Lake Mohave is a reservoir on the Colorado River between the Hoover Dam and Davis Dam in Cottonwood Valley defining the border between Nevada and Arizona in the United States. This 67 mile stretch of the Colorado River flows past Boulder City, Searchlight, Cottonwood Cove, Cal-Nev-Ari, Laughlin to the west in Nevada and Willow Beach and Bullhead City to the east in Arizona. A maximum width of 4 miles wide and an elevation of 647 feet, Lake Mohave encompasses 28,260 acres of water; as Lake Mead lies to the north of the Hoover Dam, Lake Mohave and adjacent lands forming its shoreline are part of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area administered by the U. S. National Park Service. There are three resorts on Lake Mohave: Katherine Landing and Willow Beach in Arizona and Cottonwood Cove in Nevada. Katherine Landing and Cottonwood Cove resorts offer lodging, RV parks with utility hook-ups, campgrounds, a restaurant a store, marinas with gas docks. Popular recreational activities in Lake Mohave are swimming, fishing and skiing.
There are kayaking, scuba diving, fishing supplies in Bullhead City, which borders the southernmost point of Lake Mohave. Lake Mohave offers year-round recreational opportunities, its clear water caters to boaters and fishermen while its desert rewards hikers, wildlife photographers, roadside sightseers. It is home to thousands of desert plants and animals, adapted to survive in an extreme place where rain is scarce and temperatures soar. Lake Mead National Recreation Area, which encompasses Lake Mead, Lake Mohave and a portion of the Colorado River, offers good diving opportunities for both novice and advanced divers. At Lake Mohave, divers can explore Black Canyon. Advanced divers can check out Ringbolt Rapids. Work Barge on the Arizona side has a 38-foot tow barge that sank in 1946. Cabinsite Point has two boat wrecks to view. PWCs allowed to be operated within Lake Mead National Recreation Area, which encompasses Lake Mead and Lake Mohave, include any four-stroke, two-strokes meeting EPA 2006 emission standards.
As of December 31, 2012 many two-stroke personal watercraft are no longer allowed to operate within Lake Mead National Recreation Area. These include any PWC with a carbureted two-stroke engine. Enforcement began January 1, 2013 as part of a ten-year phase-in, based on the final rule to prohibit these PWCs being approved in April 2003; the volcanic origin of Black Canyon and Cottonwood Valley has resulted in a number of hot springs along the northern portion of Lake Mohave. Gold Strike Hot Springs is located close to the shore, accessible from a trailhead 1.2 miles south of the Hoover Dam. These springs are available from the Gold Strike Hot Springs Trail Head two miles east of the Hoover Dam in Boulder City, Nevada. Due to the easy two mile hike from public parking and consistent pools, these springs are visited. Two Mile Hot Springs and Arizona Hot Springs are within a few miles of this same area and offer a more private experience. Razorback sucker Bonytail chub Rainbow trout Largemouth bass Smallmouth bass Striped bass Crappie Sunfish Channel catfish Common carp Threadfin shad The non-native sport fishery in Lake Mohave is enhanced by a Nevada Division of Wildlife program which places artificial habitat bundles in coves around the reservoir.
The habitats are composed of bundled salt cedar trees attached to wooden pallets. When placed in the water, the structures create cover for sport fish. Additionally, Lake Mohave contains one of the largest and most genetically diverse population of razorback sucker remaining in the wild; each spring, a multi-agency group of fish biologists use underwater lights to collect 30,000 razorback sucker larvae along the shore of Lake Mohave, which would otherwise be eaten by introduced fishes. Larvae are transported by boat to Willow Beach National Fish Hatchery where they grow in protected raceways for up to three years; when individuals have reached 14 inches in length, they are released back into Lake Mohave in order to avoid predation by larger, introduced game fish such as striped bass. Katherine's Landing, Lake Mohave Cottonwood Basin National Park Service, Lake Mead National Recreation Area Daily data of level and flow from US Department of the Interior | Bureau of Reclamation | Lower Colorado Region Arizona Boating Locations Facilities Map Arizona Fishing Locations Map Cultural History of Lake Mohave
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. There are many different types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, about 745.7 watts, the metric horsepower, 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses, it was expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit; the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. In 1702, Thomas Savery wrote in The Miner's Friend: So that an engine which will raise as much water as two horses, working together at one time in such a work, can do, for which there must be kept ten or twelve horses for doing the same.
I say, such an engine may be made large enough to do the work required in employing eight, fifteen, or twenty horses to be maintained and kept for doing such a work… The idea was used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines; this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined; the wheel was 12 feet in radius. Watt judged. So: P = W t = F d t = 180 l b f × 2.4 × 2 π × 12 f t 1 m i n = 32, 572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft⋅lbf/min, rounded to an 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min. Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony and thus arrived at the 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min figure. Engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute.
John Desaguliers had suggested 44,000 foot-pounds per minute and Tredgold 27,500 foot-pounds per minute. "Watt found by experiment in 1782 that a'brewery horse' could produce 32,400 foot-pounds per minute." James Watt and Matthew Boulton standardized that figure at 33,000 foot-pounds per minute the next year. A common legend states that the unit was created when one of Watt's first customers, a brewer demanded an engine that would match a horse, chose the strongest horse he had and driving it to the limit. Watt, while aware of the trick, accepted the challenge and built a machine, even stronger than the figure achieved by the brewer, it was the output of that machine which became the horsepower. In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published correspondence in Nature summarizing measurements and calculations of peak and sustained work rates of a horse. Citing measurements made at the 1926 Iowa State Fair, they reported that the peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp and observed that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both the 19th and 20th centuries and consistent with a work rate of about 4 times the basal rate expended by other vertebrates for sustained activity.
When considering human-powered equipment, a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely. The Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt produced a maximum of 3.5 hp 0.89 seconds into his 9.58 second 100-metre dash world record in 2009. When torque T is in pound-foot units, rotational speed is in rpm and power is required in horsepower: P / hp = T / × N / rpm 5252 The constant 5252 is the rounded value of /; when torque T is in inch pounds: P
A water turbine is a rotary machine that converts kinetic energy and potential energy of water into mechanical work. Water turbines were developed in the 19th century and were used for industrial power prior to electrical grids. Now they are used for electric power generation. Water turbines are found in dams to generate electric power from water kinetic energy. Water wheels have been used for hundreds of years for industrial power, their main shortcoming is size, which limits the flow head that can be harnessed. The migration from water wheels to modern turbines took about one hundred years. Development occurred during the Industrial revolution, using scientific methods, they made extensive use of new materials and manufacturing methods developed at the time. The word turbine was introduced by the French engineer Claude Burdin in the early 19th century and is derived from the Greek word "τύρβη" for "whirling" or a "vortex"; the main difference between early water turbines and water wheels is a swirl component of the water which passes energy to a spinning rotor.
This additional component of motion allowed the turbine to be smaller than a water wheel of the same power. They could harness much greater heads; the earliest known water turbines date to the Roman Empire. Two helix-turbine mill sites of identical design were found at Chemtou and Testour, modern-day Tunisia, dating to the late 3rd or early 4th century AD; the horizontal water wheel with angled blades was installed at the bottom of a water-filled, circular shaft. The water from the mill-race entered the pit tangentially, creating a swirling water column which made the submerged wheel act like a true turbine. Fausto Veranzio in his book Machinae Novae described a vertical axis mill with a rotor similar to that of a Francis turbine. Johann Segner developed a reactive water turbine in the mid-18th century in Kingdom of Hungary, it was a precursor to modern water turbines. It is a simple machine, still produced today for use in small hydro sites. Segner worked with Euler on some of the early mathematical theories of turbine design.
In the 18th century, a Dr. Robert Barker invented a similar reaction hydraulic turbine that became popular as a lecture-hall demonstration; the only known surviving example of this type of engine used in power production, dating from 1851, is found at Hacienda Buena Vista in Ponce, Puerto Rico. In 1820, Jean-Victor Poncelet developed an inward-flow turbine. In 1826, Benoît Fourneyron developed an outward-flow turbine; this was an efficient machine. The stationary outlet had curved guides. In 1844, Uriah A. Boyden developed an outward flow turbine that improved on the performance of the Fourneyron turbine, its runner shape was similar to that of a Francis turbine. In 1849, James B. Francis improved the inward flow reaction turbine to over 90% efficiency, he conducted sophisticated tests and developed engineering methods for water turbine design. The Francis turbine, named for him, is the first modern water turbine, it is still the most used water turbine in the world today. The Francis turbine is called a radial flow turbine, since water flows from the outer circumference towards the centre of runner.
Inward flow water turbines have a better mechanical arrangement and all modern reaction water turbines are of this design. As the water swirls inward, it accelerates, transfers energy to the runner. Water pressure decreases to atmospheric, or in some cases subatmospheric, as the water passes through the turbine blades and loses energy. Around 1890, the modern fluid bearing was invented, now universally used to support heavy water turbine spindles; as of 2002, fluid bearings appear to have a mean time between failures of more than 1300 years. Around 1913, Viktor Kaplan created a propeller-type machine, it was an evolution of the Francis turbine but revolutionized the ability to develop low-head hydro sites. All common water machines until the late 19th century were reaction machines. A reaction turbine needs to contain the water during energy transfer. In 1866, California millwright Samuel Knight invented a machine that took the impulse system to a new level. Inspired by the high pressure jet systems used in hydraulic mining in the gold fields, Knight developed a bucketed wheel which captured the energy of a free jet, which had converted a high head of water to kinetic energy.
This is called tangential turbine. The water's velocity twice the velocity of the bucket periphery, does a U-turn in the bucket and drops out of the runner at low velocity. In 1879, Lester Pelton, experimenting with a Knight Wheel, developed a Pelton wheel, which exhausted the water to the side, eliminating some energy loss of the Knight wheel which exhausted some water back against the center of the wheel. In about 1895, William Doble improved on Pelton's half-cylindrical bucket form with an elliptical bucket that included a cut in it to allow the jet a cleaner bucket entry; this is the modern form of the Pelton turbine. Pelton had been quite an effective promoter of his design and although Doble took over the Pelton company he did not change the name to Doble because it had brand name recognition. Turgo and cross-flow turbines were impulse designs. Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the
Mohave County, Arizona
Mohave County is in the northwestern corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 200,186; the county seat is Kingman, the largest city is Lake Havasu City. Mohave County includes the Lake Havasu City-Kingman, Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Las Vegas-Henderson, Nevada-Arizona Combined Statistical Area. Mohave County contains parts of Grand Canyon National Park and Lake Mead National Recreation Area and all of the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument; the Kaibab, Fort Mojave and Hualapai Indian Reservations lie within the county. Mohave County was the one of four original Arizona Counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature; the county territory was defined as being west of longitude 113° 20' and north of the Bill Williams River. Pah-Ute County was created from it in 1865 and was merged back into Mohave County in 1871 when much of its territory was ceded to Nevada in 1866; the county's present boundaries were established in 1881.
The county is notable for being home to a large polygamous Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints sect located in Colorado City. Mohave County has had five county seats: Mohave City, Cerbat, Mineral Park, Kingman. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 13,461 square miles, of which 13,311 square miles is land and 150 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county by area in Arizona and the fifth-largest in the contiguous United States. The county consists of two sections divided by the Grand Canyon, with no direct land communication between them; the northern section and less populated, forms the western part of the Arizona Strip, bordering Utah and Nevada. The larger southern section borders Nevada and California across the Colorado River, which forms most of the county's western boundary; the southern section includes Kingman, the county seat, other cities, as well as part of the Mojave Desert. Washington County, Utah - north Kane County, Utah - northeast Coconino County - east Yavapai County - east La Paz County - south San Bernardino County, California - southwest Clark County, Nevada - west Lincoln County, Nevada - northwestMohave County and its adjacent counties form the largest such block of counties outside of Alaska.
Their combined land area is larger than that of the state of Idaho. They include the #1, #2, #5, #7 largest counties outside of Alaska. Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Kaibab National Forest Lake Mead National Recreation Area Pipe Spring National MonumentThere are 18 official wilderness areas in Mohave County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Most of these are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral parts of the preceding protected areas, or have shared jurisdiction with the BLM; some extend into neighboring counties All wilderness areas within Grand Canyon-Parashant NM are managed by BLM, although the National Monument shares management with the National Park Service: Arrastra Mountain Wilderness in Yavapai County, AZ and La Paz County, AZ Aubrey Peak Wilderness Beaver Dam Mountains Wilderness in Washington County, UT Cottonwood Point Wilderness Grand Wash Cliffs Wilderness managed by BLM Havasu Wilderness in San Bernardino County, CA Kanab Creek Wilderness in Coconino County, AZ Mount Logan Wilderness managed by BLM Mount Nutt Wilderness Mount Tipton Wilderness Mount Trumbull Wilderness managed by BLM Mount Wilson Wilderness Paiute Wilderness managed by BLM Rawhide Mountains Wilderness in La Paz County, AZ Swansea Wilderness in La Paz County, AZ Upper Burro Creek Wilderness in Yavapai County, AZ Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Warm Springs Wilderness As of the 2000 census, there were 155,032 people, 62,809 households, 43,401 families residing in the county.
The population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 80,062 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.06% White, 0.54% Black or African American, 2.41% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 4.00% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. 11.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 62,809 households out of which 25.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 24.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.87. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.10% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 20.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years.
For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,521, the median income for a family was $36,311. Males had a median income of $28,505 versus $20,632 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,788. About 9.80% of families and 13.90% o