Jamesport is a city in Daviess County, United States. The population was 524 at the 2010 census. A post office called Jamesport has been in operation since 1857; the community's name honors two first settlers with the given name James, namely James Gillilan and James Allen. Jamesport has the largest Amish community in the state of Missouri. Jamesport is located at 39°58′29″N 93°48′8″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.56 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 524 people, 230 households, 145 families residing in the city; the population density was 935.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 308 housing units at an average density of 550.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.0% White, 0.2% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.6% of the population. There were 230 households of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.0% were non-families.
32.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 38.4 years. 27.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. As of the Census of 2000, there were 505 people, 211 households, 140 families residing in the city; the population density was 895.0 people per square mile. There were 258 housing units at an average density of 457.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.01% White, 0.59% Native American, 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.78% of the population. There were 211 households out of which 25.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 19.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,265, the median income for a family was $30,556. Males had a median income of $38,438 versus $28,167 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,447. About 22.2% of families and 27.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under age 18 and 40.2% of those age 65 or over. Public education from kindergarten through 12th grade is provided by the Tri-County R-VII School District. K-6 is located at Tri-County Elementary School, 7-12 is located at Tri-County High School. There are five private schools in the area; the Jamesport Mennonite School provides education for 1st through 8th grades.
The seven Amish schools in the area include Spring Hill, Country View, Hickory Hill, Meadow View, Oak Grove, Walnut Creek, Special Education School. There is a New Order Amish School, Faith View School. Of adults 25 years of age and older in Jamesport, 75.4% possess a high school diploma or higher, while 6.2% hold a bachelor's degree or higher as their highest educational attainment. Jamesport is served by a weekly newspaper, the Tri-County Weekly, in circulation since 1944. Phog Allen - University of Kansas coach called the "Father of Basketball Coaching" Martha Scott - Academy Award nominated actress www.jamesport.net www.jamesport-mo.com Jamesport Community Association Historic maps of Jamesport in the Sanborn Maps of Missouri Collection at the University of Missouri
William T. Anderson
William T. Anderson, known by the nickname "Bloody Bill" Anderson, was one of the deadliest and most notorious pro-Confederate guerrilla leaders in the American Civil War. Anderson led a band of volunteer partisan rangers that targeted Union loyalists and federal soldiers in the states of Missouri and Kansas. Raised by a family of Southerners in Kansas, Anderson began supporting himself by stealing and selling horses in 1862. After his father was killed by a Union loyalist judge, Anderson fled to Missouri. There he killed several Union soldiers. In early 1863 he joined Quantrill's Raiders, a group of pro-Confederate guerrillas which operated along the Kansas–Missouri border, he became a skilled bushwhacker, earning the trust of the group's leaders, William Quantrill and George M. Todd. Anderson's bushwhacking marked him as a dangerous man and led the Union to imprison his sisters; when there was a building collapse in the makeshift jail, one of them died in custody, another sister was permanently maimed, Anderson devoted himself to revenge.
He took a leading role in the Lawrence Massacre and participated in the Battle of Baxter Springs, both of which occurred in 1863. In late 1863, while Quantrill's Raiders spent the winter in Texas, animosity developed between Anderson and Quantrill. Anderson falsely, implicated Quantrill in a murder, leading to the latter's arrest by Confederate authorities. Anderson subsequently returned to Missouri as the leader of his own group of raiders and became the most feared guerrilla in the state and robbing dozens of Union soldiers and civilian sympathizers. Although Union supporters viewed him as incorrigibly evil, Confederate supporters in Missouri saw his actions as justified owing to their mistreatment by Union forces. In September 1864, Anderson led a raid on the town of Missouri. Unexpectedly, his men were able to capture a passenger train, the first time Confederate guerrillas had done so. In what became known as the Centralia Massacre, Anderson's bushwhackers executed 24 unarmed Union soldiers on the train and set an ambush that day that killed more than 100 Union militiamen.
Anderson himself was killed in battle a month later. Historians have made disparate appraisals of Anderson: some see him as a sadistic, psychopathic killer, but for others his actions cannot be separated from the general desperation and lawlessness of the time. William T. Anderson was born in 1840 in Kentucky, to William C. and Martha Anderson. His siblings were Jim, Mary Ellen and Janie, his schoolmates recalled him as a reserved child. During his childhood, Anderson's family moved to Huntsville, where his father found employment on a farm and the family became well-respected. In 1857, they relocated to the Kansas Territory, traveling southwest on the Santa Fe Trail and settling 13 miles east of Council Grove; the Anderson family supported slavery. Their move to Kansas was for economic rather than political reasons. Kansas was at the time embroiled in an ideological conflict regarding its admission to the Union as a slave or free state, both pro-slavery activists and abolitionists had moved there in attempts to influence its ultimate status.
