Las Vegas the City of Las Vegas and known as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, the county seat of Clark County. The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city, known for its gambling, fine dining and nightlife; the Las Vegas Valley as a whole serves as the leading financial and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for its mega casino–hotels and associated activities, it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any other city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the world's most visited tourist destinations; the city's tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, television programs, music videos.
Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century. Population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85.2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, according to a 2018 estimate, the population is 648,224 with a regional population of 2,227,053; as with most major metropolitan areas, the name of the primary city is used to describe areas beyond official city limits. In the case of Las Vegas, this applies to the areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip, located within the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester; the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago. A young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829.
Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, California in 1829. The area was named Las Vegas, Spanish for "the meadows," as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as the desert spring waters needed by westward travelers; the year 1844 marked the arrival of John C. Frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas's Fremont Street is named after him. Eleven years members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies; the fort was abandoned several years afterward. The remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city. 1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas.
At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks. This year witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam; the influx of construction workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935. In 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the aerobatic team called the Thunderbirds. Following World War II, lavishly decorated hotels, gambling casinos, big-name entertainment became synonymous with Las Vegas. In the 1950s the Moulin Rouge opened and became the first racially integrated casino-hotel in Las Vegas. In 1951, nuclear weapons testing began at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. During this time the city was nicknamed the "Atomic City". Residents and visitors were able to witness the mushroom clouds until 1963, when the limited Test Ban Treaty required that nuclear tests be moved underground.
The iconic "Welcome to Las Vegas" sign, never located within municipal limits, was created in 1959 by Betty Willis. During the 1960s, corporations and business powerhouses such as Howard Hughes were building and buying hotel-casino properties. Gambling was referred to as "gaming"; the year 1995 marked the opening of the Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas's downtown area. This canopied five-block area features 12.5 million LED lights and 550,000 watts of sound from dusk until midnight during shows held on the top of each hour. Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, 2012 was dubbed "The Year of Downtown." Hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of projects made their debut at this time. They included The Smith Center for the Performing Arts and DISCOVERY Children's Museum, Mob Museum, Neon Museum, a new City Hall complex and renovations for a new Zappos.com corporate headquarters in the old City Hall building. Las Vegas is situated within Clark County in a basin on the floor of the Mojave Desert and is surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides.
Much of the landscape is arid with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems; the peaks surrounding Las Vegas reach elevations of o
Frank Grant Sawyer was an American politician. He was the 21st Governor of Nevada from 1959 to 1967, he was a member of the Democratic Party. Sawyer was born on December 1918, in Twin Falls, Idaho, he was the son of Harry William and Bula Belle Cameron Sawyer. Sawyer's father was a state legislator in Nevada. Sawyer served in the U. S. Army during World War II, he married Bette Norene Hoge on August 1, 1946. Sawyer attended Linfield College for two years and enrolled at the University of Nevada, where he graduated in 1941. While a student at Nevada, Sawyer was a member of the Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity. Sawyer went to The George Washington University Law School but left to enlist in the army at the beginning of World War II. After his military service he enrolled at Georgetown University, where he received a law degree in 1946, he served as District Attorney for Elko County, Nevada from 1950 to 1958. Sawyer served as the Governor of Nevada from 1959 to 1967, he was defeated in his attempt at a third term by Paul Laxalt.
Governor Sawyer worked to push through civil rights policies and legislation, a difficult process in a state, accused of being "the Mississippi of the West."He was responsible for the development of the modern casino regulatory system with the passage of the Gaming Control Act of 1959 and the formation of the Nevada Gaming Commission. Sawyer swam against the tide of history when he unsuccessfully fought to prevent corporate ownership over Nevada casinos. Sawyer was the first western governor to endorse the fledgling presidential campaign of Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy in 1960. Commentators have reflected on Sawyer's career as follows: Grant Sawyer served two turbulent terms as Nevada's governor from 1959 to 1967. Sawyer was an advocate of progressive change. By the late fifties he had come so far from his start in the conservative political machine of Senator Patrick McCarran that many powerful Nevadans considered his policies on education, the environment, civil rights to be dangerously radical.
When he demanded meaningful regulatory control over casino gaming and took decisive action to purge the industry of its mob connections, the establishment's resistance stiffened. Sawyer's positions brought him into open conflict with special interests and led to a collision with the justice department of the federal government, but he never backed down. In 1967, Sawyer co-founded Lionel Collins. For many years, this was the largest private law firm in Nevada; the firm ceased operations on December 31, 2014, with ninteen of its lawyers goining Fennemore Craig. Sawyer died on February 19, 1996, in Las Vegas, Nevada of complications of a debilitating stroke suffered in 1993, at the age of 77, his wife Bette, a native of Baker City, died on September 11, 2002, at the age of 79. They are both interred at the Palm Memorial Park in Nevada; the following facilities are named for the former governor: The Grant Sawyer Building, a state office building, located at 555 East Washington Avenue, Las Vegas Grant Sawyer Middle School, located at 5450 Redwood Street, Las Vegas The Grant Sawyer Center for Justice Studies, part of the School of Social Research and Justice Studies at the University of Nevada, Reno Grant Sawyer papers, 97-28.
Special Collections, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Reno. Grant Sawyer at Find a Grave
Supreme Court of Nevada
The Supreme Court of Nevada is the highest state court of the U. S. state of Nevada, the head of the Nevada Judiciary. The main constitutional function of the Supreme Court is to review appeals made directly from the decisions of the district courts; the Supreme Court does not pursue fact-finding by conducting trials, but rather determines whether legal errors were committed in the rendering of the lower court's decision. While the Court must consider all cases filed, it has the discretion to send appeals to the Nevada Court of Appeals for final resolution, as well as the power to determine the jurisdiction of that court. There are seven Justices on the court, who are elected to six-year terms in nonpartisan elections and who are not subject to term limits, which were rejected by voters in 1996; the Governor appoints Justices in the case of a vacancy. The most senior justice becomes Chief Justice for a two-year term; when Nevada was admitted to the federal union in 1864, three justices were elected to the Supreme Court for a term of six years.
This was increased to five justices in 1967, to seven justices in 1997. Despite experiencing a spectacular population boom in the 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, Nevada was unable for many years to establish an intermediate appellate court, like the vast majority of U. S. states. Attempts to create one all failed at the ballot box in 1972, 1980, 1992, 2010; the result was extraordinarily severe congestion at the appellate level, as all appeals must be processed through the state supreme court. The alternative would be to have no right to appeal, since the U. S. Supreme Court has ruled that appeal is not a constitutional right, which has always been and is still the case today in Virginia in civil and criminal cases, until the early 2000s was the case in New Hampshire and West Virginia. Nevada, has guaranteed its residents a right to appeal since statehood. From the 1980s to the present, Nevada state supreme court justices have been burdened with the highest per-justice caseloads of any state supreme court in the United States.
In January 1999, to bring its soaring backlog under control, the Supreme Court of Nevada adopted for the first time a measure, used by the Supreme Court of California prior to the creation of the California Courts of Appeal in 1904. The Court divided itself into two three-justice panels; the majority of cases are now heard and decided by the three-justice panels, with one panel in Carson City and one panel in Las Vegas. The Chief Justice is the administrative head of the court system, with authority to divide the work of the Supreme Court among the justices, assign district judges to assist in other judicial districts or to special functions, assign retired judges or justices to appropriate temporary duty; the advantage of this system, of course, is that it is easier and faster to negotiate a consensus on the key points of a majority opinion among three instead of seven justices. The disadvantages are. Meanwhile, the state supreme court continued to lobby the people and the legislature of the state of Nevada to create an intermediate appellate court.
The Legislature authorized the latest attempt to appear on the November 2, 2010 ballot. Question 2, was narrowly rejected by 53% of the 670,126 votes cast; the same issue appeared again as Question 1 on the November 4, 2014 ballot, narrowly approved by Nevada voters by a 54 percent to 46 percent margin. Nevada immediately established a Nevada Court of Appeals; the new court operates under a "push down" or "deflective" model similar to Iowa, in which the intermediate appellate court handles the tedious task known as "error correction" among appellate specialists. That is, all appeals are still filed with the Supreme Court of Nevada, but are screened to determine whether they involve novel issues of law or important issues of public policy, as opposed to contentions that the trial court erred by failing to apply existing precedent. Based on historical data, about one third of future Nevada appeals are expected to fall into the latter category and will be reassigned to the Court of Appeals, thereby enabling the state supreme court to focus on deciding hard questions in the remaining cases.
