Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Kentucky Transportation Cabinet
The Transportation Cabinet is led by the Kentucky Secretary of Transportation, who is appointed by the governor of Kentucky. The current Secretary is Mike Hancock, who was appointed by Democratic Governor Steve Beshear, as of October 2012, KYTC maintains 27,562.975 miles of roadways in the state. The Transportation Cabinet is composed of four operating Departments, headed by Commissioners and those units are subdivided into Divisions headed by Directors
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park is a park located near Mount Olivet, Kentucky in Robertson and Nicholas counties. The park encompasses 148 acres and features a monument commemorating the August 19,1782 Battle of Blue Licks, the battle was regarded as the final battle of the American Revolutionary War. The earliest accounts of Blue Licks describe it as a place where animals gathered to lick the salt deposits flowing from the springs in the area. The Reverend James Smith provides this account in his 1795–97 diary, As you approach the Licks, at the distance of 4 or 5 miles from it, you begin to perceive the change. Here immense herds of buffalo used formerly to meet and with their fighting, scraping etc. have worn away the ground to what it is at present, in 1782, British Captain William Caldwell led a force of Indians against the small Kentucky settlement of Bryans Station. Caldwell met stiff resistance, and after two days, retreated toward the Ohio River, in the battle that followed,60 of the 176 men who followed McGary were killed, Boones son Israel among them.
Reinforcements under George Rogers Clark eventually arrived and drove Caldwells forces from Kentucky for good, by the mid-19th century, the Blue Licks area had become a health resort, due in large part to the nearby saltwater springs that had been used for salt making since the 1770s. The mineral water found in the springs was rumored to cure everything from asthma to gout, by 1896, the areas last spring had gone dry. Efforts to locate another spring unearthed several geological and historical artifacts, a more extensive excavation of the area was conducted in 1945. However, a team from Morehead State University is to search the battlefield using modern equipment to explore for artifacts relating to the battlefields, enough success in this endeavor could mean the return of the battlefield to the Register. The park is located along the Licking River, and offers canoeing and fishing, the Licking River Trail offers a one-mile hike along the riverbank. Overnight stays are accommodated at the 32-room lodge or the 51-site campground, the park features a 15-acre nature preserve containing a cedar glade.
This glade was previously maintained as an area by the large numbers of herbivores, such as bison, elk. Today much of the glade has transitioned into forest, but the remnant areas are being maintained by controlled burns and these remnants are home to the federally endangered Shorts goldenrod and the state threatened Great Plains Ladies-tresses. The Pioneer Museum is the major attraction. It houses a variety of artifacts, from a tooth found during an excavation of the site to relics from the American Civil War. Exhibits focus on the natural and cultural history, including prehistoric animals and fossils, area Native Americans and 18th century pioneers. The museum was dedicated in 1931, saw renovations completed in 2007, the Battle of Blue Licks celebration is held annually in mid-August and features a re-enactment of the Battle of Blue Licks
Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area
The Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located in Kentucky and Tennessee between Lake Barkley and Kentucky Lake. The area was designated a recreation area by President John F. Kennedy in 1963. The recreation area was managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority. It was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve in 1991, the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers flow very close to each other in the northwestern corner of Middle Tennessee and Western Kentucky, separated by a rather narrow and mostly low ridge. The area of land separates the two bodies of water by only a few miles became known as Between the Rivers since at least the 1830s or 1840s. After the Cumberland River was impounded in the 1960s and a canal was constructed between the two lakes, Land Between the Lakes became the largest inland peninsula in the United States. Downstream from this area, the courses of the two rivers diverge again, with the mouth of the Cumberland emptying into the Ohio River approximately 4 mi from that of the Tennessee, the site of the last dam downstream on the Tennessee was to be Gilbertsville, Kentucky.
