The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé. The series was one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century, by 2007, a century after Hergés birth in 1907, Tintin had been published in more than 70 languages with sales of more than 200 million copies. The series first appeared in French on 10 January 1929 in Le Petit Vingtième, the success of the series saw the serialised strips published in Belgiums leading newspaper Le Soir and spun into a successful Tintin magazine. In 1950, Hergé created Studios Hergé, which produced the canonical versions of ten Tintin albums, the Adventures of Tintin have been adapted for radio, television and film. The series is set during a largely realistic 20th century and its hero is Tintin, a young Belgian reporter and adventurer. He is aided by his faithful dog Snowy, the series has been admired for its clean, expressive drawings in Hergés signature ligne claire style.
Its well-researched plots straddle a variety of genres, swashbuckling adventures with elements of fantasy, political thrillers, the stories feature slapstick humour, offset by dashes of sophisticated satire and political or cultural commentary. Georges Remi, best known under the pen name Hergé, was employed as an illustrator at Le Vingtième Siècle, run by the Abbé Norbert Wallez, the paper described itself as a Catholic Newspaper for Doctrine and Information and disseminated a far-right, fascist viewpoint. Wallez appointed Hergé editor of a new Thursday youth supplement, titled Le Petit Vingtième, propagating Wallezs socio-political views to its young readership, it contained explicitly pro-fascist and anti-Semitic sentiment. In addition to editing the supplement, Hergé illustrated Lextraordinaire aventure de Flup, Nénesse, Poussette et Cochonnet, dissatisfied with this, Hergé wanted to write and draw his own cartoon strip. He already had experience creating comic strips, from July 1926 he had written a strip about a Boy Scout patrol leader titled Les Aventures de Totor C. P.
des Hannetons for the Scouting newspaper Le Boy Scout Belge. Totor was an influence on Tintin, with Hergé describing the latter as being like Totors younger brother. Although Hergé wanted to send Tintin to the United States, Wallez ordered him to set his adventure in the Soviet Union, the result, Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, was serialised in Le Petit Vingtième from January 1929 to May 1930. Popular in Francophone Belgium, Wallez organised a publicity stunt at the Gare du Nord station, the storys popularity led to an increase in sales, so Wallez granted Hergé two assistants. At Wallezs direction, in June he began serialisation of the story, Tintin in the Congo. The Adventures of Tintin had been syndicated to French Catholic magazine Cœurs Vaillants since 1930, and Hergé was soon receiving syndication requests from Swiss and Portuguese newspapers too. Hergé went on to pen a string of Adventures of Tintin, sending his character to real locations such as the Belgian Congo, the United States, India, China, in May 1940, Nazi Germany invaded Belgium as World War II broke out across Europe.
Although Hergé briefly fled to France and considered a self-imposed exile, for political reasons, the Nazi authorities closed down Le Vingtième Siècle, leaving Hergé unemployed
The circumnavigation took place between 24 February and 25 April 1960, covering 26,723 nautical miles over 60 days and 21 hours. The route began and ended at the St. Peter and Paul Rocks in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean near the Equator, during the voyage, Triton crossed the Equator four times while maintaining an average speed of 18 knots. Tritons overall navigational track during Operation Sandblast generally followed that of the first circumnavigation of the world, Operation Sandblast gathered extensive oceanographic, gravimetric and psychological data during Tritons circumnavigation. Aurand forwarded his Project Magellan proposal and Burkes assessment to Press Secretary James C, hagerty in a memorandum dated 26 January 1960. Project Magellan was subsequently approved by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, a unique submarine, she had the distinction of being the only non-Soviet submarine to be powered by two nuclear reactors. Tritons high speed was derived from her twin-reactor nuclear propulsion plant, with a speed and submerged.
On 27 September 1959, Triton achieved well in excess of 30 kn during her sea trials. Weve got to do something special with it and we talked about it a little bit, and nobody had any ideas. Well go around the world from North Pole to South Pole, if you take a look at a map of the world, youll see thats not a very easy way to go. But I do remember thinking of it, and I made a speech to the crew, advising them of my thinking—that we were going to put this ship on the map. A phone call came, asking me if I could be in Washington tomorrow, following her commissioning on 10 November 1959, Triton was assigned to Submarine Squadron 10, the U. S. Navys first all-nuclear force, based at the U. S. Submarine Base in New London, under the command of Commodore Thomas H. Henry, work on the Triton at Electric Boat was delayed as priority was given to completing the Navys first two fleet ballistic missile submarines, George Washington and Patrick Henry. On 20 January 1960, Triton got underway to conduct a series of at-sea testing. S.
Second Fleet, in northern European waters, Triton would depart as scheduled on 16 February, and the submarine would arrive back home no than 10 May 1960. Maximum stability of the platform and unbroken continuity around the world were important. Additionally, for reasons of the national interest it had decided that the voyage should be made entirely submerged undetected by our own or other forces. TRITON, because of her size and extra dependability of her plant, had been chosen for the mission. Also, Sand served as Beachs personal code name during the mission, as the captain noted, Most beaches are full of sand, I was informed
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the worlds oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, the Indian Ocean is known as Ratnākara, the mine of gems in ancient Sanskrit literature, and as Hind Mahāsāgar, in Hindi. The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is approximately 30° north in the Persian Gulf, the oceans continental shelves are narrow, averaging 200 kilometres in width. An exception is found off Australias western coast, where the width exceeds 1,000 kilometres. The average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m and its deepest point is Diamantina Deep in Diamantina Trench, at 8,047 m deep, Sunda Trench has a depth of 7, 258–7,725 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the basin is covered by pelagic sediments. The remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments, glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes. The major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca, the Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, which is accessible via the Red Sea.
All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere is in this ocean, marginal seas, gulfs and straits of the Indian Ocean include, The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April, from May until October south, in the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder. When the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, and about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, and changes in the frequency, among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi, Shatt al-Arab, Godavari, Narmada, Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy River.
The oceans currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, during the winter monsoon, currents in the north are reversed. Deep water circulation is controlled primarily by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, north of 20° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C, exceeding 28 °C to the east. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures drop quickly, surface water salinity ranges from 32 to 37 parts per 1000, the highest occurring in the Arabian Sea and in a belt between southern Africa and south-western Australia
Daniel Defoe, born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, journalist and spy, most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe. He was a pioneer of economic journalism, Daniel Foe was probably born in Fore Street in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate, London. Defoe added the aristocratic-sounding De to his name, and on occasion claimed descent from the family of De Beau Faux and his birthdate and birthplace are uncertain, and sources offer dates from 1659–1662, with 1660 considered the most likely. His father James Foe was a tallow chandler and a member of the Worshipful Company of Butchers. In 1667, when he was probably about seven, a Dutch fleet sailed up the Medway via the River Thames and his mother Annie had died by the time he was about ten. Defoe was educated at the Rev. James Fishers boarding school in Pixham Lane in Dorking, during this period, the English government persecuted those who chose to worship outside the Church of England. Defoe entered the world of business as a merchant, dealing at different times in hosiery, general woollen goods.
His ambitions were great and he was able to buy a country estate, in 1684, Defoe married Mary Tuffley, the daughter of a London merchant, receiving a dowry of £3,700 – a huge amount by the standards of the day. With his debts and political difficulties, the marriage may have been troubled, in 1685, Defoe joined the ill-fated Monmouth Rebellion but gained a pardon, by which he escaped the Bloody Assizes of Judge George Jeffreys. Queen Mary and her husband William III were jointly crowned in 1688, and Defoe became one of Williams close allies, some of the new policies led to conflict with France, thus damaging prosperous trade relationships for Defoe, who had established himself as a merchant. In 1692, Defoe was arrested for debts of £700, though his total debts may have amounted to £17,000 and his laments were loud and he always defended unfortunate debtors, but there is evidence that his financial dealings were not always honest. Following his release, he travelled in Europe and Scotland, and it may have been at this time that he traded wine to Cadiz, Porto.