In turn, appeals from the decisions of the Court of Appeals to the Supreme Court will be at the discretion of the Supreme Court, as with intermediate appellate courts in other states. List of Supreme Court of Nevada Justices Nevada.. Practice before the Supreme Court of Nevada: an overview, Carson City, Nev: Nevada State Supreme Court Clerk's Office; the Nevada State Supreme Court.. Carson City, Nev: Administrative Office of the Courts. Supreme Court of Nevada
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Eddie Fisher (singer)
Edwin John "Eddie" Fisher was an American singer and actor. He was one of the most popular artists during the first half of the 1950s, selling millions of records and hosting his own TV show. Fisher divorced his first wife, actress Debbie Reynolds, to marry Reynolds' best friend, actress Elizabeth Taylor, after Taylor's husband, film producer Mike Todd, was killed in a plane crash; the scandalous affair was reported, bringing unfavorable publicity to Fisher. He married Connie Stevens. Fisher fathered Carrie Fisher and Todd Fisher with Reynolds, Joely Fisher and Tricia Leigh Fisher with Stevens. Fisher was born in Philadelphia, the fourth of seven children born to Gitte and Joseph Tisch, who were Russian-Jewish immigrants, his father's surname was Tisch, but was changed to Fisher by the time of the 1940 census. To his family, Fisher was always called "Sonny Boy", a nickname derived from the song of the same name in Al Jolson's film The Singing Fool. Fisher attended Thomas Junior High School, South Philadelphia High School, Simon Gratz High School.
It was known at an early age that he had talent as a vocalist, he started singing in numerous amateur contests, which he won. He made his radio debut on a local Philadelphia radio station, he performed on Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, a popular radio show that moved to television. Because he became a local star, Fisher dropped out of high school in the middle of his senior year to pursue his career. By 1946, Fisher was crooning with the bands of Charlie Ventura, he was heard in 1949 by Eddie Cantor at Grossinger's Catskill Resort Hotel in the Borscht Belt. Cantor's so-called discovery of Fisher was described as a contrived, "manipulated' arrangement by Milton Blackstone, Grossinger's publicity director. After performing on Cantor's radio show he gained nationwide exposure, he signed a recording contract with RCA Victor. Fisher was drafted into the U. S. Army in 1951, sent to Fort Hood, Texas for basic training, served a year in Korea. From 1952 to 1953, he was the official vocal soloist for The United States Army Band and a tenor section member in the United States Army Band Chorus assigned at Fort Myer in the Washington, D.
C. Military District. During his active duty period, he made occasional guest television appearances, in uniform, introduced as "PFC Eddie Fisher". After his discharge, he began to sing in top nightclubs and had a variety television series, Coke Time with Eddie Fisher on NBC. Fisher appeared on The Perry Como Show, Club Oasis, The Martha Raye Show, The Gisele MacKenzie Show, The Chesterfield Supper Club and The George Gobel Show, starred in another series, The Eddie Fisher Show. Fisher's strong and melodious tenor made him a teen idol and one of the most popular singers of the early 1950s, he had 17 songs in the Top 10 on the music charts between 1950 and 1956 and 35 in the Top 40. In 1956, Fisher costarred with then-wife Debbie Reynolds in the musical comedy Bundle of Joy, he played a dramatic role in the 1960 drama Butterfield 8 with second wife Elizabeth Taylor. His best friend was showman and producer Mike Todd, who died in a plane crash in 1958. Fisher's affair, divorce from Reynolds, subsequent marriage to Taylor, Todd's widow, caused a show business scandal.
Due to the unfavorable publicity surrounding the affair and divorce, NBC canceled Fisher's television series in March 1959. Beginning in fall 1959, he established two scholarships at Brandeis University, one for classical and one for popular music, in the name of Eddie Cantor. In 1960, he was dropped by RCA Victor and recorded on his own label, Ramrod Records, he recorded for Dot Records. During this time, he had the first commercial recording of "Sunrise, Sunset" from Fiddler on the Roof; this technically counts as the biggest standard Fisher can claim credit for introducing, although it is associated with him. He recorded the albums Eddie Fisher Today and Young and Foolish; the Dot contract was not successful in record sales terms, he returned to RCA Victor and had a minor single hit in 1966 with the song "Games That Lovers Play" with Nelson Riddle, which became the title of his best selling album. When Fisher was at the height of his popularity, in the mid-1950s, rather than albums, were the primary medium for issuing recordings.
