Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, flavored shisha tobacco, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.
However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.
Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1; this strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; this led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved
Natchez Trace Parkway
The Natchez Trace Parkway is a National Parkway in the southeastern United States that commemorates the historic Old Natchez Trace and preserves sections of the original trail. Its central feature is a two-lane parkway road that extends 444 miles from Natchez, Mississippi, to Nashville, Tennessee. Access to the parkway is limited, with more than fifty access points in the states of Mississippi and Tennessee; the southern end of the route is in Natchez at an intersection with Liberty Road, the northern end is northeast of Fairview, Tennessee, in the suburban community of Pasquo, Tennessee, at an intersection with Tennessee State Route 100. In addition to Natchez and Nashville, the larger cities along the route include Jackson and Tupelo and Florence, Alabama; the All-American Road is maintained by the National Park Service, to commemorate the original route of the Natchez Trace. The road has been designated an All-American Road. Commercial traffic is prohibited along the entire route, the speed limit is 50 miles per hour, except north of Leiper's Fork and Ridgeland, where the speed limit is reduced to 40 miles per hour.
The total area of the Parkway is 51,746.50 acres, of which 51,680.64 acres are federal, 65.86 acres are non-federal. The Parkway is headquartered in Tupelo and has nine district offices: Leipers Fork, Meriwether Lewis, Tupelo, Kosciusko, Port Gibson, Natchez; the Parkway manages two battlefields: Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site and Tupelo National Battlefield. The gentle sloping and curving alignment of the current route follows the original foot passage, its design harkens back to the way the original interweaving trails aligned as an ancient salt-lick-to-grazing-pasture migratory route of the American bison and other game that moved between grazing the pastures of central and western Mississippi and the salt and other mineral surface deposits of the Cumberland Plateau. The route traverses the tops of the low hills and ridges of the watershed divides from northeast to southwest. Native Americans, following the "traces" of bison and other game, further improved this "walking trail" for foot-borne commerce between major villages located in central Mississippi and middle Tennessee.
The route is locally circuitous. Avoided was the danger to a herd of being caught en-masse at the bottom of a hollow or valley if attacked by predators; the nature of the route, to this day, affords good all-around visibility for those. At all times the road is on the high ground of the ridge dividing the watersheds and provides a view to either see or catch the scent of danger, from a distance great enough to afford the time to flee to safety, if necessary. By the time of European exploration and settlement, the route had become well known and established as the fastest means of communication between the Cumberland Plateau, the Mississippi River, the Gulf of Mexico settlements of Pensacola and New Orleans. In the early post-American Revolutionary War period of America's westward expansion, the Trace was the return route for American flat-boat commerce between the territories of the upper and lower Ohio and Cumberland River valleys; the Americans constructed flat-boats, loaded their commerce therein, drifted upon those rivers, one-way south-southwestward to New Orleans, Louisiana.
They would sell their goods, return home via the Trace, to as far away as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Improved communications and the development of ports along the rivers named above made the route obsolete as a means of passenger and freight commerce; as a result, no major population centers were born or developed along the Trace, because of its alignment, between its termini Nashville and Natchez. The two cities of note, near or on the Trace's alignment, developed only as a result of their alignment along axes of communication different from the Trace, thus the Trace and its alignment are today entirely undeveloped and unspoiled along its whole route. Many sections of the original footpath are visible today for observing and hiking the Parkway's right-of-way. Construction of the Parkway was begun by the federal government in the 1930s; the development of the modern roadway was one of the many projects of the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression. The road was the proposal of U.
S. Congressman T. Jeff Busby of Mississippi, who proposed it as a way to give tribute to the original Natchez Trace. Inspired by the proposal, the Daughters of the American Revolution began planting markers and monuments along the Trace. In 1934, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration ordered a survey. President Roosevelt signed the legislation to create the parkway on May 18, 1938. Construction on the Parkway began in 1939, the route was to be overseen by the National Park Service, its length includes more than 45,000 acres and the towering Natchez Trace Parkway Bridge in Williamson County, completed in 1994 and one of only two post-tensioned, segmental concrete arch bridges in the world. The Emergency Appropriations Act of June 19, 1934, allocated initia
Franklin is a city in, the county seat of, Williamson County, United States. About 21 miles south of Nashville, it is one of the principal cities of the Nashville metropolitan area and Middle Tennessee; as of 2017, its estimated population was 78,321, it is the seventh-largest city in Tennessee. Williamson County was rural into the late 20th century, with an economy based on traditional commodity crops and livestock. In the 19th century, part of its economy depended on slavery, after the American Civil War racial violence, designed to suppress the black vote, claimed lives; the Ku Klux Klan is believed to have perpetrated the first lynching of a Jewish man in the United States in 1868, Franklin was the site of more lynchings of black men, including one in 1888 of a man, taken from the courtroom and hanged from the balcony of the courthouse. Since 1980, the northern part of the county has begun to be developed for residential and related businesses, in addition to modern service industries; the community of Franklin was founded October 26, 1799, by Abram Maury, Jr..
A state senator, he is buried with his family in Founders Pointe. Maury named the town after national founding father Benjamin Franklin. Ewen Cameron built the first by a European-American in the town of Franklin. Cameron was born February 23, 1768, in Bogallan, Scotland, he immigrated to Virginia in 1785 and traveled into Tennessee along with other migrants after the American Revolutionary War. Cameron died on February 1846, having lived 48 years in the same house, he and his second wife, were buried in the old City Cemetery. Some of his descendants continue to live in Franklin; this area is part of Middle Tennessee, white planters prospered in the antebellum years, with cultivation of tobacco and hemp as commodity crops, raising of livestock. Farmers depended on numerous slaves as workers. During the Civil War, Franklin was the site of a major battle in the Franklin–Nashville Campaign; the Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864, resulting in 10,000 casualties. 44 buildings were temporarily converted to use as field hospitals.
The Carter and the Lotz homes from this era are still standing and are among the city's numerous examples of historic architecture. After the war, the Franklin area saw considerable violence as whites attempted to dominate the majority-black population and assert white supremacy. In 1866 the Ku Klux Klan, a secret organization of insurgent white Confederate veterans, was founded in Pulaski, Tennessee. Soon it had chapters in many towns, including Franklin, as well as chapters in other states. After Tennessee authorized African Americans to vote in February 1867, well before the Fifteenth Amendment was passed, most freedmen and free people of color joined the Republican Party, which whites and Democrats struggled to suppress. On July 6, 1867, a political rally of Union League black Republicans in Franklin was disrupted by Conservatives, who were white but included some blacks; that evening, what became known as the "Franklin Riot" took place. Black Union League men returned fire. An estimated 25 to 39 men were wounded, most of them black.
One white man was killed outright, at least three black people died soon after. On August 15, 1868, in Franklin, Samuel Bierfield became the first Jewish man to be lynched in the United States, when he was shot by a large group of masked men believed to be KKK members. Bowman, a black man who worked for him and was with him at his store, was fatally wounded in the attack. After Reconstruction, white violence continued against African Americans. Five African Americans were lynched in Williamson County from 1877 to 1950, most during the decades around the turn of the century, a time of high social tensions and legal oppression in the South; some of these murders took place in Franklin after the men were taken from the courthouse or county jail before trial. For example, on August 10, 1888, Amos Miller, a 23-year-old African-American, was lynched before his trial, taken from the courtroom and hanged from the balcony of the Williamson County Courthouse. On April 30, 1891, Jim Taylor, another African-American man, was lynched on Murfreesboro Road in Franklin.
Population growth slowed noticeably from 1910 to 1940, as many African Americans left the area in the Great Migration to escape Jim Crow conditions and the decline in agricultural work. A suburb of Nashville, Franklin has benefited from regional growth in the economy since the late 20th century, its population has increased more than fivefold since 1980, when its population was 12,407. In 2010, it had a population of 62,487; as of 2017 Census estimates, it is the state's seventh-largest city. Many of its residents commute to businesses in Nashville; the regional economy has expanded, with considerable growth in businesses and jobs in Franklin and the county. The city began to grow after the historic preservation movement started, it has worked to identify and preserve historic assets. Five historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, as are many individual buildings. In the early morning of Christmas Eve of 1988, one person died. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.4 square miles, of which 41.2 square miles are land and 0.2 square miles, or 0.52%, are covered by water.
