subordinates in the Army of Northern Virginia.
He performed poorly at Seven Pines by accidentally marching his men down the wrong road, causing them to be late in arrival. He played an important role in the success of the Seven Days Battles in the summer of 1862. Longstreet led a devastating counterattack, his men held their ground in defensive roles at Fredericksburg. Longstreet's most controversial service was at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, where he disagreed with General Lee on the tactics to be employed and reluctantly supervised several attacks on Union forces, including the disastrous Pickett's Charge. Afterwards, Longstreet was, at his own request, sent to the Western Theater to fight under Braxton Bragg, where his troops launched a ferocious assault on the Union lines at Chickamauga, which carried the day. Afterwards, his performance in semiautonomous command during the Knoxville Campaign resulted in a Confederate defeat. Longstreet's tenure in the Western Theater was marred by his central role in numerous conflicts amongst important Confederate generals.
Unhappy serving under Bragg and his men were sent back to Lee. He ably commanded troops during the Battle of the Wilderness in 1864, where he was wounded by friendly fire, he returned to the field, serving under Lee in the Siege of Petersburg and the Appomattox Campaign. He enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the U. S. government as a diplomat, civil servant, administrator. His conversion to the Republican Party and his cooperation with his old friend, President Ulysses S. Grant, as well as critical comments he wrote in his memoirs about General Lee's wartime performance, made him anathema to many of his former Confederate colleagues, his reputation in the South further suffered when he led African-American militia against the anti-Reconstruction White League at the Battle of Liberty Place in 1874. Authors of the Lost Cause movement focused on Longstreet's actions at Gettysburg as a primary reason for the Confederacy's loss of the war. Since the late 20th century, his reputation has undergone a slow reassessment.
Many Civil War historians now consider him among the war's most gifted tactical commanders. James Longstreet was born on January 8, 1821 in Edgefield District, South Carolina, an area, now part of North Augusta, Edgefield County, he was the fifth child and third son of James Longstreet, of Dutch descent, Mary Ann Dent of English descent from New Jersey and Maryland who owned a cotton plantation close to where the village of Gainesville would be founded in northeastern Georgia. James's ancestor Dirck Stoffels Langestraet immigrated to the Dutch colony of New Netherland in 1657, but the name became Anglicized over the generations. James's father was impressed by his son's "rocklike" character on the rural plantation, giving him the nickname Peter, he was known as Pete or Old Pete for the rest of his life. Longstreet's father decided on a military career for his son, but felt that the local education available to him would not be adequate preparation. At the age of nine, James was sent to live with his aunt Frances Eliza and uncle Augustus Baldwin Longstreet in Augusta, Georgia.
James spent eight years on his uncle's plantation, just outside the city while he attended the Academy of Richmond County. His father died from a cholera epidemic while visiting Augusta in 1833. Although James's mother and the rest of the family moved to Somerville, following his father's death, James remained with uncle Augustus; as a boy, Longstreet enjoyed swimming, hunting and riding horses. He became adept at shooting firearms. Northern Georgia was rural frontier territory during Longstreet's boyhood, Southern genteel traditions had not yet taken hold; as a result, Longstreet's manners were sometimes rather rough. He dressed. In his old age, Longstreet described his uncle as caring and loving, he never made any known political statements before the war and seemed disinterested in politics. But Augustus, as a lawyer, newspaper editor, Methodist minister, was a man of some political prominence, was a fierce states' rights partisan who supported South Carolina during the Nullification Crisis. Longstreet must have been exposed to these ideas while living with him.
Augustus was known for drinking whiskey and playing card games though many Americans in this era considered them to be immoral, habits he seems to have passed on to Longstreet. In 1837, Augustus attempted to o
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy, colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War, he had been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U. S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U. S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records. This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date; these numbers do not include men. Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable; the best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps.
One estimate of Confederate wounded, considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll; the main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U. S. on April 9, 1865, April 18, 1865. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865 and June 28, 1865. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers; the Confederacy's government dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control of the remaining armies. By the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States; the Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U.
S. Army forts, within its borders. Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. By the time Lincoln was sworn in as president, the Provisional Confederate Congress had authorized the organization of a large Provisional Army of the Confederate States. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, 1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14; the United States demanded war. It rallied behind Lincoln's call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the United States intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Both the United States and the Confederate States began in earnest to raise large volunteer, armies with the objectives of putting down the rebellion and preserving the Union, on the one hand, or of establishing independence from the United States, on the other.
The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army. It was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army; the provisional, volunteer army was established by an act of the Provisional Confederate Congress passed on February 28, 1861, one week before the act which established the permanent regular army organization, passed on March 6. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently little was done to organize the Confederate regular army; the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. All regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA; the Army of the Confederate States of America was the regular army and was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved.