This was very unpopular with some of those affected, while others seemed happy to get an opportunity to sell their land and this would considerably lessen the shipping distances for goods going to ports on the Gulf of Mexico for products leaving the Cumberland Valley. This was completed in the 1960s and the impoundment was referred to as Lake Barkley, after Alben W. Barkley. The plan called for a new dam and the evacuation of the entire former Between the Rivers area, the area was to become Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area – a TVA experiment designed to show a multiple-use approach to recreational lands. Unlike a national park, there were to be areas where hunting would be allowed, the road through the Tennessee portion was renamed from State Route 49 to The Trace, which is what many roads and paths were called in pioneer times. Many area residents resented the condemnation of their lands, especially when it was explained to them that most of the area was not to be flooded, the former settlements of Tharpe, Model and Golden Pond, were forcibly abandoned.
The remains of an iron furnace, manned in the 1850s by slave labor, are about all that remains of Model. Golden Pond was replaced by the headquarters of the area and retained as the address for it. There is a museum, a planetarium, and an education area there. The area has miles of hiking trails, many boat ramps, an off-road vehicle area, many campgrounds, and group lodges. The area was burned and reseeded with grasses, and elk. In 1996 the Elk & Bison Prairie was officially inaugurated and is now open to driving tours where visitors see a typical 18th century landscape, in the 1990s, the directors of the TVA decided to get out of most activities requiring direct taxpayer funding
Johnson County, Kentucky
Johnson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,356, the county was formed in 1843 and named for Richard Mentor Johnson, War of 1812 general, United States Representative and Vice President of the United States. Johnson County was formed on February 24,1843 by the Kentucky General Assembly from land given by Floyd, Lawrence, at that time, its county seat of Paintsville had already been a chartered city for nine years. Homes had been built in Paintsville as early as the 1810s, many of the families at the beginning of Johnson Countys formation were of Scottish, English, or German descent. Also, a fact lost to most historians is the population of French Huguenots who were confused as English because they fled via England en route to the United States. Many of these settlers migrated from North Carolina, for about its first twenty-five years, Johnson County and Paintsville struggled along. Mail and supplies reached Johnson County from the Bluegrass region by horseback, years later, stage coaches began to connect eastern Kentucky and Johnson County to the bluegrass region and the rest of civilization.
As Johnson County and its county seat had begun to thrive, like other border areas, brothers fought against brothers, tearing families apart. Johnson County was not only part of a state during the Civil War. Sometime between 1860 and 1862, the county enacted an ordinance that neither the Union or Confederate flags were to be flown within the county. This was repealed quickly after Colonel James Garfields Union brigade marched through Paintsville on its way to defeat the Confederate cavalry at the Battle of Middle Creek in Floyd County. Following the Civil War, Thomas Jefferson Mayo moved to Paintsville to fulfill a role as a gifted and talented teacher, Mayo, an important figure in the development of eastern Kentucky. The county citizenry is divided on their loyalty to his memory, some would say he was a benefactor who assisted in the development of Paintsville, and as a result, Johnson County. That he helped develop banks, streets, public utilities, others would say he was directly responsible for the huge influence coal companies had over the countys vast coal resources and the reason the region remains so economically depressed to this day.
Coal was important for Johnson County and the rest of eastern Kentucky even before the Civil War, financing was slow to return to the coal industry in eastern Kentucky and this inhibited development in Johnson County. The people were suspicious of outsiders and Mayo, a teacher, was a known quantity. Carpetbaggers from the North became a sight in the area. In some cases, for a new shotgun, the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway first opened its Paintsville depot on September 1,1904, following 25 years of work connecting it to Lawrence County
Cumberland Falls State Resort Park
Cumberland Falls State Resort Park is a park located just southwest of Corbin, Kentucky and is contained entirely within the Daniel Boone National Forest. The park encompasses 1,657 acres and is named for its major feature, the falls are one of the few places in the western hemisphere where a moonbow can frequently be seen on nights with a full moon. The park is the home of 44-foot Eagle Falls, Cumberland Falls was dedicated as a state park at 1,30 p. m. on August 21,1931. Following a $2 million renovation project in 2006, the received an upgraded rating from two diamonds to three diamonds from the American Automobile Association in 2007. Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park received the upgraded rating, the two facilities were the first state resort parks to achieve the three-diamond rating following AAAs revision of its rating system in 2001
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area
The Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area preserves the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries in northeastern Tennessee and southeastern Kentucky. In addition, the mining community of Blue Heron is preserved and interpreted via signage. Charit Creek Lodge is a lodge, accessible by trail. The Big South Forks most prominent feature is the river cutting through the softer Mississippian age rock beneath the hard Pennsylvanian capstone of the Cumberland Plateau. Water is the most influential agent of change in the Big South Fork region. Over time water action has many unique and amazing geologic features ranging from the river gorge with its magnificent bluffs to the natural arches. Flowing water hollows out the softer layers beneath and forms waterfalls, where there is hard capstone intact, arches can form creating natural bridges across streams or a dry ravines. Direct erosion widens a joint and forms a cavity below the more resilient rock thus creating a void between the hard capstone and the area below, as result, water eroded arches are formed in the Big South Fork.
Hoodoos are a rare but intriguing feature occurring in the Big South Fork and these hoodoos form in a similar manner to those found in the western United States. Where tough capstone still exists on the side of a hill for instance, the result is a naturally formed erect columnar rock where once was located a hill
National Military Park
The designation applies to sites where historic battles were fought on American soil during the armed conflicts that shaped the growth and development of the United States. There are 11 National Battlefields, nine National Military Parks, four National Battlefield Parks, the National Park Service does not distinguish among the four designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In 1890, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was the first such site created by Congress, originally these sites were maintained by the War Department, but were transferred to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The different designations appear to represent Congressional attitudes at the time of authorization of each individual site, only Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, which is small, still bears that designation, others have since been redesignated. As with all areas in the National Park System, these battle sites are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Equestrianism, more often known as riding, horseback riding or horse riding, refers to the skill of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch. They are used in sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing, driving. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows, Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding or hacking. There is public access to trails in almost every part of the world, many parks, ranches. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes, both in specialized paraequestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve health and emotional development. Horses are driven in harness racing, at shows and in other types of exhibition, historical reenactment or ceremony.
In some parts of the world, they are used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in service, in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding, though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden approximately 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests that horses were ridden long before they were driven, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct evidence of horses used as working animals. In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as light, the horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses lived in North America, but died out at the end of the Ice Age, Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493.
Humans appear to have expressed a desire to know which horse were the fastest. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle, Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide, in the UK, it is known as flat racing and is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom
Carter Caves State Resort Park
Carter Caves State Resort Park is located in Carter County, United States, along Tygarts Creek. It is formed by Carter Caves, and nearby Cascade Caves, on December 16,1981,146 acres of the park were designated as nature preserves. Bat Cave and Cascade Caverns State Nature Preserves were dedicated for the protection of the Indiana bat, mountain maple, the purchase of the caves and surrounding land was driven by Governor William Jason Fields, a native of Carter County. Carter Caves is a resort park that features a lodge, cottages, 18-hole putt-putt course, 9-hole golf course, full-service campground. It has various tours available year-round that displays and explains the wonders of the underground world. It has horse riding stables. It is well known for its splendor above and below ground, there are several different Cave Tours offered. Guided tours of Cascade Cave and X-Cave are available year-round, Cascade Cave is the name for three different caves in the same area and is together the largest cave in the park.
It features an underground room and an 30-foot underground waterfall. X Cave, named for the pattern of its passages, features some of the largest rock formations in the park. Saltpetre Cave was mined during the War of 1812 because saltpetre, historic activities are a major part of the Saltpetre Cave tour. Bat Cave is toured in the months, between Memorial Day and Labor Day, and is considered a wild cave tour since the cave has not been improved for walking tours. The cave is unique in that it is a hibernaculum for the endangered Indiana Bat in the winter months, Laurel Cave is the most visited of the non-commercial caves in the park, and contains some of the most interesting passages. Laurel Cave is open to the public during business hours in the summer months only. All that is required is a permit available at the Welcome Center/Gift Shop, the permit gives you legal access to Laurel Cave, Horn Hollow Caves and the connected Rimstone Cave. Over thirty miles of hiking trails encounter seven natural bridges throughout the park, the Cascade Trail is a three-quarter mile trail passing through Box Canyon.
The Three Bridges Trail winds three and a quarter miles and includes the parks largest natural bridge, the Smokey Bridge and this trail passes by Fern Bridge and Raven Bridge as it meanders through the park. The half-mile Natural Bridge Trail passes beneath a natural bridge
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests