Daredevils of Sassoun
Daredevils of Sassoun is an Armenian heroic epic poem in four cycles. In the initial decades following the discovery of the epic in the late nineteenth century a general consensus emerged attributing its theme to the struggle of four generations of Sassoun's warriors against Arab rule in the 8th to 10th centuries; the pioneers of this interpretation of the epic were the philologist Manoug Abeghyan in Armenia and academic Hovsep Orbeli in Leningrad who argued that there are no characters in the epic that could be attributed to a historical person from before the 10th century. The historicist school held its sway until the Armenian philologist Grigoryan first in an article in a book argued following an incisive analysis of the epic, "it is indisputable that the roots of the epic go back deep into the centuries, they reach not only the cuneiform times when monarchy was underway in Armenia, but the prehistoric era." Grigoryan identified various episodes in the epic as of patently matriarchal origin, prompting various scholars both in Soviet Armenia and elsewhere to probe deeper into the proto-layers of the epic.
The Daredevils of Sassoun is cited as one of the most important works of Armenian folklore. This recital of the legendary deeds of four generations of strongmen in a warrior community in the Armenian highlands is in the tradition of heroic folktales that dramatise the story of a whole nation and voice its deepest sentiments and aspirations, but unlike such well-known epics as the Iliad and the Odyssey, Epic of Gilgamesh, Chanson de Roland, Cantar de Mio Cid and others, it has survived by word of mouth, transmitted from one generation to another by village bards; the literary merits of the Sassoun saga surpass its value as a linguistic document. The performance of the Daredevils of Sassoun was included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage representative list in 2012. Սասնա translates to "belonging to Sassoun", in reference to Sasun – a region and a city located in Western Armenia in the rugged mountain country southwest of Lake Van – in what is Batman Province, eastern Turkey. Ծուռ translates to "crooked", traditionally connoting an animus of rebelliousness.
The most accurate and complete title of this epic is "Սասնա Ծռեր". It has however been published under various titles such as "Սասունցի Դավիթ", "Սանասար և Բաղդասար", "Սասունցի Դավիթ կամ Մհերի դուռ" and many others. All these titles correspond to one of four cycles of the epic; the written literature of Armenia goes back to the fourth century CE, its Golden Age, when the Christian Bible was translated into the vernacular from the original Greek and Syriac texts. Plato and Aristotle were studied in Armenian schools and many original works of great interest to the modern specialist were produced by native historians and poets. While its oral literature is much older, recorded folk poetry has existed in Armenian for two thousand years. Movses Khorenatsi tells us in his classic "History of Armenia" that Armenians still loved the pagan "songs" the minstrels sang on festive occasions and quotes from them. Only these fragments of pagan "songs" have survived to this day. Songs celebrating memorable events have retained their hold in the popular imagination and it could be said that Armenians are a nation whose cultural identity has been formed from both the written and oral traditions, though little has survived of the latter due to its perishable nature and fluctuation of Armenia's historical borders.
The story of Sasun was "discovered" in 1873 by a bishop of the Armenian Apostolic Church, Garegin Srvandztiants, who had exceptionally close contacts with the peasantry in the more remote inaccessible parts of Western Armenia. He says: For three years I tried to find somebody who knew the entire story, but nobody seemed to know all of it until I met Gurbo from a village on the Moush plain. I learned that his master had two pupils who knew the tale by heart, singing verses in it, although Gurbo himself had not recited it for so long that he had forgotten a good deal of it. I kept him with me for three days, I begged him, cajoled him, honored him, rewarded him, when he felt better and was in the proper mood, he recited the tale for me in his own village dialect, I wrote it all down in his own words; the tale told by Gurbo was published in Constantinople in 1874 under the title David of Sasun or Meherr's Door. The bishop wrote in the introduction: The life of David and his exploits belong in the Middle Ages...