The men serving in the highest rank as Confederate States generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all
Gettysburg is a borough and the county seat of Adams County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg and President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address are named for this town; the town hosts visitors to the Gettysburg National Battlefield in the Gettysburg National Military Park. As of the 2010 census, the borough had a population of 7,620 people. 1761: Samuel Gettys, ancestor of the Getty family, settled at the Shippensburg–Baltimore and Philadelphia–Pittsburgh crossroads with tavern where soldiers and traders came to rest. 1786: The borough boundary was established, with the Dobbin House tavern sitting in the south-west. 1790: A "Strabane" township location between "Hunter's and Getty's towns" was planned to become the Adams county seat. One year "Revd. Alexander Dobbin and David Moore Sr. were appointed trustees for the county of Adams to erect public buildings in…Gettysburg."1858: The Gettysburg Railroad completed construction of a railroad line from Gettysburg to Hanover and the Gettysburg Railroad Station opened a year later.
Passenger train service to the town ended in 1942. The station was restored in 2006. In 2011, Senator Robert Casey introduced S. 1897, which would include the railroad station within the boundary of Gettysburg National Military Park.1860: Nearly one hundred years after the original founder settled, the borough had grown in size to consist of "450 buildings housed carriage manufacturing and tanneries". Between July 1 and 3 1863, the Battle of Gettysburg, one of the largest battles during the American Civil War, was fought across the fields and heights in the vicinity of the town; the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, under the command of Robert E Lee, experienced success in the early stages of the battle but was defeated by the Army of the Potomac, commanded by George G. Meade. Lee executed an orderly withdrawal and managed to escape across the Potomac River without being drawn into another battle. Meade was criticized by President Abraham Lincoln for his cautious pursuit and failure to destroy Lee's retreating army.
Casualties were high with total losses on both sides over 23,000 Union. The residents of Gettysburg were left to care for the wounded and bury the dead following the Confederate retreat. 8,000 men and 3,000 horses lay under the summer sun. The soldiers' bodies were reinterred in what is today known as Gettysburg National Cemetery, where, on November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln attended a ceremony to consecrate the grounds and delivered his Gettysburg Address. A 20-year-old woman, Jennie Wade, was the only civilian killed during the battle, she was hit by a stray bullet that passed through her kitchen door while she was making bread on July 3. Physical damage can still be seen in some of the houses throughout the town, notably the Schmucker House located on Seminary Ridge; the furniture manufacturing industry occupied folk in Gettysburg for the first half of 1900s. The "Gettysburg Manufacturing Company", formed in 1902, was the first company established in the borough for the purpose of manufacturing residential furniture.
Other companies soon followed. The borough's industry reached peak success about the 1920s. However, the important industry declined from 1951, when the three main companies either moved, closed or were sold; the Gettysburg Furniture Company factory closed in 1960, becoming a warehouse and distribution point for other furniture factories outside Pennsylvania. Gettysburg manufacturing associated with tourism included a late 19th-century foundry that created gun carriages and cannons for the Gettysburg Battlefield, as well as a construction industry for hotels and other buildings for tourist services. Early tourist buildings in the borough included museums, souvenir shops, buildings of the electric trolley, stands for hackmen who drove visitors in jitneys on tours. Modern tourist services in the borough include ghost tours and breakfast lodging, historical interpretation. Gettysburg is the site of the Eisenhower National Historic Site that preserves the home and farm of Dwight D. Eisenhower. Gettysburg is located on U.
S. Route 30 about 25 miles west of York, Pennsylvania. Rock Creek, a tributary of the Monocacy River and part of the Potomac River watershed, flows along its eastern edge. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.7 square miles, all land. Gettysburg lies in the transition zone between the humid continental climate of northern and central Pennsylvania to the north and the humid subtropical climate of central Maryland to the south, with hot, humid summers and cool winters. On average, January is the coldest month, with an average temperature of 30 °F. Winters range from cool to moderately cold, with frequent snowfalls. July is the warmest month, with an average temperature of 74.5 °F, June is the wettest month. The hottest temperature recorded in Gettysburg was 104 °F in 1988; as of the 2010 census, Gettysburg had a population of 7,620, was 79.6% non-Hispanic white, 10.9% Hispanic or Latino, 5.4% African American, 1.9% Asian, 2.2% all other. At the 2000 census, the Gettysburg Urban Cluster population was 15,532.
At the 2010 census, Gettysburg was included within the Hanover Urban Area, which had a population of 66,301. Gettysburg is the principal city of PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. At the 2000 census, there were 7,490 people, 2,541 households and 1,229 families residi
John Brown Gordon
John Brown Gordon was an attorney, a planter, general in the Confederate States Army, politician in the postwar years. By the end of the Civil War, he had become "one of Robert E. Lee's most trusted generals". After the war, Gordon opposed Reconstruction during the late 1860s. A member of the Democratic Party, he was elected by the state legislature to serve as a U. S. Senator, from 1875 to 1881, again from 1891 to 1897, he was elected as the 53rd Governor of Georgia, serving from 1886 to 1890. Gordon was of Scots descent and was born on the farm of his parents Zachariah Gordon and his wife in Upson County, Georgia. Many Gordon family members had fought in the Revolutionary War, his family moved to Walker County, Georgia by 1840, where his father was recorded in the US census that year as owning a plantation with 18 slaves. Gordon was an outstanding student at the University of Georgia, where he was a member of the Mystical 7 Society, he "read the law" in Atlanta, where he passed the bar examination.
Gordon and his father, invested in a series of coal mines in Tennessee and Georgia. He practiced law. In 1854 Gordon married Rebecca "Fanny" Haralson, daughter of Hugh Anderson Haralson and his wife, they had six children. In 1860, Gordon owned a 14-year-old girl, his father owned four slaves in that same census. Although lacking military education or experience, Gordon was elected captain of a company of the 6th Alabama Infantry Regiment, he did not see any action. During a reorganization of the Confederate army in May 1862, the regiment's original colonel, John Siebels and Gordon was elected the new colonel. Gordon's first combat experience happened a few weeks at Seven Pines, when his regiment was in the thick of the fighting and he took over as brigade commander from Brig. Gen Robert Rodes. Shortly after the battle, the 26th Alabama was transferred to Rodes' brigade as part of an army reorganization, its commander, Col. Edward O'Neal, outranked Gordon, thus took command of the brigade until Rodes resumed command just in time for the Seven Days Battles.
Gordon was again hotly engaged at Gaines Mill, he was wounded in the eyes during the assault on Malvern Hill. On June 29, still suffering from the effects of his wound from Seven Pines, took a leave of absence, with O'Neal commanding the brigade once again. During the Northern Virginia Campaign and his regiment were kept in the Richmond area. Assigned by General Lee to hold the vital sunken road, or "Bloody Lane", during the Battle of Antietam, Gordon's propensity for being wounded reached new heights. First, a Minié ball passed through his calf. A second ball hit him higher in the same leg. A third ball went through his left arm, he continued to lead his men despite the fact that the muscles and tendons in his arm were mangled and a small artery was severed. A fourth ball hit him in his shoulder. Despite pleas that he go to the rear, he continued to lead his men, he was stopped by a ball that hit him in the face, passing through his left cheek and out his jaw. He fell with his face in his cap and might have drowned in his own blood if it had not drained out through a bullet hole in the cap.
A Confederate surgeon thought he would not survive but after he was returned to Virginia, he was nursed back to health by his wife. Lee, impressed with Gordon's services, requested a promotion to brigadier general on November 1, 1862. After months of recuperation Gordon returned to service and received command of a brigade of Georgians in Jubal A. Early's division; when he returned to duty Lee requested a promotion again and this time congress approved it. During the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania his brigade occupied Wrightsville on the Susquehanna River, the farthest east in Pennsylvania any organized Confederate troops would reach. Union militia under Col. Jacob G. Frick burned the mile-and-a-quarter-long covered wooden bridge to prevent Gordon from crossing the river, the fire soon spread to parts of Wrightsville. Gordon's troops managed to prevent the further destruction of the town. At the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1, Gordon's brigade smashed into the XI Corps on Barlow's Knoll.
There, he aided the wounded opposing division commander Francis Barlow. This incident led to a story about the two officers meeting in Washington, D. C. Gordon unaware; the story was published in newspapers and in Gordon's book. Seated at Clarkson Potter's table, I asked Barlow: "General, are you related to the Barlow, killed at Gettysburg?" He replied: "Why, I am the man, sir. Are you related to the Gordon who killed me?" "I am the man, sir," I responded. No words of mine can convey any conception of the emotions awakened by those startling announcements. Nothing short of an actual resurrection from the dead could have amazed either of us more. Thenceforward, until his untimely death in 1896, the friendship between us, born amidst the thunders of Gettysburg was cherished by both; some historians choose to discount this story, despite contemporary accounts and the testimony of both men, because of Gordon's purported tendency to exaggerate in post-war writings and because it is inconceivable to them that Gordon did not know that Barlow subsequently fought against him in the Battle of the Wilderness.
(Barlow returned to service in April 1865, would pursue Gordon and his troops during the Battle of High Bri
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, known as Rooney Lee or W. H. F. Lee, was the second son of Mary Anna Custis, he was a planter, a Confederate cavalry General in the American Civil War, a Congressman from Virginia. Lee was born at Arlington House in Arlington and named for William Henry Fitzhugh, his mother's uncle. At an early age, his father began to call him Rooney. Rooney Lee attended Harvard University, where he befriended Henry Adams, who wrote about his relationship with Lee in chapter four of his autobiography, The Education of Henry Adams. Lee followed in his father's footsteps after graduation, entering the United States Army in 1857 as a second lieutenant, he served with the 6th U. S. Infantry under Albert Sidney Johnston, participated in the Utah War against the Mormons. In 1859, he resigned from the U. S. Army to operate his White House Plantation, on the south shore of the Pamunkey River, in New Kent County, Virginia. With the outbreak of the Civil War, Lee was commissioned as a captain in the Confederate Army cavalry and was soon promoted to major.
He served as a cavalry commander for Brig. Gen. William Loring in the mountains of western Virginia during his father's Western Virginia Campaign. Loring's forces were transferred to the lower Shenandoah Valley and the command of Stonewall Jackson in late 1861, occupied the town of Romney in early 1862. Lee was soon after assigned to the command of Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, leading the cavalry forces for Joseph E. Johnston's Army of Northern Virginia, in the Peninsula Campaign. After joining Stuart, Rooney Lee's regiment participated in Stuart's first ride-around the Union army, as well as the subsequent Seven Days Battles around Richmond. During this time, Rooney's nearby White House plantation was burned to the ground, his son Robert died of typhoid fever. During the Northern Virginia Campaign, Rooney played a leading role in Stuart's well-crafted attack on General John Pope's supply base at Catlett's Station on August 22, 1862, capturing a paymaster's safe full of Yankee greenbacks, his cavalry regiment was assigned to the brigade of Brig. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, his cousin, for the Maryland Campaign.
Following the Battle of South Mountain, Lee was knocked unconscious after a horse fell from under him, was unable to participate in the Battle of Antietam. Upon his recovery, he temporarily commanded Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry brigade in Stuart's Chambersburg Raid, he commanded the 3rd Brigade of Stuart's Cavalry Division at the Battles of Fredericksburg mere weeks after the death of his infant daughter. During the Battle of Chancellorsville the following year, Lee was detached from Stuart's cavalry to defend against Stoneman's 1863 Raid. At the beginning of the Gettysburg Campaign, Lee was shot in the thigh during combat at Brandy Station, he spent the next two weeks recovering at Hickory Hill, before being captured by Union forces. As a prisoner of war, he was sent to Fort Monroe for several months, before being shipped to New York, where he was held until returned to the Confederate Army on February 25, 1864, in exchange for Union Brig. Gen. Neal S. Dow. In April 1864, Lee was promoted to major general and commanded a division in the Cavalry Corps during the battles of The Wilderness.
With the death of Jeb Stuart, Rooney Lee's role increased. Lee's cavalry division patrolled the extreme right of the Confederate lines during the Siege of Petersburg, defending against the Wilson-Kautz Raid at Staunton River Bridge, Sappony Church and First Ream's Station, his division was sent north to aid in the defense of Richmond at the Second Battle of Deep Bottom, before supporting General Wade Hampton III's Beefsteak Raid, returning to Petersburg for the Battle of Boydton Plank Road. By last year of the war, Rooney Lee had risen to second-in-command of the Confederate cavalry in Virginia. Lee's cavalry division screened the Confederate evacuation of Petersburg, notably at the Battle of Namozine Church during the Appomattox Campaign, he surrendered along with his father at Appomattox Court House with only 300 officers and men, one-tenth the size of the command during the Petersburg Campaign. Lee returned to planting after the war. Nearby, his younger brother Rob lived at Romancoke Plantation across the river in King William County.
After their mother died in 1873, Rooney inherited Ravensworth Plantation, the old Fitzhugh family property in Fairfax County with 563 acres of land. He moved there with his family from White House. In 1875 Rooney was elected to the Virginia Senate, serving until 1878, he was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives in 1887. He served in the House until his death at Ravensworth in 1891, he is interred in the Lee Chapel at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, with his parents and siblings. Lee married twice, first in 1859 to Charlotte Georgiana Wickham, daughter of George and Charlotte Carter Wickham and a descendant of the attorney John Wickham and his wife, they had two children, Robert Edward Lee, born March 11, 1860 and died June 30, 1862 and Charlotte Carter Lee, born October 19, 1862 and died December 6, 1862. Charlotte Carter Wickham Lee died December 26, 1863. On November 28, 1867, he married Mary Tabb Bolling, they ha