Since the late 20th century, the city has grown in population, attracting many businesses. As of the census of 2010, 62,487 people (Williamson County's population was 193
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
Cattle raiding is the act of stealing cattle. In Australia, such stealing is referred to as duffing, the perpetrator as a duffer. In North America in the Wild West cowboy culture, cattle theft is dubbed rustling, while an individual who engages in it is a rustler; the act of cattle-raiding is quite ancient, first attested over seven thousand years ago, is one the oldest-known aspects of Proto-Indo-European culture, being seen in inscriptions on artifacts such as the Norse Golden Horns of Gallehus and in works such as the Old Irish Táin Bó Cúailnge, the paṇis of the Rigveda, the Mahabharata cattle raids and cattle rescues. The theft of livestock are practiced in many pastoral cultures and are paired with myths of the abduction of women.. Cattle-raiding was a big problem for many centuries in the areas both sides of the border between England and Scotland. Under James VI and I, many of the clans were banished to County Fermanagh in Ireland. Most of those banished became members of the Church of Ireland, having been nominally Catholic, this led to a religious divide in County Fermanagh, different from other parts of Northern Ireland, where the Presbyterian Church is the main Protestant domination.
In the American frontier, rustling was considered a serious offense and in some cases resulted in vigilantes hanging or shooting the thieves, but the cattle raiding was considered in many States a capital offense. One cause of tensions between Mexico and the United States in the years leading up to the Mexican–American War was the frequent raiding of cattle by Native Americans from north of the border. Mexico's military and diplomatic capabilities had declined after it attained independence which left the northern half of the country vulnerable to the Apache and Navajo; these tribes the Comanche, took advantage of Mexico's weakness by undertaking large-scale raids hundreds of miles deep into the country to steal livestock for their own use and to supply an expanding market in Texas and the United States. These raids devastated northern Mexico; when American troops entered northern Mexico in 1846 they found a demoralized people and little resistance from the civilian population. Mexican rustlers were a major issue during the American Civil War.
American rustlers stole Mexican cattle from across the border. Failure to brand new calves facilitated theft. Conflict over alleged rustling was a major issue in the Johnson County War in the U. S. state of Wyoming. The transition from open range to fenced grazing reduced the practice of rustling in North America. In the 20th century, so called "suburban rustling" became more common, with rustlers anesthetizing cattle and taking them directly to auction; this takes place at night, posing problems for law enforcement, because on large ranches it can take several days for the loss of cattle to be noticed and reported. Convictions are rare to nonexistent; the Pokot and Samburu Nilotic populations in northwestern Kenya raid each other for cattle.. Violent cattle rustling has caused massive loss of lives such as the Monday 12 March 2001 raid among the Marakwet in Murkutwo Location,Elgeyo Marakwet County, suspected to have been caused by the Pokot. Cattle rustling is a major problem in rural areas of South Sudan.
In the state of Jonglei, cattle raids in August 2011 left around 600 people dead. Once again in January 2012, ethnic clashes related to cattle theft killed between 2,000 and 3,000 people and displaced as many as 34,500 in the area around Pibor. Cattle rustling is common in Nigeria. Cattle raiding became a major issue at the end of the 19th century in Argentina, where cattle stolen during malones were taken through Camino de los chilenos across the Andes to Chile, where they were exchanged for alcoholic beverages and firearms. Several indigenous groups and outlaws, such as the Boroano and Ranquel peoples, the Pincheira brothers, ravaged the southern frontier of Argentina in search of cattle. To prevent the cattle raiding, the Argentine government built a system of trenches called Zanja de Alsina in the 1870s. Most cattle raids ended after the military campaigns of the Conquest of the Desert in the 1870s, the following partition of Patagonia established by the Boundary Treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina.
The theft of sheep and cows along with tractors and irrigation equipment, is one of the most difficult problems confronted by farmers in Israel. About 400 cases are reported annually in the north of the country, in the south, farmers compare the situation to the Wild West, they suffer millions of shekels in annual losses. Most of the stolen livestock is taken to the West Bank slaughtered and smuggled back into Israel, where it is sold by butchers to unsuspecting customers. Beefsteak Raid Border Reivers Captain Starlight Horse theft Jack Sully Cattle raiding in Kenya Slave raiding Sudanese nomadic conflicts George Raine. "Cattle rustling on the rise in California". San Francisco Chronicle. "The Handbook of Texas Online". Texas State Historical Association. Webb, Walter Prescott; the Handbook of Texas. Texas State Historical Association. Robert Reinhold. "Cattle rustling making a comeback as tough times hit Texas". The New York Times. Tallent, Annie D.. The Black Hills, Or, The Last Hunting Ground of the Dakotahs.
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Tennessee's 5th congressional district
The 5th Congressional District of Tennessee is a congressional district in Middle Tennessee. It has been represented by Democrat Jim Cooper since January 2003; the district is located northwest of the state's geographical center. It is composed of Davidson and Dickson counties, as well as most of Cheatham County, it is the only Tennessee congressional district. The fifth district is nearly synonymous with Tennessee's capital city, Nashville, as the district has always been centered on Nashville throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries; the city is a center for the music, publishing and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities. It is home to the Grand Ole Opry and Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, earning it the nickname "Music City"; the district stretches west of Nashville, into Cheatham and Dickson counties, which are far less suburbanized than the communities to the south and east of Nashville. The 5th is a safe seat for the Democratic Party, due entirely to the influence of Democratic Nashville.
Some pockets of Republican influence exist in Belle Meade, portions of neighboring Cheatham County. However, they are no match for the overwhelming Democratic trend in most of Nashville. No Republican has represented Nashville in Congress since Horace Harrison in 1875. Following the 1950 census, Tennessee expanded to ten districts. Though it has since contracted back to nine districts, that marked the beginning of the continuous period where the 5th district was centered on Davidson County/Nashville. From 1941 to 1957, Nashville was represented by J. Percy Priest, the House majority whip in the 81st and 82nd Congresses. A dam in eastern Davidson County and the lake formed by the dam are both named in his memory. Priest died just before the Election of 1956, the Democrats turned to Carlton Loser. Loser won that election, to two more Congresses after that. Loser appeared to win another Democratic nomination in 1962, but his primary came under investigation for voter fraud, a court ordered a new election.
In this new election, Loser was defeated by former state senator Richard Fulton. Richard "Dick" Fulton represented the 5th from 1963 until 1977, when retired from Congress to become the second mayor of metropolitan Nashville. Following the 1970 census, while Fulton was representing the district, Tennessee contracted to eight congressional districts. During the 70s, the district encompassed Davidson and Robertson counties; this contraction of congressional districts forced the first time in thirty years where Davidson County was not the sole county in the district. Once Fulton was Nashville mayor, he was succeeded in Congress by former state senator Clifford Allen. Allen served for only a term and a half before he died in office due to complications from a heart attack he'd suffered a month earlier. In the election of 1978, the fifth district selected state senator Bill Boner, he served in Congress for ten years, succeeded Fulton as mayor of Nashville. Boner was succeeded in 1988 by Bob Clement, former president of Cumberland University and son of former governor Frank G. Clement.
Clement ended up serving seven terms as TN-District 5 Congressman, where he served Davidson and Robertson counties. He was one of the 81 Democratic congressmen who voted for the Iraq Resolution of 2002. Clement did not run for re-election in 2002, as he was running for the open US Senate seat left by retiring Fred Thompson, he won the Democratic nomination but was defeated in the general election by former governor Lamar Alexander. Clement was succeeded in Congress by Jim Cooper, like Clement, was the son of a former governor. Jim Cooper is considered a blue dog Democrat. According to On The Issues, he is deemed "moderate", but is to the left of the political center; as of summer 2016, he has served seven terms, is running for re-election. Source: Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 2, 2004 Source: TN Department of State Source: TN Department of State Source: Source: Source: Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present November 7, 2006 General Election Official Returns House of Representatives member information, via Clerk of the United States House of Representatives
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol