The southern and western boundaries are delimited by the continental shelf, which drops away sharply. The Isles of Scilly are an archipelago of islands in the sea. The Celtic Sea takes its name from the Celtic heritage of the lands to the north. The name was first proposed by E. W. L, Holt at a 1921 meeting in Dublin of fisheries experts from England, Ireland and France. The northern portion of this sea had previously considered as part of Saint Georges Channel. The need for a name came to be felt because of the common marine biology and hydrology. It was adopted in France before being common in the English-speaking countries, in 1957 Édouard Le Danois wrote and it was adopted by marine biologists and oceanographers, and by petroleum exploration firms. There are no features to divide the Celtic Sea from the open Atlantic Ocean to the south. For these limits, Holt suggested the 200 fathom marine contour, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Celtic Sea as follows, On the North.
The Southern limit of the Irish Sea, the South coast of Ireland, a line from the position 51°0′N 11°30′W South to 49°N, thence to latitude 46°30N on the Western limit of the Bay of Biscay, thence along that line to Penmarch Point. The Western limit of the English Channel and the Western limit of the Bristol Channel, the seabed under the Celtic Sea is called the Celtic Shelf, part of the continental shelf of Europe. The northeast portion has a depth of between 90m and 100m, increasing towards Saint Georges Channel, in the opposite direction, sand ridges pointing southwest have a similar height, separated by troughs approximately 50m deeper. These ridges were formed by tidal effects when the sea level was lower, South of 50° the topography is more irregular. Oil and gas exploration in the Celtic Sea has had limited commercial success, the Kinsale Head gas field supplied much of the Republic of Ireland in the 1980s and 1990s. The Celtic Sea has a rich fishery with total annual catches of 1.8 million tonnes as of 2007, four cetacean species occur frequently in the area, minke whale, bottlenose dolphin, short-beaked common dolphin and harbor porpoise.
Formerly it held an abundance of marine mammals, Irish Conservation Box Coccoliths in the Celtic Sea, a bloom of phytoplankton in the Celtic Sea, visible from outer space in an MISR image,4 June 2001
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land. More broadly, the sea is the system of Earths salty. The sea moderates Earths climate and has important roles in the cycle, carbon cycle. Although the sea has been traveled and explored since prehistory, the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly to the British Challenger expedition of the 1870s. Owing to the present state of continental drift, the Northern Hemisphere is now equally divided between land and sea but the South is overwhelmingly oceanic. Salinity in the ocean is generally in a narrow band around 3. 5% by mass, although this can vary in more landlocked waters, near the mouths of large rivers. About 85% of the solids in the sea are sodium chloride. Deep-sea currents are produced by differences in salinity and temperature, surface currents are formed by the friction of waves produced by the wind and by tides, the changes in local sea level produced by the gravity of the Moon and Sun.
The direction of all of these is governed by surface and submarine land masses, former changes in sea levels have left continental shelves, shallow areas in the sea close to land. The most diverse areas surround great tropical coral reefs, whaling in the deep sea was once common but whales dwindling numbers prompted international conservation efforts and finally a moratorium on most commercial hunting. Life may have started there and aquatic microbial mats are generally credited with the oxygenation of Earths atmosphere, the sea is an essential aspect of human trade, mineral extraction, and power generation. It is the scene of activities including swimming, surfing. However, population growth, industrialization, and intensive farming have all contributed to marine pollution. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is being absorbed in increasing amounts, lowering its pH in a known as ocean acidification. The shared nature of the sea has made overfishing an increasing problem, both senses of sea date to Old English, the larger sense has required a definite article since Early Middle English.
Seas are generally larger than lakes and contain salt water, while the defining elements of size and being bounded are generally used, there is no formally accepted technical definition of sea among oceanographers. In international law, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that all the ocean is the sea. Earth is the known planet with seas of liquid water on its surface, although Mars possesses ice caps
The White Sea is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia. It is surrounded by Karelia to the west, the Kola Peninsula to the north, the whole of the White Sea is under Russian sovereignty and considered to be part of the internal waters of Russia. Administratively, it is divided between Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Oblasts and the Republic of Karelia, the major port of Arkhangelsk is located on the White Sea. For much of Russias history this was Russias main centre of maritime trade. In the modern era it became an important Soviet naval and submarine base, the White Sea-Baltic Canal connects the White Sea with the Baltic Sea. The White Sea is one of four seas named in English after common colour terms — the others being the Black Sea, the Red Sea, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of the White Sea as A line joining Svyatoi Nos and Cape Kanin. There are four main bays or gulfs on the White Sea and these bays connect with the funnel-shaped opening to the Barents Sea via a narrow strait called gorlo.
Kandalaksha Gulf lies in the part of the White Sea, it is the deepest part of the sea. On the south, Onega Bay receives the Onega River, to the southeast, the Dvina Bay receives the Northern Dvina River at the major port of Arkhangelsk. On the east side of the gorlo, opposite the Kola peninsula, is Mezen Bay and it receives the Mezen River and the Kuloy River. Other major rivers flowing into the sea are the Vyg, Umba and Ponoy. The seabed of the part and Dvina Bay is covered in silt and sand, whereas the bottom of the northern part. Ice age deposits often emerge near the sea shores, northwestern coasts are tall and rocky but the slope is much weaker at the southeastern side. The White Sea contains a number of islands, but most of them are small. The main island group is the Solovetsky Islands, located almost in the middle of the sea, kiy Island in Onega Bay is significant due to a historic monastery. Velikiy Island, located close to the shore, is the largest island in the Kandalaksha Gulf, the White Sea is a water-filled depression in the block of a continental shelf known as the Baltic Shield.
Its bottom is very uneven and contains the Kandalaksha Hollow in the northwest, the Onega Bay has many small underwater elevations. The opening and the gorlo of the sea are rather shallow, in addition, there is an underwater ridge in the northern part of the gorlo, resulting in maximum depths of 40 metres in that part
Bay of Biscay
The Bay of Biscay /ˈbɪskeɪ, -ki/ is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It lies along the western coast of France from Point Penmarch to the Spanish border, the average depth is 1,744 metres and the greatest depth is 4,735 metres. The Bay of Biscay is named after Biscay on the northern Spanish coast, the Bay of Biscay is home to some of the Atlantic Oceans fiercest weather. Large storms occur in the bay, especially during the winter months, up until recent years it was a regular occurrence for merchant vessels to founder in Biscay storms. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Biscay as a line joining Cap Ortegal to Penmarch Point, the southernmost portion is the Cantabrian Sea. The phenomenon of June Gloom is common, in late spring and early summer a large fog triangle fills the southwestern half of the bay, covering just a few kilometres inland. As winter begins, weather becomes severe and these depressions cause severe weather at sea and bring light though very constant rain to its shores.
The Gulf Stream enters the bay following the continental shelfs border anti-clockwise, the main cities on the shores of the Bay of Biscay are Bordeaux, Biarritz, Nantes, La Rochelle, Donostia-San Sebastián, Santander, Gijón and Avilés. The southern end of the gulf is called in Spanish Mar Cantábrico, from the Estaca de Bares, as far as the mouth of Adour river. It was named by Romans in the 1st century BC as Sinus Cantabrorum and also, on some medieval maps, the Bay of Biscay is marked as El Mar del los Vascos. The Bay of Biscay has been the site of famous naval engagements over the centuries. In 1592 the Spanish defeated an English fleet during the eponymous Battle of the Bay of Biscay, the USS Californian sank here after striking a naval mine on June 22,1918. On December 28,1943, the Battle of the Bay of Biscay was fought between HMS Glasgow and HMS Enterprise and a group of German destroyers as part of Operation Stonewall during World War II. U-667 sank on 25 August 1944 in position 46°00′N 01°30′W, when she struck a mine, often specialist groups take the ferries to hear more information.
Volunteers and employees of Biscay Dolphin Research regularly observe and monitor cetacean activity from the bridge of the ships on the P&O Ferries Portsmouth to Bilbao route, many species of whales and dolphins can be seen in this area. Most importantly, it is one of the few places where the beaked whales and this is the best study area in the world for beaked whales. Other records in the late 20th century include one off Galicia at 43°00′N 10°30′W in September 1977 reported by a whaling company and another one seen off the Iberian Peninsula. The best areas to see the larger cetaceans lie in the deep waters beyond the shelf, particularly over the Santander Canyon
National Geographic Society
The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D. C. United States, is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world and its interests include geography and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, and the study of world culture and history. In partnership with 21st Century Fox, the Society operates the magazine, TV channels, a website that features extra content and worldwide events, the National Geographic Society was founded in 1888 to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge. The Society believes in the power of science and storytelling to change the world, National Geographic is governed by a board of trustees, whose 21 members include distinguished educators, business executives, former government officials and conservationists. The organization sponsors and funds research and exploration. National Geographic maintains a museum for the public in its Washington and its Education Foundation gives grants to education organizations and individuals to improve geography education.
Its Committee for Research and Exploration has awarded more than 11,000 grants for scientific research, National Geographic has retail stores in Washington, D. C. The locations outside of the United States are operated by Worldwide Retail Store S. L and it publishes other magazines, school products and Web and film products in numerous languages and countries. National Geographics various media properties reach more than 280 million people monthly, the National Geographic Society began as a club for an elite group of academics and wealthy patrons interested in travel. After preparing a constitution and a plan of organization, the National Geographic Society was incorporated two weeks on January 27, Gardiner Greene Hubbard became its first president and his son-in-law, Alexander Graham Bell, succeeded him in 1897. Bell and Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor devised the successful marketing notion of Society membership, the current National Geographic Society president and CEO is Gary E. Knell. The chairman of the board of trustees is John Fahey, the editor-in-chief of National Geographic magazine is Susan Goldberg.
Gilbert Melville Grosvenor, a chairman of the Society board of trustees received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2005 for his leadership in geography education. In 2004, the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington, D. C. was one of the first buildings to receive a Green certification from Global Green USA. The National Geographic received the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and Humanities in October 2006 in Oviedo, in 2013 the society was investigated for possible violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act relating to their close association with an Egyptian government official responsible for antiquities. This new, for-profit corporation, will own National Geographic and other magazines, as reported by The Guardian, a spokesman for National Geographic in a November 2,2015 e-mail statement, briefly discussed the rationale for the staff reductions as part of the. Process of reorganizing in order to move forward following the closing the National Geographic Partners deal.
Additional specifics were provided to Photo District News by M. J. Jacobsen, National Geographic’s SVP of communications, similar to the contents of a formal announcement by the two companies
Bay of Fundy
Some sources believe the name Fundy is a corruption of the French word Fendu, meaning split, while others believe it comes from the Portuguese funda, meaning deep. The Bay of Fundy is known for having the highest tidal range in the world. Rivaled by Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, King Sound in Western Australia, Gulf of Khambhat in India, and the Severn Estuary in the UK, it has one of the highest vertical tidal ranges in the world. Burntcoat Head in the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, has the greatest mean spring range with 14.5 metres and a range of 16.3 metres. ”Portions of the Bay of Fundy, Shepody Bay and Minas Basin, form one of six Canadian sites in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. In July 2009, the Bay of Fundy was named as a finalist for the New 7 Wonders of Nature contest that ended in November 2011 and it was not chosen as a wonder. The Bay of Fundy is known for its tidal range. The highest water level recorded in the Bay of Fundy system occurred at the head of the Minas Basin on the night of October 4–5,1869 during a tropical cyclone named the “Saxby Gale”.
The water level of 21.6 meters resulted from the combination of winds, abnormally low atmospheric pressure. Leaf Basin has only been measured in recent years, whereas the Fundy system has measured for many decades. Traditional Mikmaq folklore states that the tides in the Bay of Fundy are caused by a giant whale splashing in the water, during the 12. 4-hour tidal period,115 billion tonnes of water flow in and out of the bay. The tides in the Bay of Fundy are semidiurnal, which means that they have two highs and two each day. The height that the water rises and falls to each day during these tides are approximately equal, there are approximately six hours and thirteen minutes between each high and low tide. Alternative forms of energy are being explored in depth in a number of unique areas, tidal energy harnesses the movement of ocean water to generate electricity through a number of mechanisms. Currently a process of gathering tidal energy called In-stream turbine technology is being tested in the Minas Passage and this project is being spearheaded by the Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy or FORCE.
In-stream tidal turbine technology is a simple design. An elevated turbine is submerged under water in a location that enables its movement with tidal cycles, as the blades of the turbine move they create energy that powers an electric generator at the base. From here the power travels to an attached to the seafloor. While this technology has shown to be successful in its stages of testing
The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. The entire area of the Caribbean Sea, the islands of the West Indies. The Caribbean Sea is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2, the seas deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m below sea level. The Caribbean coastline has many gulfs and bays, the Gulf of Gonâve, Gulf of Venezuela, Gulf of Darién, Golfo de los Mosquitos, Gulf of Paria, the Caribbean Sea has the worlds second biggest barrier reef, the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. It runs 1,000 km along the coasts of Mexico, Guatemala, the name Caribbean derives from the Caribs, one of the regions dominant Native American groups at the time of European contact during the late 15th century. During the first century of development, Spanish dominance in the region remained undisputed, from the 16th century, Europeans visiting the Caribbean region identified the South Sea as opposed to the North Sea.
The Caribbean Sea had been unknown to the populations of Eurasia until 1492, at that time the Western Hemisphere in general was unknown to Europeans. Following the discovery of the islands by Columbus, the area was colonised by several Western cultures. As of 2015 the area is home to 22 island territories, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Caribbean Sea as follows, On the North. In the Windward Channel – a line joining Caleta Point and Pearl Point in Haïti, in the Mona Passage – a line joining Cape Engano and the extreme of Agujereada in Puerto Rico. From Galera Point through Trinidad to Galeota Point and thence to Baja Point in Venezuela, note that, although Barbados is an island on the same continental shelf, it is considered to be in the Atlantic Ocean rather than the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean Sea is an oceanic sea largely situated on the Caribbean Plate, the Caribbean Sea is separated from the ocean by several island arcs of various ages. The youngest stretches from the Lesser Antilles to the Virgin Islands to the north east of Trinidad, the larger islands in the northern part of the sea Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico lie on an older island arc.
The geological age of the Caribbean Sea is estimated to be between 160 and 180 million years and was formed by a fracture that split the supercontinent called Pangea in the Mesozoic Era. It is assumed the proto-caribbean basin existed in the Devonian period, in the early Carboniferous movement of Gondwana to the north and its convergence with the Euramerica basin decreased in size. The next stage of the Caribbean Seas formation began in the Triassic, powerful rifting led to the formation of narrow troughs, stretching from modern Newfoundland to the west coast of the Gulf of Mexico which formed siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. In the early Jurassic due to powerful marine transgression, water broke into the present area of the Gulf of Mexico creating a vast shallow pool, the emergence of deep basins in the Caribbean occurred during the Middle Jurassic rifting. The emergence of these marked the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean
The Bothnian Sea links the Bothnian Bay with the Baltic proper. Kvarken is situated between the two, the Bothnian Sea and Bay make up a larger geographical entity, the Gulf of Bothnia, where the Bothnian Sea is the southern part. The whole Gulf of Bothnia is situated between Sweden, to the West, Finland, to the East, and the Sea of Åland, the surface area of Bothnian Sea is approximately 79,000 km². The largest coastal towns, from south to north, are Rauma and Pori in Finland, umeå and Vaasa lie in the extreme north, near Bothnian Bay. Bothnian Sea National Park Media related to Bothnian Sea at Wikimedia Commons
Bay of Campeche
The Bay of Campeche, or Campeche Sound, is a bight in the southern area of the Gulf of Mexico. It is surrounded on three sides by the Mexican states of Campeche and Veracruz, the area of the bay is 6,000 square miles and maximum depth of the bay is approximately 180 feet. It was named by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba and Antón de Alaminos during their expedition in 1517, the Cantarell Complex of five oil fields lies beneath the Bay of Campeche. In 2003 it was the second most productive oil field in the world, during the months of June and July, the Bay of Campeche is considered one of the hot breeding spots for Atlantic hurricanes. The bay is considered the eastern border on the main migration routes for birds in the Americas. Where do hurricanes form and where do they strike, archived from the original on 2005-11-20. Archived from the original on 17 April 2006
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the worlds five major oceans. Alternatively, the Arctic Ocean can be seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean, located mostly in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic Ocean is almost completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America. It is partly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter, the summer shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50%. The US National Snow and Ice Data Center uses satellite data to provide a record of Arctic sea ice cover. The Arctic may become ice free for the first time in human history within a few years or by 2040, for much of European history, the north polar regions remained largely unexplored and their geography conjectural. He was probably describing loose sea ice known today as growlers or bergy bits, his Thule was probably Norway, early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as land or water.
The makers of navigational charts, more conservative than some of the more fanciful cartographers, tended to leave the region blank and this lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In England and other European nations, the myth of an Open Polar Sea was persistent, john Barrow, longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this. In the United States in the 1850s and 1860s, the explorers Elisha Kane, even quite late in the century, the eminent authority Matthew Fontaine Maury included a description of the Open Polar Sea in his textbook The Physical Geography of the Sea. Nevertheless, as all the explorers who travelled closer and closer to the reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a crossing of the Arctic Ocean. The first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, in a dog sled expedition from Alaska to Svalbard, with air support.
The first nautical transit of the pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean, scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometres by ice floes. In World War II, the European region of the Arctic Ocean was heavily contested, the Arctic Ocean occupies a roughly circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km2, almost the size of Antarctica. The coastline is 45,390 km long and it is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, and by several islands. It is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea, countries bordering the Arctic Ocean are, Norway, Greenland and the United States. There are several ports and harbours around the Arctic Ocean In Alaska, in Canada, ships may anchor at Churchill in Manitoba, Nanisivik in Nunavut, Tuktoyaktuk or Inuvik in the Northwest territories
Sir Douglas Mawson OBE FRS FAA was an Australian geologist, Antarctic explorer and academic. Along with Roald Amundsen, Robert Falcon Scott, and Ernest Shackleton, Mawson was a key leader during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Mawson was born on 5 May 1882 to Robert Ellis Mawson and he was born in Shipley, West Yorkshire, but was only two years old when his family immigrated to Australia and settled at Rooty Hill, now in the western suburbs of Sydney. He attended Fort Street Model School and the University of Sydney and he was appointed geologist to an expedition to the New Hebrides in 1903, his report, The Geology of the New Hebrides, was one of the first major geological works of Melanesia. Also that year he published a paper on Mittagong, New South Wales. His major influences in his career were Professor Edgeworth David. He became a lecturer in petrology and mineralogy at the University of Adelaide in 1905 and he identified and first described the mineral davidite. Mawson joined Ernest Shackletons Nimrod Expedition to the Antarctic, originally intending to stay for the duration of the presence in the first summer.
Instead both he and his mentor, Edgeworth David, stayed an extra year. In doing so they became, in the company of Alistair Mackay, the first to climb the summit of Mount Erebus and to trek to the South Magnetic Pole, which at that time was over land. Mawson turned down an invitation to join Robert Falcon Scotts Terra Nova Expedition in 1910, the objectives were to carry out geographical exploration and scientific studies, including a visit to the South Magnetic Pole. Mawson raised the funds in a year, from British and Australian governments. A second camp was located to the west on the ice shelf in Queen Mary Land, Cape Denison proved to be unrelentingly windy, the average wind speed for the entire year was about 50 mph, with some winds approaching 200 mph. They built a hut on the cape and wintered through nearly constant blizzards. Mawson wanted to do aerial exploration and brought the first aeroplane to Antarctica, type Monoplane, was to be flown by Francis Howard Bickerton. When it was damaged in Australia shortly before the expedition departed, the engine did not operate well in the cold, and it was removed and returned to Vickers in England.
The aircraft fuselage itself was abandoned, on 1 January 2009, fragments of it were rediscovered by the Mawsons Huts Foundation, which is restoring the original huts. Mawsons exploration program was carried out by five parties from the Main Base, Mawson himself was part of a three-man sledging team, the Far Eastern Party, with Xavier Mertz and Lieutenant Belgrave Ninnis, who headed east on 10 November 1912, to survey King George V Land