Animosity and violence between the two sides developed in what was called Bleeding Kansas, but there was little unrest in the Council Grove area. After settling there, the Anderson family became friends with A. I. Baker, a local judge, a Confederate sympathizer. By 1860, the young William T. Anderson was a joint owner of a 320-acre property, worth $500. On June 28, 1860, William's mother, Martha Anderson, died after being struck by lightning. In the late 1850s, Ellis Anderson fled to Iowa after killing an Indian. Around the same time, William T. Anderson fatally shot a member of the Kaw tribe outside of Council Grove, he joined the freight shipping operation for which his father worked and was given a position known as "second boss" for a wagon trip to New Mexico. The trip was not successful and he returned to Missouri without the shipment, stating that his horses had disappeared with the cargo. After he returned to Council Grove he began horse trading, taking horses from towns in Kansas, transporting them to Missouri and returning with more horses.
After the Civil War began in 1861, the demand for horses increased and Anderson transitioned from trading horses to stealing them, reselling them as far away as New Mexico. He worked with his brother Jim, their friend Lee Griffith and several accomplices strung along the Santa Fe Trail. In late 1861, Anderson traveled south with brother Jim and Judge Baker in an apparent attempt to join the Confederate Army. Anderson had stated to a neighbor that he sought to fight for financial reasons rather than out of loyalty to the Confederacy. However, the group was attacked by the Union's 6th Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry in Vernon County, Missouri; the Anderson brothers escaped, but Baker was captured and spent four months in prison before returning to Kansas, professing loyalty to the Union. One way that he sought to prove that loyalty was by severing his ties with Anderson's sister Mary, his former lover. Upon his return to Kansas, Anderson continued horse trafficking, but ranchers in the area soon became aware of his operations.
In May 1862, Judge Baker issued an arrest warrant for Griffith. Some local citizens suspected that the Anderson family was assisting Griffith and traveled to their house to confront the elder William Anderson. After hearing their accusations a
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
The Amish are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins. They are related to, but distinct from, Mennonite churches; the Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology. The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann; those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. In the second half of the 19th century, the Amish divided into Amish Mennonites; the latter drive cars as does the main society during the 20th century, whereas the Old Order Amish retained much of their traditional culture. When it is spoken of Amish today only the Old Order Amish are meant. In the early 18th century many Amish, Mennonites, immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Today the Old Order Amish, the New Order Amish, the Old Beachy Amish continue to speak Pennsylvania German known as "Pennsylvania Dutch", although two different Alemannic dialects are used by Old Order Amish in Adams and Allen counties in Indiana.
As of 2000, over 165,000 Old Order Amish lived in the United States and about 1,500 lived in Canada. A 2008 study suggested their numbers had increased to 227,000, in 2010, a study suggested their population had grown by 10 percent in the past two years to 249,000, with increasing movement to the West. Most of the Amish continue to have six or seven children, while benefitting from the major decrease in infant and maternal mortality in the 20th century. Between 1992 and 2017, the Amish population increased by 149 percent, while the U. S. population increased by 23 percent. Amish church membership begins with baptism between the ages of 16 and 23, it is a requirement for marriage within the Amish church. Once a person is baptized within the church, he or she may marry only within the faith. Church districts average between 20 and 40 families and worship services are held every other Sunday in a member's home; the district is led by several ministers and deacons. The rules of the church, the Ordnung, must be observed by every member and cover many aspects of day-to-day living, including prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing.
Most Amish do not participate in Social Security. As present-day Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service; the Amish value rural life, manual labor, humility, all under the auspices of living what they interpret to be God's word. Members who do not conform to these community expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. 90 percent of Amish teenagers choose to be baptized and join the church. During an adolescent period of rumspringa in some communities, nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism, may be met with a degree of forbearance. Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish world, i.e. American and Canadian society. Non-Amish people are referred to as'English'.
A heavy emphasis is placed on church and family relationships. They operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education after grade eight, at age 13/14; until the children turn 16, they have vocational training under the tutelage of their parents and the school teacher. Higher education is discouraged, as it can lead to social segregation and the unraveling of the community. However, some Amish women have used higher education to obtain a nursing certificate so that they may provide midwifery services to the community; the Anabaptist movement, from which the Amish emerged, started in circles around Huldrych Zwingli who led the early Reformation in Switzerland. In Zurich on January 21, 1525, Conrad Grebel and George Blaurock practiced adult baptism to each other and to others; this Swiss movement, part of the Radical Reformation became known as Swiss Brethren. The term Amish was first used as a Schandename in 1710 by opponents of Jakob Amman; the first informal division between Swiss Brethren was recorded in the 17th century between Oberländers and Emmentaler.