His last album for RCA Victor was an Al Jolson tribute, You Ain't Heard Nothin' Yet, released in 1968. In 1983 he attempted a comeback tour but this was not a success. Eddie Fisher's last released album was recorded around 1984 on the Bainbridge record label. Fisher tried to stop the album from being released; the album was arranged by Angelo DiPippo. DiPippo, a world-renowned arranger, worked with Eddie countless hours to better his vocals but it became useless, his final recordings were made in 1995 with the London Philharmonic Orchestra. According to arranger-conductor Vincent Falcone in his 2005 autobiography, Frankly: Just Between Us, these tracks were "the best singing of his life." Fisher performed in top concert halls all over the United States and headlined in major Las Vegas showrooms. He headlined at the Palace Theater in New York City as well as London's Palladium. Fisher created interest as a pop culture icon. Betty Johnson's "I Want Eddie Fisher For Christmas", containing references to a number of hit songs, reached #28 in the Music Vendor national survey during an 11-week chart run in late 1954.
Fisher has two stars on
Encinitas is a beach city in the North County area of San Diego County, California. Located within Southern California, it is 25 miles north of San Diego and about 95 miles south of Los Angeles; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 59,518, up from 58,014 at the 2000 census. Encinitas is a Spanish name meaning "little oaks"; the city was incorporated by 69.3% of the voters in 1986 from the communities of historic Encinitas, new Encinitas, Cardiff-by-the-Sea, Olivenhain. The communities retain distinctive flavors. Encinitas can be divided into five areas: Old Encinitas: a small beachside area featuring a mix of businesses and housing styles. Sitting along Coast Highway 101, the Encinitas welcome arch, the famous surf break Swamis, the early 20th century La Paloma Theater are located here. Old Encinitas is divided from New Encinitas by a low coastal ridge. New Encinitas: a newer region which features a golf course, many shopping centers, is composed of larger tract homes. Olivenhain: a semi-rural region in eastern Encinitas, composed of single family homes, an active 4-H Club, several private equestrian facilities.
Olivenhain connects to Rancho Santa Fe via Encinitas Boulevard. Leucadia: a coastal community of the city. Leucadia features tree-lined boulevards; the community features art galleries, unusual stores, restaurants, along with single family homes. This contains beaches such as Beacons and Grandview. Cardiff-by-the-Sea: Encinitas' southernmost oceanfront community, which features streets named after British cities and classical composers, the Lux Art Institute, the San Elijo Campus of Mira Costa College. Encinitas is located at 33°2′40″N 117°16′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.0 square miles. 18.8 square miles of it is land and 1.2 square miles of it is water. The city's elevation ranges between 180 feet above sea level. Encinitas lies on rugged coastal terrain; the city is bisected by a low-lying coastal ridge that separates Old Encinitas. In the north of the city, the coast rises in elevation and the land is raised up in the form of many coastal bluffs.
The city is surrounded by Batiquitos Lagoon and San Elijo Lagoon to the north and south, respectively. Encinitas has a mild, Mediterranean climate. Average daily high temperature is 72 °F. Temperatures below 40 °F and above 85 °F are rare. Average rainfall is about 10 inches per year; the wet season lasts during the winter and spring, when temperatures are cool. Average daytime temperatures hit 65F in spring, when rain and marine layer are common. Nighttime lows range from 45-55F; the dry season lasts from summer through fall, with average daytime temperatures ranging from 75-85F, nighttime lows being from the upper 50s–60sF. Ocean water temperatures average 60F in winter, 64F in spring, 70F in summer, 66F in fall. In winter, strong Pacific storms can bring heavy rain. During the winter of 2015-2016, the area saw rounds of severe thunderstorms. Tornados touched down nearby; the 2010 United States Census reported that Encinitas had a population of 59,518. The population density was 2,977.5 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Encinitas was 51,067 White, 361 African American, 301 Native American, 2,323 Asian, 91 Pacific Islander, 3,339 from other races, 2,036 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8,138 persons; the Census reported that 58,990 people lived in households, 123 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 405 were institutionalized. There were 24,082 households, out of which 6,997 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 12,113 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,950 had a female householder with no husband present, 981 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,359 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 169 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,303 households were made up of individuals and 2,118 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45. There were 15,044 families; the population was spread out with 12,285 people under the age of 18, 3,767 people aged 18 to 24, 16,584 people aged 25 to 44, 19,239 people aged 45 to 64, 7,643 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. Females comprise the majority of Encinitas' population at 50.5% as of April 2010. There were 25,740 housing units at an average density of 1,287.7 per square mile, of which 15,187 were owner-occupied, 8,895 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 39,101 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,889 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 58,014 people, 22,830 households, 14,291 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,035.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 23,843 housing units at an average density of 1,247.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.60% White, 0.59% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 3.10% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 6.28% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. 14
Carlsbad is a city in North County, San Diego County, United States. The city is 87 miles south of Los Angeles and 35 miles north of downtown San Diego and is part of the San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Referred to as "The Village by the Sea" by locals, Carlsbad is a tourist destination; the city's estimated 2014 population was 112,299. Among the nation's top 20 wealthiest communities, Carlsbad is the 5th richest city in the state of California with a median household income close to US$105,000. Carlsbad's history began with the Luiseño people. Nearly every reliable fresh water creek had at least one native village, including one called Palamai; the site is located just south of today's Agua Hedionda Lagoon. The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition of 1769, met native villagers while camped on Buena Vista Creek. During the Mexican period, in 1842, the southern portion of Carlsbad was granted as Rancho Agua Hedionda to Juan María Marrón.
In the 1880s a former sailor named. He began offering his water at the train station and soon the whistle-stop became known as Frazier's Station. A test done on a second fresh-water well discovered the water to be chemically similar to that found in some of the most renowned spas in the world, the town was named after the famed spa in the Bohemian town of Karlsbad. To take advantage of the find, the Carlsbad Land and Mineral Water Company was formed by a German-born merchant from the Midwest named Gerhard Schutte together with Samuel Church Smith, D. D. Wadsworth and Henry Nelson; the naming of the town followed soon after, along with a major marketing campaign to attract visitors. The area experienced a period of growth, with businesses sprouting up in the 1880s. Agricultural development of citrus fruits and olives soon changed the landscape. By the end of 1887, land prices fell throughout San Diego County. However, the community survived on the back of its fertile agricultural lands; the site of John Frazier's original well can still be found at Alt Karlsbad, a replica of a German Hanseatic house, located on Carlsbad Boulevard.
In 1952, Carlsbad was incorporated to avoid annexation by Oceanside. The single-runway Palomar Airport opened in 1959 after County of San Diego officials decided to replace the Del Mar Airport; the airport was annexed to the City of Carlsbad in 1978 and renamed McClellan-Palomar Airport in 1982 after a local civic leader, Gerald McClellan. The first modern skateboard park, Carlsbad Skatepark, was built in March 1976, it was located on the grounds of Carlsbad Raceway and was designed and built by inventors Jack Graham and John O'Malley. The site of the original Carlsbad Skatepark and Carlsbad Raceway was demolished in 2005 and is now an Industrial Park. However, two skateparks have since been developed. In March 1999, Legoland California Resort, LLC was opened, it was the first Legoland theme park outside of Europe and is operated by Merlin Entertainments. Merlin Entertainments owns 70 percent of the shares, the remaining 30 percent is owned by the LEGO group and Kirkbi A/S. Carlsbad is home to the nation's largest desalination plant.
Construction of the US$1 billion Carlsbad Desalination Plant at the Encina Power Plant was completed in December 2015. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 39.1 square miles of which 37.7 square miles are land and 1.4 square miles are water, the majority of, contained within three lagoons and one lake. The northern area of the city is part of a tri-city area consisting of northern Carlsbad, southern Oceanside and western Vista; the ocean-side cliffs fronting wide white-sand beaches and mild climate attract vacationers year-round. Carlsbad has a semi-arid Mediterranean climate and averages 263 sunny days per year. Winters are mild with periodic rain. Frost sometimes occurs in inland valleys in December and January. Summer is rain free, but sometimes overcast and cool with fog off the Pacific. While most days have mild and pleasant temperatures, hot dry Santa Ana winds bring high temperatures on a few days each year in the fall. Carlsbad has Coaster and Amtrak rail service at its two stations, Carlsbad Village station and Carlsbad Poinsettia station.
North County Transit District provides public transportation services in Carlsbad. They operate bus service under SPRINTER light rail service. Interstate 5 and California State Route 78 either border the city of Carlsbad. McClellan–Palomar Airport is located about seven miles southeast of downtown Carlsbad, allows general aviation and limited commercial service to the city. For city planning and growth management purposes, Carlsbad is divided into four distinct quadrants; the northwest quadrant of Carlsbad includes the downtown "Village," the Barrio, "Old Carlsbad." It was the first part of Carlsbad to be settled. Homes bungalows to elegant mansions on the hill overlooking the ocean, it is home to Hosp Grove Park, a grove of trees untouched by development and now designated by the city for recreational use, in addition to the Buena Vista and Agua Hedionda Lagoons. It is located west of north of Palomar Airport Road. "The Barrio" area is near downtown Carlsbad bordered by Carlsbad Village Drive to the north, Tamarack Avenue to the south, Interstate 5 to the east and the railroad tracks to the west.
It was settled by Latinos in the early 20th century. It is the site of the