By 1695, he was back in England, now using the name Defoe and serving as a commissioner of the glass duty. In 1696, he ran a tile and brick factory in what is now Tilbury in Essex, Defoes first notable publication was An Essay upon Projects, a series of proposals for social and economic improvement, published in 1697. From 1697 to 1698, he defended the right of King William III to an army during disarmament. His most successful poem, The True-Born Englishman, defended the king against the perceived xenophobia of his enemies, satirising the English claim to racial purity. In 1701, Defoe presented the Legions Memorial to the Speaker of the House of Commons, his employer Robert Harley and it demanded the release of the Kentish petitioners, who had asked Parliament to support the king in an imminent war against France. The death of William III in 1702 once again created a political upheaval, in it, he ruthlessly satirised both the High church Tories and those Dissenters who hypocritically practised so-called occasional conformity, such as his Stoke Newington neighbour Sir Thomas Abney
A sailor, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance. The term bluejacket may be used for British or US Navy enlisted sailors, the Bluejackets Manual is the basic handbook for United States Navy personnel. 700,000 of the worlds mariners come from the Philippines, the term seaman is frequently used in the particular sense of a sailor who is not an officer. Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, each of which carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the operation of an ocean-going vessel. A ships crew can generally be divided into four categories, the deck department, the engineering department, the stewards department. Officer positions in the department include but are not limited to, master and his chief, second. The official classifications for unlicensed members of the department are able seaman. With some variation, the mate is most often charged with the duties of cargo mate. Second Mates are charged with being the officer in case of medical emergency.
All three mates each do four-hour morning and afternoon shifts on the bridge, when underway at sea, Marine engineering staff deal with the hotel facilities on board, notably the sewage, air conditioning and water systems. Engineering staff manage bulk fuel transfers, from a barge in port. When underway at sea, the second and third engineers will often be occupied with oil transfers from storage tanks, cleaning of oil purifiers is another regular task. Engineering staff are required to have training in firefighting and first aid, additional duties include maintaining the ships boats and performing other nautical tasks. Engineers play a key role in cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers, other possible positions include motorman, electrician, refrigeration engineer and tankerman. A typical stewards department for a ship is a chief steward, a chief cook. All three positions are filled by unlicensed personnel.
The chief steward plans menus, compiles supply, the steward may requisition or purchase stores and equipment. A chief stewards duties may overlap with those of the assistant, the chief cook
George Cruikshank was a British caricaturist and book illustrator, praised as the modern Hogarth during his life. His book illustrations for his friend Charles Dickens, and many other authors and his father, Isaac Cruikshank, was one of the leading caricaturists of the late 1790s and Cruikshank started his career as his fathers apprentice and assistant. His older brother, Isaac Robert, followed in the business as a caricaturist. Cruikshanks early work was caricature, but in 1823, at the age of 31 and he illustrated the first,1823 English translation of Grimms Fairy Tales, published in two volumes as German Popular Stories. On 16 October 1827, he married Mary Ann Walker, two years after her death, on 7 March 1851, he married Eliza Widdison. The two lived at 263 Hampstead Road, North London, upon his death, it was discovered that Cruikshank had fathered 11 illegitimate children with a mistress named Adelaide Attree, his former servant, who lived close to where he lived with his wife. Adelaide was ostensibly married and had taken the married surname Archibold, Cruikshanks early career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications.
He achieved early success collaborating with William Hone in his political satire The Political House That Jack Built, in the same year he produced the remarkable anti-abolitionist New Union Club. It satirised a dinner party organised by abolitionists with black guests and his first major work was Pierce Egans Life in London. This was followed by The Comic Almanack and Omnibus and he gained notoriety with his political prints that attacked the royal family and leading politicians. In 1820 he received a bribe of £100 for a pledge not to caricature His Majesty in any immoral situation. His work included a personification of England named John Bull who was developed from about 1790 in conjunction with other British satirical artists such as James Gillray, Cruikshank replaced one of his major influences, James Gillray, as Englands most popular satirist. For a generation he delineated Tories and Radicals impartially, satirical material came to him from every public event – wars abroad, the enemies of Britain, the frolic, among other qualities, such as the weird and terrible, in which he excelled.
For Charles Dickens, Cruikshank illustrated Sketches by Boz, The Mudfog Papers, Cruikshank even acted in Dickenss amateur theatrical company. On 30 December 1871 Cruikshank published a letter in The Times which claimed credit for much of the plot of Oliver Twist, the letter launched a fierce controversy around who created the work. Cruikshank was not the first Dickens illustrator to make such a claim, the friendship between Cruikshank and Dickens soured further when Cruikshank became a fanatical teetotaler in opposition to Dickenss views of moderation. Nightcap and nightdress belonged to a past age and reminded you of Cruickshanks illustrations to the novels of Charles Dickens, in the late 1840s, Cruikshanks focus shifted from book illustration to an obsession with temperance and anti-smoking. Formerly a heavy drinker, he now supported, lectured to, and supplied illustrations for the National Temperance Society, for his efforts he was made vice president of the National Temperance League in 1856
Moby-Dick, or, The Whale is a novel by American writer Herman Melville, published in 1851 during the period of the American Renaissance. The novel was a failure and out of print at the time of the authors death in 1891. William Faulkner confessed he wished he had written it himself, and D. H. Lawrence called it one of the strangest and most wonderful books in the world, call me Ishmael is among world literatures most famous opening sentences. The product of a year and a half of writing, the draws on Melvilles experience at sea, on his reading in whaling literature, and on literary inspirations such as Shakespeare. The white whale is modeled on the hard to catch actual albino whale Mocha Dick. In addition to prose, Melville uses styles and literary devices ranging from songs and catalogs to Shakespearean stage directions, soliloquies. Hundreds of differences, mostly slight and some important, are seen between the two editions, the London publisher censored or changed sensitive passages and Melville made revisions, as well, including the last-minute change in the title for the New York edition.
The whale, appears in both editions as Moby Dick, with no hyphen, because the British edition lacked the Epilogue, which accounts for Ishmaels survival, it seemed that the story was told by someone who was supposed to have perished. Many reviewers in British magazines recognized a violation of the rules of fiction, other reviewers, found the book too fascinating to dismiss it for these reasons. Some of the scornful British reviews were either reprinted or quoted in American periodicals, about 3,200 copies were sold during the authors life. Ishmael travels in December from Manhattan Island to New Bedford with plans to sign up for a whaling voyage, the inn where he arrives is overcrowded, so he must share a bed with the tattooed Polynesian Queequeg, a harpooneer whose father was king of the island of Rokovoko. The next morning and Queequeg attend Father Mapples sermon on Jonah, Ishmael signs up with the Quaker ship-owners Bildad and Peleg for a voyage on their whaler Pequod. Peleg describes Captain Ahab, Hes a grand, god-like man who nevertheless has his humanities and they hire Queequeg the following morning.
A man named Elijah prophesies a dire fate should Ishmael and Queequeg join Ahab, while provisions are loaded, shadowy figures board the ship. On a cold Christmas Day, the Pequod leaves the harbor, Ishmael discusses cetology, and describes the crew members. Ahab will give the first man to sight Moby Dick a doubloon, a gold coin, Starbuck objects that he has not come for vengeance but for profit. Ahabs purpose exercises a mysterious spell on Ishmael, Ahabs quenchless feud seemed mine, instead of rounding Cape Horn, Ahab heads for the equatorial Pacific Ocean via southern Africa. One afternoon, as Ishmael and Queequeg are weaving a mat — its warp seemed necessity, his free will
Saint David was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw during the 6th century, he was regarded as a saint. He is the saint of Wales. David was a native of Wales, and a large amount of information is known about his life. However, his date is uncertain, suggestions range from 462 to 512. He is traditionally believed to be the son of Saint Non, the Welsh annals placed his death 569 years after the birth of Christ, but Phillimores dating revised this to 601. Many of the tales about David are found in the Buchedd Dewi. Rhygyfarch claimed it was based on documents found in the cathedral archives, the tradition that he was born at Henfynyw in Ceredigion is not improbable. He became renowned as a teacher and preacher, founding monastic settlements and churches in Wales, Dumnonia, St Davids Cathedral stands on the site of the monastery he founded in the Glyn Rhosyn valley of Pembrokeshire. Around 550, he attended the Synod of Brefi, where his eloquence in opposing Pelagianism caused his fellow monks to elect him primate of the region, as such he presided over the synod of Caerleon around 569.
A white dove, which became his emblem, was seen settling on his shoulder, john Davies notes that one can scarcely conceive of any miracle more superfluous in that part of Wales than the creation of a new hill. David is said to have denounced Pelagianism during this incident and he was declared archbishop by popular acclaim according to Rhygyfarch, St Davids metropolitan status as an archbishopric was supported by Bernard, Bishop of St Davids, Geoffrey of Monmouth and Gerald of Wales. No personal possessions were allowed, even to say my book was considered an offence and he lived a simple life and practised asceticism, teaching his followers to refrain from eating meat and drinking beer. King Henry, I wear it for an honour, for I am Welsh, you know. Rhigyfarch counted Glastonbury Abbey among the churches David founded and he had had a vision of Jesus who said that the church had been dedicated long ago by Himself in honour of His Mother, and it was not seemly that it should be re-dedicated by human hands.
So David instead commissioned an extension to be built to the abbey, one manuscript indicates that a sapphire altar was among the items Henry VIII of England confiscated from the abbey during the Dissolution of the Monasteries a thousand years later. Though the exact date of his death is not certain, tradition holds that it was on March 1, the two most common years given for his death are 601 and 589. The monastery is said to have filled with angels as Christ received his soul. His last words to his followers were in a sermon on the previous Sunday
Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and composer. With John Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr, he gained fame with the rock band the Beatles, largely considered the most popular. His songwriting partnership with Lennon is the most celebrated of the post-war era, after the bands break-up, he pursued a solo career and formed the band Wings with his first wife and Denny Laine. McCartney has been recognised as one of the most successful composers and performers of all time, More than 2,200 artists have covered his Beatles song Yesterday, more than any other copyrighted song in history. Wings 1977 release Mull of Kintyre is one of the all-time best-selling singles in the UK.5 million RIAA-certified units in the United States. McCartney, Lennon and Starr all received The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in 1965, McCartney has released an extensive catalogue of songs as a solo artist and has composed classical and electronic music.
He has taken part in projects to promote international charities related to subjects as animal rights, seal hunting, land mines, poverty. He has married three times and is the father of five children, James Paul McCartney was born on 18 June 1942 in Walton Hospital, England, where his mother, Mary Patricia, had qualified to practise as a nurse. His father, James McCartney, was absent from his sons birth due to his work as a firefighter during World War II. Paul has one brother, Michael. Though the children were baptised in their mothers Catholic faith, their father was a former Protestant turned agnostic, McCartney attended Stockton Wood Road Primary School in Speke from 1947 until 1949, when he transferred to Joseph Williams Junior School in Belle Vale because of overcrowding at Stockton. In 1953, with three others out of ninety examinees, he passed the 11-Plus exam, meaning he could attend the Liverpool Institute. In 1954, he met schoolmate George Harrison on the bus from his home in Speke.
The two quickly became friends, McCartney admitted, I tended to talk down to him because he was a year younger. McCartneys mother Mary was a midwife and the primary wage earner, her earnings enabled them to move into 20 Forthlin Road in Allerton. She rode a bicycle to her patients, McCartney described an early memory of her leaving at about three in the morning streets, on 31 October 1956, when McCartney was fourteen, his mother died of an embolism. McCartneys loss became a point of connection with John Lennon, whose mother, McCartneys father was a trumpet player and pianist, who had led Jim Macs Jazz Band in the 1920s. He kept a piano in the front room, encouraged his sons to be musical and advised Paul to take piano lessons
Herman Melville was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period. His best known works include Typee, an account of his experiences in Polynesian life. His work was almost forgotten during his last thirty years and his writing draws on his experience at sea as a common sailor, exploration of literature and philosophy, and engagement in the contradictions of American society in a period of rapid change. Born in New York City as the child of a merchant in French dry goods, Melvilles formal education ended abruptly after his father died in 1832. Melville briefly became a schoolteacher before he took to sea in 1839 as a sailor on a merchant ship. In 1840 he signed aboard the whaler Acushnet for his first whaling voyage, after further adventures, he returned to Boston in 1844. His first book, Typee, a romanticized account of his life among Polynesians, became such a best-seller that he worked up a sequel. These successes encouraged him to marry Elizabeth Shaw, of a prominent Boston family and his first novel not based on his own experiences, Mardi, is a sea narrative that develops into a philosophical allegory, but was not well received.
Redburn, a story of life on a merchant ship, and his 1850 expose of harsh life aboard a Man-of-War, White-Jacket yielded warmer reviews, Moby-Dick was another commercial failure, published to mixed reviews. Melvilles career as a popular author effectively ended with the reception of Pierre. His Revolutionary War novel Israel Potter appeared in 1855, from 1853 to 1856, Melville published short fiction in magazines, most notably Bartleby, the Scrivener, The Encantadas, and Benito Cereno. These and three stories were collected in 1856 as The Piazza Tales. In 1857, he voyaged to England, where he reunited with Hawthorne for the first time since 1852, the Confidence-Man, was the last prose work he published during his lifetime. He moved to New York to take a position as Customs Inspector, battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War was his poetic reflection on the moral questions of the Civil War. In 1867 his oldest child, died at home from a self-inflicted gunshot, Clarel, A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land, a metaphysical epic, appeared in 1876.
In 1886, his son, Stanwix and Melville retired. Melvilles death from disease in 1891 subdued a reviving interest in his work. The 1919 centennial of his became the starting point of the Melville Revival
Tobias George Smollett was a Scottish poet and author. He was best known for his novels, such as The Adventures of Roderick Random and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle. His novels were amended liberally by printers, an edition of each of his works was edited by Dr. O. M. Brack. Smollett was born at Dalquhurn, now part of Renton, in present-day West Dunbartonshire and he was the fourth son of Archibald Smollett of Bonhill, a judge and land-owner who died about 1726, and Barbara Cunningham, who died about 1766. His career in medicine came second to his ambitions, during 1739 he went to London to seek fortune as a dramatist. Unsuccessful, he obtained a commission as a surgeon on HMS Chichester and travelled to Jamaica. During 1742 he served as a surgeon during the campaign to capture Cartagena. On his return, he established practice in Downing Street and married a wealthy Jamaican heiress, Anne Nancy Lascelles and she was a daughter of William Lascelles. They had one child, a daughter Elizabeth, who died aged 15 years about 1762 and he had a brother, Capt.
James Smollet, and a sister, Jean Smollett, who married Alexander Telfair of Symington, Ayrshire. Jean succeeded to Bonhill after the death of her cousin-german, Mr. Commissary Smollett and they lived in St. John Street off Canongate and had a son who was in the Military. The Adventures of Roderick Random was modelled on Le Sages Gil Blas, after that Smollett finally had his tragedy, The Regicide, though it was never performed. During 1750, Smollett was granted his MD degree in Aberdeen, and travelled to France, having lived for a brief time in Bath, he returned to London and published The Adventures of Ferdinand Count Fathom during 1753. He was now recognised as an author, whose novels were published by the well-known London bookseller Andrew Millar. Smollett became associated with the likes of David Garrick, Laurence Sterne, Oliver Goldsmith and Samuel Johnson, during 1755 he published an English translation of Miguel de Cervantess novel Don Quixote, which he revised during 1761. During 1756, he became editor of the magazine The Critical Review, Smollett began what he regarded as his major work, A Complete History of England, from 1757 to 1765.
During this period he served a prison sentence for libel. Having suffered the loss of a daughter, he went abroad with his wife, and he published The History and Adventures of an Atom, which gave his opinion of British politics during the Seven Years War in the guise of a tale from ancient Japan. He re-visited Scotland and this visit helped inspire his last novel, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, published during the year of his death
Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the worlds best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era and his works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the twentieth century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories enjoy lasting popularity, born in Portsmouth, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors prison. Dickenss literary success began with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers, within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humour and keen observation of character and society. His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, pioneered the publication of narrative fiction. The instalment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audiences reaction, and he modified his plot. For example, when his wifes chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities and his plots were carefully constructed, and he often wove elements from topical events into his narratives.
Masses of the poor chipped in hapennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up. Dickens was regarded as the literary colossus of his age and his 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol, remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. Oliver Twist and Great Expectations are adapted, like many of his novels. His 1859 novel, A Tale of Two Cities, set in London, Dickens has been praised by fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to George Orwell and G. K. Chesterton—for his realism, prose style, unique characterisations, and social criticism. On the other hand, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, and Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of depth, loose writing. The term Dickensian is used to something that is reminiscent of Dickens and his writings. Charles John Huffam Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, at 1 Mile End Terrace, Landport in Portsea Island and his father was a clerk in the Navy Pay Office and was temporarily stationed in the district. He asked Christopher Huffam, rigger to His Majestys Navy, Huffam is thought to be the inspiration for Paul Dombey, the owner of a shipping company in Dickenss eponymous Dombey and Son.
In January 1815 John Dickens was called back to London, when Charles was four, they relocated to Sheerness, and thence to Chatham, where he spent his formative years until the age of 11. His early life seems to have been idyllic, though he himself a very small. Charles spent time outdoors but read voraciously, including the novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding, as well as Robinson Crusoe