The entire story is a record of courage, of domestic virtue, of piety, of simple, open-hearted relations with his beloved woman as well as with his enemies. Despite its irregularities and anachronisms it has some fine stylistic qualities and narrative devices in it... The publication of this tale would be of interest to the understanding reader, but I suppose there will be those who will express their contempt for it and abuse both the story and my own person; these readers will not understand it. But it does not matter. I shall consider myself encouraged. Though the language abounds in poetic pictures, the physical sensory details are missing; this is because an oral tale is different from that of a written story. The reciter would get on with his action and act out most parts of the story to hold interest of his audience, plot is the main thing, the reciter suits the words of action. It's written in a beautifully controlled language and hyperbole is a characteristic device of this epic style
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation. National epics recount the origin of a nation, a part of its history, or a crucial event in the development of national identity such as other national symbols. In a broader sense, a national epic may be an epic in the national language which the people or government of that nation are proud of, it is distinct from a pan-national epic, taken as representative of a larger cultural or linguistic group than a nation or a nation-state. In medieval times Homer's Iliad was taken to be based on historical facts, the Trojan War came to be considered as seminal in the genealogies of European monarchies. Virgil's Aeneid was taken to be the Roman equivalent of the Iliad, starting from the Fall of Troy and leading up to the birth of the young Roman nation. According to the prevailing conception of history, empires were born and died in organic succession and correspondences existed between the past and the present.
Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th century classically inspired Historia Regum Britanniae, for example, fulfilled this function for the British or Welsh. Just as kings longed to emulate great leaders of the past, Alexander or Caesar, it was a temptation for poets to become a new Homer or Virgil. In 16th century Portugal, Luis de Camões celebrated Portugal as a naval power in his Os Lusíadas while Pierre de Ronsard set out to write La Franciade, an epic meant to be the Gallic equivalent of Virgil's poem that traced back France's ancestry to Trojan princes; the emergence of a national ethos, preceded the coining of the phrase national epic, which seems to originate with Romantic nationalism. Where no obvious national epic existed, the "Romantic spirit" was motivated to fill it. An early example of poetry, invented to fill a perceived gap in "national" myth is Ossian, the narrator and supposed author of a cycle of poems by James Macpherson, which Macpherson claimed to have translated from ancient sources in Scottish Gaelic.
However, many national epics antedate 19th-century romanticism. In the early 20th century, the phrase no longer applies to an epic poem, occurs to describe a literary work that readers and critics agree is emblematical of the literature of a nation, without including details from that nation's historical background. In this context the phrase has positive connotations, as for example in James Joyce's Ulysses where it is suggested Don Quixote is Spain's national epic while Ireland's remains as yet unwritten: They remind one of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza. Our national epic has yet to be written, Dr Sigerson says. Moore is the man for it. A knight of the rueful countenance here in Dublin. Poems that have been described as national epics include: Egypt – Story of Sinuhe Mali – Epic of Sundiata Nigeria – Epic of Bayajidda Itan Tale of Eri Argentina – Martín Fierro by José Hernández Brazil – Caramuru, by Santa Rita Durão O Uraguai, by Basílio da Gama Chile – La Araucana/The Araucaniad by Alonso de Ercilla y Zuñiga United States – The Columbiad by Joel Barlow The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Evangeline by Longfellow The Cantos by Ezra Pound Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman Uruguay – La Leyenda Patria by Juan Zorrilla de San Martín Cambodia – Reamker Georgia – The Knight in the Panther's Skin by Shota Rustaveli Indian subcontinent India Mahabharata Ramayana Tirukkural Silappathikaram Sri Lanka Mahavamsa Iran and Persian speakers Shahnameh Amir Arsalan Iraq / Babylonians / Mesopotamia – Epic of Gilgamesh Indonesia Kakawin Rāmâyaṇa Ramakavaca Israel / Hebrews – Book of Job Japan The Tale of the Heike Kipchaks – Chora Batir Korea Jewang Ungi by Yi Seung-hyu Kyrgyz people – Epic of Manas Laos – Phra Lak Phra Lam Mongols – Epic of Jangar Myanmar – Yama Zatdaw Philippines – Biag ni Lam-ang Florante at Laura Hinilawod Hudhud Ibalon Ibong Adarna Maradia Lawana Tibet – Epic of King Gesar Thailand – Khun Chang Khun Phaen Yuan Phai Ramakien Phra Aphai Mani Albania – Lahuta e Malcís by Gjergj Fishta Italy, ancient – Aeneid by Virgil Armenia – Daredevils of Sassoun Bulgaria – Епопея на Забравените by Ivan Vazov Catalonia – L'Atlàntida and Canigó by Jacint Verdaguer Croatia – Judita by Marko Marulić England Beowulf The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser Paradise Lost by John Milton Charge of the Light Brigade, by Alfred, Lord Tennyson Estonia – Kalevipoeg by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald Europe southern – Iliad and Odyssey by Homer Aeneid by Virgil Finland – Kalevala by Elias Lönnrot France La Chanson de Roland La Chanson de Guillaume Gormond et Isembart Franciade by Pierre Ronsard Georgia – The Knight in the Panther's Skin by Shota Rustaveli Germany Nibelungenlied Faust Greece, Ancient – Iliad and Odyssey by Homer Greece – Digenes Akritas Hungary – Siege of Sziget by Miklós Zrínyi Iceland – The Poetic Edda Ireland Táin Bó Cúailnge Fenian Cycle Lebor Gabála Érenn Ulster Cycle Italy – Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri Orlando Furioso by Ludovico Ariosto Jerusalem Delivered by Torquato Tasso Latvia – Lāčplēsis by Andrejs Pum
Garegin or Karekin Srvandztiants was an Armenian philologist, folklorist and ecclesiastic. Karekin Srvandztiants was born in Van in the Ottoman Empire in 1840, he was the uncle of military commander Hamazasp Srvandztyan. Srvandztiants was educated at the seminary of Varagavank monastery under the mentorship of Mkrtich Khrimian, well-known Armenian religious figure. Under his tutelage, Srvandztiants toured Eastern Armenian where he surveyed the living condition and cultural characteristics of the local population. In 1862 he moved with Khrimian to the Surb Karapet Monastery near Mush, where he edited the journal The eaglet of Taron. Srvandztiants was ordained a celibate priest in 1864 in the city of Erzurum. In 1866, two years after being ordained, Srvandztiants moved to Constantinople where he continued to be a priest and a community figure. A year he moved back to Erzurum where he supervised Armenian schools in the area. Thereafter, Srvandztiants was entrusted with the task of carrying out the reforms of the newly drafted Armenian National Constitution.
He was made the head of Surb Karapet Monastery. After the Russo-Turkish War, the rights of Armenians were guaranteed under Article 16 of the Treaty of San Stefano, stipulating that the Russian forces occupying the Armenian-populated provinces in the eastern Ottoman Empire would withdraw only with the full implementation of reforms. Srvandztiants was tasked to collect data and information of the Armenian population in the eastern provinces and report to the Patriarch of Constantinople. Meanwhile, Srvandztiants documented many Armenian oral histories and collected many examples of epic folklore, passed down orally for generations. In 1886 Srvandztiants went to Echmiatsin, where he was consecrated bishop and sent to Trabzon as prelate. Under suspicion of nationalist sympathies, Srvandztiants was monitored by the Ottoman government, he was sent to Constantinople, where he would be monitored more easily. He taught at the Getronagan School and became a priest at the Holy Trinity Church located in the Beyoğlu district.
Srvandztiants was honored by the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg. In 1874 Srvandztiants was the first person to publish and thus bring to light a version of the Armenian national epic Daredevils of Sassoun; the epic was told by a villager from Mush. He published other ethnographic books. Srvandztiants believed; this was exemplified when he wrote in 1869: "If the Armenians of Mush were true Armenians and true human beings, why would they let the Kurd loot their houses and belongings, snatch their earnings, defile their honor? They are slaughtered constantly, they are dying. Let them at least do something and give meaning to their life and death."
Hovhannes Tumanyan was an Armenian poet, translator and public activist. He is considered the national poet of Armenia. Tumanyan wrote poems, ballads, fables and journalistic articles, his work was written in realistic form centering on everyday life of his time. Born in the historical village of Dsegh in the Lori region, at a young age Tumanyan moved to Tiflis, the center of Armenian culture under the Russian Empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries, he soon became known to the wide Armenian society for his simple but poetic works. Many films and animated films have been adapted from Tumanyan's works. Two operas: Anush by Armen Tigranian and Almast by Alexander Spendiaryan, were written based on his works. Hovhannes Tumanyan was born on February 19, 1869 in the village of Dsegh, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire, his father, was the village priest known by the name Ter-Tadevos. He was an offspring of an Armenian princely family of Tumanyan, branch of the famous royal house of Mamikonian that settled in Lori in 10th–11th centuries from their original feudal fief of Taron.
His mother, was an avid storyteller with a particular interest in fables. Young Tumanyan was the oldest of eight children. From 1877–1879, Tumanyan attended the parochial school of Dsegh. From 1879–1883 he went to a school in Jalaloghly. Tumanyan moved to Tiflis in 1883, where he attended the Nersisyan School from 1883–1887. Tumanyan's wrote his first poem while studying in Jalaloghly school, he fell in love with the teacher's daughter Vergine. Since 1893, Tumanyan worked for Aghbyur, Murtch and Horizon periodicals and was engaged in public activism. In 1899, Tumanyan came up with an idea of organizing meetings of Armenian intellectuals of the time at his house on 44 Bebutov Street in Tiflis. Soon it became an influential literary group, which gathered in the garret of Tumanyan's house. Vernatun means garret in Armenian, the name the group was referred to. Prominent members of the collective were Avetik Isahakyan, Derenik Demirchyan, Levon Shant, Ghazaros Aghayan, Perch Proshyan, Nikol Aghbalian, Alexander Shirvanzade, Nar-Dos, Vrtanes Papazyan, Vahan Terian, Stepan Lisitsyan, Mariam Tumanyan, Gevorg Bashinjagyan and many other significant Armenian figures of early 20th century.
With some pauses, it existed until 1908. In 1912 Tumanyan was elected the president of the Company of Caucasus Armenian Writers. In the fall of 1921, Tumanyan went to Constantinople to find support of Armenian refugees. After months spent there, he returned ill. After surgery in 1922, he started to get better, but in September, Tumanyan's disease started to progress again. He was transferred to a hospital in Moscow, where he died on March 23, 1923. In 1888, at the age of 19, Hovhannes Tumanyan married Olga Matchkalyan, 17, they had 10 children: Musegh, Nvard, Hamlik, Arpik, Seda, Tamar. During the government-provoked Armenian–Tatar massacres of 1905–1907, Tumanyan took the role of a peacemaker, for which he was arrested twice. Tumanyan deeply criticized the Georgian–Armenian War of 1918. Tumanyan was actively engaged in preaching the Gospel; as he put in one of his verses "There is only one way of salvation. In October 1914 Tumanyan joined the "Committee for Support of War Victims", which helped Armenian Genocide refugees settled in Etchmiadzin.
In 1921 in Tiflis he founded the House of Armenian Art. Works of Hovhannes Tumanyan at the Armenian WikisourceTumanyan's work is simple and poetically inspired at the same time, it is not by mere chance that dozens of phrases and expressions from Tumanyan's works have become a natural part of people's everyday language, their sayings and maxims. Tumanyan is regarded in Armenian circles as "All-Armenian poet", he earned this title when the Catholicos of Armenia had ordered that Armenian refugees from the west not enter certain areas of his church and house, since he is considered to be "The Catholicos of all Armenians". Tumanyan in response decried that decision claiming that the refugees could seek relief in the Catholicos' quarters under order of "The Poet of all Armenians", he created lyrics, epic poems and translations into Armenian of Byron and Pushkin. Tumanyan's most famous works include: Tumanyan's works were translated by Valeri Bryusov, Konstantin Balmont, Joseph Brodsky, Samuil Marshak, Bella Akhmadulina and others.
The following places were named after Tumanyan: In ArmeniaTumanyan's native village of Dsegh was renamed Tumanyan in his honor from 1938–1969. In 1951, the village of Dzagidzor of Lori Province was renamed Tumanyan Pedagogical University of Vanadzor Armenian State Puppet Theater in Yerevan Tumanyan St. in central Yerevan Tumanyan Park in Yerevan's Ajapnyak districtOutside of ArmeniaTumanyan Square – in Northern Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia. Tumanyan Streets in Kiev, Sochi, khutor Shaumyanovsky in Rostov Oblast. There are 2 museums of one in his birthplace Dsegh and another one in Yerevan. Tumanyan's museum in Yerevan was opened in 1953. In Autumn of 2011 the government of Armenia purchased Tum
Sasuntsi Davit (statue)
Sasuntsi Davit is a copper equestrian statue depicting David of Sassoun in Yerevan, Armenia. Erected by Yervand Kochar in 1959, it depicts the protagonist of the Armenian national epic Daredevils of Sassoun; the idea to erect a statue to David of Sassoun, the epic hero of the national epic Daredevils of Sassoun, emerged in the late 1930s since the one thousandth anniversary of the epic was celebrated in Soviet Armenia in 1939. The authorities decided to have a statue to David of Sassoun be erected in the square in front of the Yerevan Railway Station to greet the visitors of Yerevan, since the majority of visitors to Yerevan came by train at the time. Yervand Kochar was selected to create a statue of the epic hero, it took him 18 days to create the statue in gypsum. The statue was destroyed in 1941 days after Kochar was arrested for praising Adolf Hitler.:28 In 1957, on the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution, the Yerevan authorities decided to restore the statue. Kochar recreated the statue to David of Sassoun with significant changes from the 1939 original.
The latter included an old Arab man besides David. The restored statue was inaugurated on December 3, 1959. None of the top officials of the local Communist Party attended the ceremony, it was attended by Armenians who were from the Sasun area, or descended from them. In the post-Soviet period the statue deteriorated somewhat and the "cup of patience", located at the feet of the horse, was stolen․ It was recovered in 2011.:p. 1 That year, the statue underwent general restoration, funded by Ruben Vardanyan. The pool around the statue was restored and the Railway Station Square cleaned.:18 However, in 2012 several sculptors said the statue needed further restoration. In the post-Soviet period, some have proposed to move the statue to Republic Square, where the statue of Lenin used to stand.:34 Architect Garri Rashidyan, for instance, wrote in his 2007 book that it may be the "best solution for replacing Lenin as the central and focal point of the most important square of our republic." According to Diana Ter-Ghazaryan, David of Sassoun would be a safe choice because of the epic hero's fundamentally apolitical nature and his statue at Yerevan's central square would be acceptable by most Armenians.
However, writing in 2013, she considered the relocation unlikely. The statue has been admired by critics and visitors alike. Architectural historian Murad Hasratyan called it Kochar's masterpiece. In 1980 Ara Baliozian noted that the "splendid" statue has "acquired archetypal dimension." It has become a landmark of Armenia. Rouben Paul Adalian noted that the "dynamic and forceful" statue is "such a compelling work of sculpture that the image became an emblematic portrait of the Soviet Armenian republic."Another author noted that Kochar’s created a "lasting and powerful national value" due to his "ability to draw from the universal pool of knowledge and culture." The statue is the "condensed power of Armenia, but it is an extension of the same power that gave birth to Michelangelo’s David." Soviet travel writer Nikolai Mikhailov praised the statue's expression of impetuousness. An online poll by Yerevan Magazine found that Sasuntsi Davit is the most beloved statue of the residents of Yerevan.:17 The film studio Hayfilm uses the statue as its logo
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
Patma-Banasirakan Handes is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Armenian National Academy of Sciences. It covers research on Armenian history, art history and linguistics; the journal publishes discussions and debates, book reviews and has special sections devoted to science news and Armenian Diasporan affairs. It publishes obituaries and biographies and commemorates the lives of noted scholars involved in Armenian studies, it was established in 1958 by academician Mkrtich G. Nersisyan, the journal's first editor-in-chief until his death in 1999. According to Razmik Panossian "it became a trend-setting journal for historians, linguists and for scholars in the humanities in general; this influential journal brought together all branches of Armenian studies, systematically consolidating research on culture, ancient law and philosophy, architecture and history."Most articles that were published in Armenian during the Soviet era included a Russian abstract, while those articles published in Russian had an Armenian abstract.
In recent years, following Armenia's independence in 1991, most articles have come to include English abstracts. The journal's archives have undergone digitalization and articles can now be accessed from its official website; the current editor is Vardkes Mikayelyan. Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri Bazmavep Haigazian Armenological Review Handes Amsorya Revue des Études Arméniennes