The Oberländers were a more extreme congregation. Swiss Anabaptism developed, from this point, in two parallel streams, most marked by disagreement over the preferred treatment of "fallen" believers; the Emmentalers argued that fallen believers should only be withheld from communion, not regular meals. The Amish argued that those, banned should be avoided in common meals; the Reistian side formed the basis of the Swiss Mennonite Conference. Because of this common heritage and Mennonites from southern Germany and Switzerland retain many similarities; those who leave the Amish fold tend to join various congregations of Conservative Mennonites. Amish began migrating to Pennsylvania known for its religious toleration, in the 18th century as part of a larger migration from the Palatinate and neighboring areas; this migration was a reaction to religious wars and religious persecution in Europe. The firs
Lilburn Williams Boggs was the sixth Governor of Missouri from 1836 to 1840. He is now most remembered for his interactions with Joseph Smith and Porter Rockwell, Missouri Executive Order 44, known by Mormons as the "Extermination Order", issued in response to the ongoing conflict between members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and other settlers of Missouri. Boggs was a key player in the Honey War of 1837. Lilburn W. Boggs was born in Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky on December 14, 1796, to John McKinley Boggs and Martha Oliver. Boggs served for 18 months with the Kentucky troops during the War of 1812, he moved in 1816 from Lexington, Kentucky to Missouri, part of the Louisiana Territory. In Greenup County, Kentucky, in 1817, Boggs married his first wife Julia Ann Bent, a sister of the Bent brothers of Bent's Fort fame, daughter of Silas Bent a judge in the Missouri Supreme Court, she died on September 1820 in St Louis, Missouri. They had two children and Henry. In 1823, Boggs married Panthea Grant Boone, a granddaughter of Daniel Boone, in Callaway County, Missouri.
They spent most of the following twenty-three years in Jackson County, where all but two of their many children were born. Boggs started out as a clerk entered politics, he served as a Missouri state senator in 1825 to 1832. He was a Democrat. While governor of Missouri, Boggs issued Missouri Executive Order 44, a document known in Latter-day Saint history as the "Extermination Order." A response to the escalating threats and violence in what came to be known as the Missouri 1838 Mormon War, this executive order was issued on October 27, 1838 and called for Latter Day Saints to be driven from the state, by dint of what he termed their...open and avowed defiance of the laws, of having made war upon the people of this State... the Mormons must be treated as enemies, must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace—their outrages are beyond all description. The order was rescinded on June 25, 1976, after nearly 138 years, by Missouri Governor Christopher Bond, who declared that the original order violated legal rights established by the U.
S. Constitution. In rescinding the order, Bond offered his regrets on behalf of the state. Boggs, from Independence, moved to a house within the City of Zion plot in Independence after the Mormons were evicted from Missouri and after he left office, his home was three blocks east of Temple Lot. On the rainy evening of May 6, 1842, Boggs was shot by an unknown party who fired at him through a window as he read a newspaper in his study. Boggs was hit by large buckshot in four places: two balls were lodged in his skull, another lodged in his neck, a fourth entered his throat, whereupon Boggs swallowed it. Boggs was injured. Several doctors—Boggs' brother among them—pronounced Boggs as good as dead. To everyone's great surprise, Boggs not only survived, but improved; the crime was investigated by Sheriff J. H. Reynolds, who discovered a revolver at the scene, still loaded with buckshot, he surmised that the suspect had fired upon Boggs and lost his firearm in the dark rainy night when the weapon recoiled due to its unusually large shot.
The gun had been stolen from a local shopkeeper, who identified "that hired man of Ward's" as the "most culprit". Reynolds acting on the testimony of the storekeeper, determined that the man in question was Orrin Porter Rockwell, a close associate of Joseph Smith. Reynolds caught Orrin Porter Rockwell and held him for a year while he awaited trial. Reynolds could not produce any evidence that Rockwell was involved in any way and he was acquitted of all charges concerning Boggs, after prominent lawyer Alexander Doniphan agreed to defend him. A few people saw the assassination attempt positively: an anonymous contributor to The Wasp, a pro-Mormon newspaper in Nauvoo, Illinois, not supported by the LDS Church, wrote on May 28 that "Boggs is undoubtedly killed according to report. Rockwell denied involvement in oblique terms, stating that he had "done nothing criminal". At about this time, John C. Bennett reported that Smith had offered a cash reward to anyone who would assassinate Boggs, that Smith had admitted to him that Rockwell had done the deed.
He went on to say that Rockwell had made a veiled threat against Bennett's life if he publicized the story. Joseph Smith vehemently denied Bennett's account, speculating that Boggs — no longer governor, but campaigning for state senate — was attacked by an election opponent. Mormon writer Monte B. McLaws, in the Missouri Historical Review, supported Smith, averring that while there was no clear finger pointing to anyone, Governor Boggs was running for election against several violent men, all capable of the deed, that there was no particular reason to suspect Rockwell of the crime; this opinion was not shared by Harold Schindler. Whatever the case, the following year Rockwell was arrested and acquitted of the attempted murder, although most of Boggs' contemporaries remained convinced of his guilt. Boggs traveled overland to California in 1846 and is mentioned among the notable emigrants of that year, his traveling companions believed that his move was rooted in his fear of the Mormons. When the train set out in early May, he campaigned to be elected its captain, but lost to William H. Russell.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel