Length: 6 feet 8 inches.
|This sculpture article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Length: 6 feet 8 inches.
|This sculpture article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Michelangelo – Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered to be the greatest living artist during his lifetime, he has since described as one of the greatest artists of all time. A number of Michelangelos works of painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence and he sculpted two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty. As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered the Mannerist style at the Laurentian Library, at the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peters Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan so that the end was finished to his design, as was the dome, with some modification. Michelangelo was unique as the first Western artist whose biography was published while he was alive, in his lifetime he was often called Il Divino. One of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, the attempts by subsequent artists to imitate Michelangelos impassioned and highly personal style resulted in Mannerism, the next major movement in Western art after the High Renaissance. Michelangelo was born on 6 March 1475 in Caprese near Arezzo, at the time of Michelangelos birth, his father was the Judicial administrator of the small town of Caprese and local administrator of Chiusi. Michelangelos mother was Francesca di Neri del Miniato di Siena, the Buonarrotis claimed to descend from the Countess Mathilde of Canossa, this claim remains unproven, but Michelangelo himself believed it. Several months after Michelangelos birth, the returned to Florence. There Michelangelo gained his love for marble, as Giorgio Vasari quotes him, If there is good in me. Along with the milk of my nurse I received the knack of handling chisel and hammer, as a young boy, Michelangelo was sent to Florence to study grammar under the Humanist Francesco da Urbino. The young artist, however, showed no interest in his schooling, preferring to copy paintings from churches, the city of Florence was at that time the greatest centre of the arts and learning in Italy. Art was sponsored by the Signoria, by the merchant guilds and by patrons such as the Medici. The Renaissance, a renewal of Classical scholarship and the arts, had its first flowering in Florence, the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti had laboured for fifty years to create the bronze doors of the Baptistry, which Michelangelo was to describe as The Gates of Paradise. The exterior niches of the Church of Orsanmichele contained a gallery of works by the most acclaimed sculptors of Florence – Donatello, Ghiberti, Andrea del Verrocchio, and Nanni di Banco. The interiors of the churches were covered with frescos, begun by Giotto. During Michelangelos childhood, a team of painters had been called from Florence to the Vatican, among them was Domenico Ghirlandaio, a master in fresco painting, perspective, figure drawing, and portraiture who had the largest workshop in Florence at that periodMichelangelo – Portrait of Michelangelo by Daniele da Volterra
2. Medici Chapel – The Sagrestia Nuova, was designed by Michelangelo. The larger Cappella dei Principi, though proposed in the 16th century, was not begun until the early 17th century, the Sagrestia Nuova was intended by Cardinal Giulio de Medici and his cousin Pope Leo X as a mausoleum or mortuary chapel for members of the Medici family. The Sagrestia Nuova was entered by an entrance in a corner of San Lorenzos right transept. By order of Cosimo I, Giorgio Vasari and Bartolomeo Ammannati finished the work by 1555, there were intended to be four Medici tombs, but those of Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano were never begun. The result is that the two magnificent existing tombs are those of comparatively insignificant Medici, Lorenzo di Piero, Duke of Urbino and Giuliano di Lorenzo and their architectural components are similar, their sculptures offer contrast. A concealed corridor with drawings on the walls by Michelangelo was discovered under the New Sacristy in 1976, the octagonal Cappella dei Principi surmounted by a tall dome,59 m. high, is the distinguishing feature of San Lorenzo when seen from a distance. It is on the axis as the nave and chancel to which it provides the equivalent of an apsidal chapel. Its entrance is from the exterior, in Piazza Madonna degli Aldobrandini, the opulent Cappella dei Principi, an idea formulated by Cosimo I, was put into effect by Ferdinand I de Medici. A true expression of art, it was the result of collaboration among designers. For the execution of its astonishing revetment of marbles inlaid with colored marbles and semi-precious stone, the Grand Ducal hardstone workshop, the Opificio delle Pietre Dure was established. The art of commessi, as it was called in Florence, the result was disapproved of by 18th and 19th century visitors, but has come to be appreciated for an example of the taste of its time. Six grand sarcophagi are empty, the Medici remains are interred in the crypt below, in sixteen compartments of the dado are coats-of-arms of Tuscan cities under Medici control. In the niches that were intended to hold sculptures of Medici. The lantern at the top of the Medici Chapel is made out of marble and has an “…. unusual polyhedron mounted on the peak of the conical roof, the orb that is on top of the lantern has seventy-two facets and is about two feet in diameter. But because it is on a mausoleum, the Medici family is promoting their own personal power with the orb and cross, laurel wreath and lion heads. The lantern that holds up the orb helps to accentuate the height and size of the chapel, the lantern is a bit less than seven meters tall and, “…is equal to the height of the dome it surmounts, ”. The lantern metaphorically expresses the themes of death and resurrection, the lantern is where the soul could escape and go from “…death to the afterlife. ”. ISBN 5-98856-012-1 Peter Barenboim, Sergey Shiyan, Michelangelo, Mysteries of the Medici Chapel, SLOVO, ISBN 5-85050-825-2 Peter Barenboim, Sergey Shiyan, Michelangelo in the Medici Chapel, Genius in detailsMedici Chapel – The dome of the Cappella dei Principi dominates the San Lorenzo architectural complex.
3. Florence – Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants, Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has called the Athens of the Middle Ages. A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, from 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. The Historic Centre of Florence attracts 13 million tourists each year and it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture, the city also contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art, culture and politics. Due to Florences artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world, in 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, and later, after a period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically, economically, and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe, the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, and still is, accepted as the Italian language. Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War and they similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European historys most important noble families, Lorenzo de Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century, Leo X, catherine de Medici married king Henry II of France and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France. Marie de Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king Louis XIII, the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de Medici in 1737. The Etruscans initially formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole and it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century, Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital. The population began to again and commerce prosperedFlorence – A collage of Florence showing the Galleria degli Uffizi (top left), followed by the Palazzo Pitti, a sunset view of the city and the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria
4. Dusk (Michelangelo) – Dusk is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo, datable to 1524-34. It is a pair with Dawn on the tomb of Lorenzo II de Medici in the Medici Chapel in San Lorenzo in Florence. Its creation started simultaneously with the resuming of the works at the New Sacristy of Florence, during 1524, the sculptures termination date remains unknown, however, the works were interrupted during the Siege of Florence and resumed in 1531Dusk (Michelangelo) – This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (December 2011) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
5. Head of a Faun – Head of a faun is a lost sculpture by Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo, dating from c. His first known work of sculpture in marble, it was sculpted when he was 15 or 16 as a copy of a work with some minor alterations. According to Giorgio Vasaris biography of the artist, it was the creation of work that secured the young Michaelangelo the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici. Artists Life — Michelangelo, page 14,15 — Enrica Crispino,2001, the Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti, page 23 — John Addington Symonds, BiblioBazaar. Michael Angelo, Giorgio Vasaris Lives of the Artists, Fordham University The Boy Michelangelo carving the Head of the Faun - Sculpture of Cesare ZocchiHead of a Faun – Cast of a head in Bargello Museum until 1944, once attributed as Michelangelo's Head of a Faun
6. Madonna of the Stairs – The Madonna of the Stairs is a relief sculpture by Michelangelo in the Casa Buonarroti, Florence. It was sculpted around 1491, when Michelangelo was about seventeen and this and the Battle of the Centaurs were Michelangelos first two sculptures. The first reference to the Madonna of the Stairs as a work by Michelangelo was in the 1568 edition of Giorgio Vasaris Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects. Pronounced is the muscle of the Child and the taking of Mary, especially with large hands, thanks to the different treatment of the surfaces, make it appear vigorous simple, everyday gesture. Virtuoso is finally the fall of the drapery, especially on Cubics seat and it is difficult to determine the significance of this background scene, perhaps a simple exercise in style or a tribute to dancing putti DonatelloMadonna of the Stairs – Madonna of the Stairs
7. Battle of the Centaurs (Michelangelo) – Battle of the Centaurs is a relief by Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo, created around 1492. It was the last work Michelangelo created while under the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici, inspired by a classical relief created by Bertoldo di Giovanni, the unfinished marble sculpture depicts the mythic battle between the Lapiths and the Centaurs. A popular subject of art in ancient Greece, the story was suggested to Michelangelo by the classical scholar, Battle of the Centaurs was a remarkable sculpture in several ways, presaging Michelangelos future sculptural direction. Michelangelo had departed from the current practices of working on a discrete plane to work multidimensionally. Whether intentionally left unfinished or not, the work is significant in the tradition of non finito sculpting technique for that reason, Michelangelo regarded it as the best of his early works, and a visual reminder of why he should have focused his efforts on sculpture. Michelangelo, at 17, was working under the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici when he crafted the Battle of the Centaurs, the work reflected a then current fashion for reproducing ancient themes. Specifically, Michelangelo was inspired by a relief that had produced for de Medici by Bertoldo di Giovanni. Michelangelo chose to work in marble rather than the more expensive bronze to keep down costs, Bertoldo took other liberties with his source material and seems to have himself been inspired by the Antonio del Pollaiolo engraving Battle of the Nudes. The young sculptor never finished the work and he also notes that Michelangelo expressed no dissatisfaction with the work. Whether or not the sculpture was left incomplete, Michelangelo regarded this sculpture as the best of his early works. According to Condivi, the poet Poliziano suggested the subject to Michelangelo. The battle depicted takes place between the Lapiths and the Centaurs at the wedding feast of Pirithous, Pirithous, king of the Lapith, had long clashed with the neighboring Centaurs. To mark his good intentions Pirithous invited the Centaurs to his wedding to Hippodamia, whose name and this led not only to an immediate clash, but to a year-long war, before the defeated Centaurs were expelled from Thessaly to the northwest. The myth was a subject for Greek sculpture and painting. Battles between Lapiths and Centaurs were depicted in the friezes on the Parthenon and on Zeus temple at Olympia. Scigliano suggests that Michelangelos Battle of the Centaurs also reflects the themes of Greeks over barbarians and civilization over savagery, the triumph of stone over flesh. The relief consists of a mass of figures, writhing in combat. Architectural historian Howard Hibbard says that Michelangelo has obscured the centaurs, one of the few identifiable centaurs is visible in the bottom center, his leg extending between the legs of the twisting figure above himBattle of the Centaurs (Michelangelo) – Battle of the Centaurs
8. Crucifix (Michelangelo) – Two different crucifixes, or strictly wooden corpus figures for crucifixes, are attributed to the High Renaissance master Michelangelo, although neither is universally accepted as his. Both are relatively small figures which would have produced in Michelangelos youth. It was perhaps made for the altar of the Church of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito in Florence. The work is notable for the fact that this Christ is naked. Michelangelo Buonarroti was a guest of the convent of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito when he was seventeen years old, after the death of his protector Lorenzo de Medici. Here he could make anatomical studies of the coming from the convents hospital, in exchange. Today the crucifix is in the sacristy of the Basilica of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito. The nudity of the figure is true to the Gospels, christs clothing being removed by Roman soldiers is offered as the fulfilment of Psalm 22,18, They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture. All of the Gospel writers suggest the nakedness, while John supplies the details, The sign attached to the cross includes Jesus accusation inscribed in Hebrew, Greek, the wording translates Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews. All of the record this inscription, which varies slightly among them. Here the artist favored the rendering from Johns Gospel, also present is the spear wound inflicted into Jesus’ side by a Roman soldier. His blood is seen here dripping from the wound on his right side, the figure had been previously exhibited in 2004 in the Museo Horne in Florence. The figure measures 41.3 by 39.7 centimetres and was made around 1495. In December 2009, an inquiry has been opened into the acquisition of the crucifix by the Italian state. ANSA reports that, several experts have cast doubts on the attribution, with the doyenne of Michelangelo cross studies, German art historian Margrit Lisner, media related to Michelangelos crucifix in Florence at Wikimedia CommonsCrucifix (Michelangelo) – Crucifix
9. Arca di San Domenico – The Arca di San Domenico is a monument containing the remains of Saint Dominic. It is located in Dominic’s Chapel in the Basilica of San Domenico in Bologna, the elaboration of this artistic masterpiece was performed in separate stages by the best sculptors of their time and took almost 500 years to finish. Saint Dominic died in the convent of the church of San Nicolò delle Vigne on 6 August 1221 and he was buried behind the altar. The church of San Nicolò was expanded into the Basilica of San Domenico between 1228 and 1240. The remains of the saint were moved in 1233 from its place behind the altar into a marble sarcophagus. Since most of the pilgrims, who came in numbers to see the grave, were not able to see this shrine, hidden by so many people standing in front of it. In 1264, the Dominicans then commissioned a new tomb for their founder to Nicola Pisano and he was certainly responsible for the design of the new sarcophagus, but in 1265 he was already at work on another assignment, the pulpit for the Siena Cathedral. The front side was done in his workshop, partially by Nicola Pisano himself, the rectangular sarcophagus was originally borne on caryatid figures. The sarcophagus was relocated in the middle of the church in 1411, between 1469 and 1473 a crowning was added on the flat top of the sarcophagus by Niccolò dellArca and several other masters in their art. Among them was the young Michelangelo, who added the statuettes of San Petronio, in 1532, a step was added between the sarcophagus and the altar slab by Alfonso Lombardi. The Saint Dominic’s chapel was built by the Bolognese architect Floriano Ambrosini from 1597, the Dominicans wanted a chapel for their founder to match the splendour of the other existing chapels. The fresco on the cupola of the apse St. Dominic’s Glory, finally the whole tomb was put on a marble altar in the 18th century. In a little chapel, on the back of the tomb, is the reliquary with the Head of St. Dominic. The sarcophagus is the part and also the oldest part of the shrine. It contains the remains of Saint Dominic in a cypress coffin, Nicola Pisano, already famous for his pulpit in the Pisa Baptistery, was asked in 1264 to construct this sarcophagus. He was certainly responsible for the design, but left the brunt of the work to his workshop, the front side was done in his workshop, partially by Nicola Pisano himself but mostly by his assistant Lapo di Ricevuto. and another famous sculptor Arnolfo di Cambio. The Dominican brother fra Guglielmo da Pisa made a small contribution, according to Gnudi an anonymous Fifth Master was also involved. A collaboration of several sculptors on such a commission was normal practice in medieval sculptureArca di San Domenico – General view of the Arca di San Domenico.
10. Bacchus (Michelangelo) – Bacchus is a marble sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect and poet Michelangelo. The statue is somewhat over life-size and depicts Bacchus, the Greek god of wine, along with the Pietà the Bacchus is one of only two surviving sculptures from the artists first period in Rome. Bacchus is depicted with rolling eyes, his body almost teetering off the rocky outcrop on which he stands. Sitting behind him is a faun, who eats the bunch of grapes slipping out of Bacchuss left hand, the inspiration for the work appears to be the description in Pliny the Elders Natural History of a lost bronze sculpture by Praxiteles, depicting Bacchus, Drunkenness and a satyr. The sense of precariousness resulting from a centre of gravity can be found in a number of later works by the artist, most notably the David. Bacchus wears a wreath of ivy leaves, as that plant was sacred to the god, in his right hand he holds a goblet of wine and in his left the skin of a tiger, an animal associated with the god for its love of the grape. The hand holding the goblet was broken off and the penis chiseled away before Maarten van Heemskerck saw the sculpture in the 1530s, only the goblet was restored, in the early 1550s. The mutilation may have been to give the sculpture an illusion of antiquity, placed as it initially was among an antique torso. Such a concession to classical sensibilities did not, however, convince Percy Bysshe Shelley of the fidelity to the spirit. He wrote that It looks drunken, brutal, and narrow-minded, the art historian Johannes Wilde summarised responses to the sculpture thus, in brief. It is not the image of a god, the statue was commissioned for the garden of Cardinal Raffaele Riario who intended for it to complement his collection of classical sculptures. There it first appeared in a drawing by Maarten van Heemskerck, the statue was bought for the Medici and transferred to Florence in 1572. The Mirror of the Gods, Classical Mythology in Renaissance Art, Michelangelo and the Reinvention of the Human Body. London, Chatto & Windus Hirst, Michael, Dunkerton, Jill, making and Meaning, The Young Michelangelo. New Haven and London, Yale University Press, Italian High Renaissance and Baroque Sculpture. Project Gutenberg Media related to Michelangelos Bacchus at Wikimedia CommonsBacchus (Michelangelo) – Bacchus
11. David (Michelangelo) – David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504 by Michelangelo. It is a 5. 17-metre marble statue of a male nude. The statue represents the Biblical hero David, a subject in the art of Florence. The eyes of David, with a glare, were turned towards Rome. The statue was moved to the Galleria dellAccademia, Florence, in 1873, the history of the statue begins before Michelangelos work on it from 1501 to 1504. In 1410 Donatello made the first of the statues, a figure of Joshua in terracotta, a figure of Hercules, also in terracotta, was commissioned from the Florentine sculptor Agostino di Duccio in 1463 and was made perhaps under Donatellos direction. Eager to continue their project, in 1464, the Operai contracted Agostino to create a sculpture of David, a block of marble was provided from a quarry in Carrara, a town in the Apuan Alps in northern Tuscany. Agostino only got as far as beginning to shape the legs, feet and his association with the project ceased, for reasons unknown, with the death of Donatello in 1466, and ten years later Antonio Rossellino was commissioned to take up where Agostino had left off. Rossellinos contract was terminated soon thereafter, and the block of marble remained neglected for 25 years, all the while exposed to the elements in the yard of the cathedral workshop. This was of concern to the Opera authorities, as such a large piece of marble not only was costly but represented a large amount of labour. In 1500, an inventory of the cathedral workshops described the piece as a figure of marble called David, badly blocked out. A year later, documents showed that the Operai were determined to find an artist who could take this piece of marble. They ordered the block of stone, which they called The Giant, raised on its feet so that an experienced in this kind of work might examine it. Though Leonardo da Vinci and others were consulted, it was Michelangelo, only 26 years old, on 16 August 1501, Michelangelo was given the official contract to undertake this challenging new task. He began carving the statue early in the morning on 13 September and he would work on the massive statue for more than two years. They convened a committee of 30 Florentine citizens that comprised many artists, including Leonardo da Vinci and Sandro Botticelli, while nine different locations for the statue were discussed, the majority of members seem to have been closely split between two sites. Another opinion, supported by Botticelli, was that the sculpture should be situated on or near the cathedral. In June 1504, David was installed next to the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, replacing Donatellos bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes and it took four days to move the statue the half mile from Michelangelos workshop into the Piazza della SignoriaDavid (Michelangelo) – David
12. Madonna of Bruges – The Madonna of Bruges is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo of Mary with the Child Jesus. Instead, Jesus stands upright, almost unsupported, only loosely restrained by Marys left hand, meanwhile, Mary does not cling to her son or even look at him, but gazes down and away. It is believed the work was intended for an altar piece. If this is so, then it would have been displayed facing slightly to the right, the early 15th Century sculpture also displays the High Renaissance Pyramid style frequently seen in the works of Leonardo Da Vinci during the late 1400s. Madonna and Child shares certain similarities with Michelangelos Pietà, which was completed shortly before--mainly, the long, oval face of Mary is also reminiscent of the Pietà. The work is notable in that it was the only sculpture by Michelangelo to leave Italy during his lifetime. It was bought by Giovanni and Alessandro Moscheroni, from a family of cloth merchants in Bruges. The sculpture was sold for 4,000 florin, the sculpture was removed twice from Belgium after its initial arrival. It was returned after Napoleons final defeat at Waterloo in 1815, the second removal was in 1944, during World War II, with the retreat of German soldiers, who smuggled the sculpture to Germany enveloped in mattresses in a Red Cross truck. It was discovered a year later in Altaussee/Austria within a salt mine and it now sits in the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, Belgium. This is part of the fact-based movie The Monuments Men, after the attack on Michelangelos Pietà in 1972, the sculpture was placed behind bulletproof glass, and the public can only view it from 15 feet away. Roman Catholic Marian art Monuments MenMadonna of Bruges – Madonna and Child
13. Piccolomini Altarpiece – The Piccolomini Altarpiece is an architectural and sculptural altarpiece in the left-nave of Siena Cathedral, commissioned by cardinal Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini. Francesco Caglioti, in Le sculture del duomo di Siena, Silvana Editoriale, Milano,2009, umberto Baldini, Michelangelo scultore, Rizzoli, Milano,1973. Guida dItalia, Touring Club Italiano, Milano,2003Piccolomini Altarpiece – Piccolomini Altarpiece
14. Taddei Tondo – The Taddei Tondo or The Virgin and Child with the Infant St John is a marble relief tondo by Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo Buonarroti. Part of the permanent collection of the Royal Academy of Arts in London, a perfect demonstration of his carving technique, the work delivers a powerful emotional and narrative punch. The tondo dates to Michelangelos time in Florence before his move to Rome in 1505, which works were considered outstanding and marvellous. A chisel blow on the reverse seemingly from this phase resulted in a hairline crack in the face of the Virgin that may only have become apparent as carving progressed. The missing segment to the right may be a result of an excess of his celebrated direct attack. In 1568 the tondo was still in the Palazzo Taddei, at an unknown date the tondo was taken to Rome, where it was acquired from Jean-Baptiste Wicar by Sir George Beaumont in 1822. It has been housed and displayed in various locations there ever since, except for an exhibition at the Victoria, the discovery of the hairline crack running through the upper half of the marble contributed to the decision in 1989 to provide a permanent home for the tondo. The tondo was left unwaxed and no other coating applied, as the work is not finished and was not originally polished, the tondo as a format for painting and relief sculpture was a quintessential product of the Florentine Renaissance. Compositionally, the eye of the viewer is drawn diagonally along Christs body, back up that of his mother, with her gaze across to John, and from his face back to Christ. John, patron saint of Florence, with his attribute of a bowl, crosses his arms. Executed with only a point and claw chisel, often hard and with great energy. The Christ child in full relief is highly finished, the relief of the Virgin finished to a lesser degree, St. John more so again. These marked variations in texture help establish the status of the three figures while creating a sense of compositional depth all the greater for not being more conventionally finished. Many of Michelangelos works are unfinished, according to nineteenth-century French sculptor and critic Eugène Guillaume, Michelangelos non finito was one of the masters expressive devices in his quest for infinite suggestiveness. Raphael returned to the body of the Christ child stretching across his mothers lap in the Bridgewater Madonna. It is indeed a great addition to our stock of art, cockerell noted in his diary how the subject seems growing from the marble & emerging into life. It assumes by degrees its shape, features from an unformed mass, with its differing degrees of finish the tondo is an outstanding technical study piece, plaster casts may be found at the Victoria and Albert Museum and Fitzwilliam Museum. Pitti Tondo Doni Tondo Taddei TondoTaddei Tondo – Taddei Tondo
15. Tomb of Pope Julius II – The Tomb of Pope Julius II is a sculptural and architectural ensemble by Michelangelo and his assistants, originally commissioned in 1505 but not completed until 1545 on a much reduced scale. Originally intended for St. Peters Basilica, the tomb was placed in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli on the Esquiline in Rome after the popes death. This church was patronised by the della Rovere family from which Julius came, as originally conceived, the tomb would have been a colossal structure that would have given Michelangelo the room he needed for his superhuman, tragic beings. The original project called for a freestanding, three-level structure with some 40 statues, the most famous sculpture associated with the tomb is the figure of Moses, which was completed during one of the sporadic resumptions of the work in 1513. Michelangelo felt that this was his most lifelike creation, legend has it that upon its completion he struck the right knee commanding, now speak. As he felt that life was the only thing left inside the marble, there is a scar on the knee thought to be the mark of Michelangelos hammer. 1505 – Julius commissions a tomb from Michelangelo, who spends 6 months choosing marble at Carrara,1506 – Michelanglo returns to Rome due to a lack of funds available for the project, and is dismissed by an angry and bitter Julius. Michelangelo moves to Florence until Julius threatens to wage war on the state unless he returns,1512 – With his decoration of the Sistine Chapel ceiling complete, Michelangelo resumed work on the tomb. Between 1512 and 1513 he completed three sculptures for the project, the Dying and Rebellious Slaves and Moses,1513 – Julius died in February 1513. A new contract was drawn up on 6 May which specified a wall tomb, on 9 July Michelangelo contracted a stonemason, Antonio del Ponte a Sieve, to execute the architectural elements of the tombs lower register, which can be seen in the final design. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City has a drawing of the tomb from this period, though no longer for a free-standing monument, the project in fact became more ambitious both in terms of size and the complexity of its iconography. 1516 – A new contract is agreed between Michelangelo and Julius’s heirs who demand the completion of the project, 1520s – Michelangelo carves The Genius of Victory and four unfinished Slaves. 1532 – A second new contract is signed by Michelangelo which involves a wall-tomb,1542 – The wall-tomb is begun by Michelangelo after final details are negotiated with Julius′s grandson. The statues of the Dying Slave and the Rebellious Slave were finished but not included in the monument in its last and they are now in the Louvre. Another figure intended for Pope Julius tomb is The Genius of Victory, other sculptures for the tomb were the Young Slave, the Atlas Slave, the Bearded Slave and the Awakening Slave. The sculptures of Rachel and Leah, allegories of the contemplative and the life, were executed by Raffaello da Montelupo. The other sculptures are by less experienced pupils, media related to Michelangelos grave for Julius II at Wikimedia CommonsTomb of Pope Julius II – The tomb of Julius II, with Michelangelo's statues of Rachel and Leah on the left and the right of his Moses.
16. Moses (Michelangelo) – The Moses is a sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance artist Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome. The statue of Moses would have placed on a tier about 3.74 meters high. In the final design, the statue of Moses sits in the center of the bottom tier, giorgio Vasari in the Life of Michelangelo wrote, Michelangelo finished the Moses in marble, a statue of five braccia, unequalled by any modern or ancient work. The Jews still go every Saturday in troops to visit and adore it as a divine and his right arm links the Tables of the Law with a portion of his beard, his left arm lies in his lap. When he came down from Mount Sinai, Moses found his people worshipping the Golden Calf - the false idol they had made and his anger defies the prison of stone, the limits of the sculptors art. Few can resist the impression of a mind, real emotions. Today, he glares at the tourists who mob the church of San Pietro in Vincoli and he outfaces them, just as he outfaced Sigmund Freud, who spent three weeks in 1913 trying to figure out the sculptures emotional effect. Mosess vitality has made this work popular since the 16th century, according to Vasari, Romes Jewish population adopted the statue as their own. Its power must have something to do with the rendition of things that should be impossible to depict in stone, most quirkily, following the iconographic convention common in Latin Christianity, the statue has two horns on its head. This was Jeromes effort to translate the difficult, original Hebrew Masoretic text, which uses the term, karan. The Greek Septuagint, which Jerome also had available, translated the verse as Moses knew not that the appearance of the skin of his face was glorified. In general medieval theologians and scholars understood that Jerome had intended to express a glorification of Moses face, the understanding that the original Hebrew was difficult and was not likely to literally mean horns persisted into and through the Renaissance. For the next 150 years or so, evidence for further images of a horned Moses is sparse, in the 16th century, the prevalence of depictions of a horned Moses steeply diminished. The depiction with horns is first found in 11th-century England, a book published in 2008 advanced a theory that the horns on Michelangelos statue were never meant to be seen and that it is wrong to interpret them as horns, never had horns. The artist had planned Moses as a not only of sculpture. For this reason, the piece had to be elevated and facing straight forward, the two protrusions on the head would have been invisible to the viewer looking up from the floor below — the only thing that would have been seen was the light reflected off of them. Freud describes Moses in a psychological state, We may now, I believe. But this interpretation had to be given up, for it made us expect to see him spring up in the moment, break the TablesMoses (Michelangelo) – Moses
17. Rebellious Slave – The Rebellious Slave is a 2. 15m high marble statue by Michelangelo, dated to 1513. It is now held in the Louvre in Paris, the two slaves of the Louvre date to the second version of the tomb of Pope Julius II which was commissioned by the Popes heirs, the Della Rovere in May 1513. Among the first pieces completed were the two Prigioni, destined for the part of the funerary monument, next to the pilasters which framed the niches containing the Victories. Their poses were determined by the needs of this setting, so from the front they have great effect. All the Prigioni produced in the studio of the artist were eliminated from the monument in its final version, completed in 1542. In 1546 Michelangelo gave the two works in the Louvre to Roberto Strozzi, for his generous hospitality in his Roman house during Michelangelos periods of sickness in July 1544 and June 1546. When Strozzi was exiled to Lyon in April 1550 for his opposition to Cosimo I de Medici, in April 1578 they were put on view in two niches in the courtyard of the castle of the constable of Montmorency at Écouen, near Paris. In 1749, the Duke of Richelieu had them taken to Paris, the Rebellious Slave is portrayed trying to free himself from the fetters which hold his hands behind his back, contorting his torso and twisting his head. The impression given, which would have contributed to the appearance of the monument, was that he was moving towards the viewer, with his raised shoulder. For Ascanio Condivi, however, they symbolised the Arts taken prisoner after the death of pontif, the Rebellious slave in particular might, speculatively, represent sculpture or architecture. Other meanings of a symbolic and philosophical nature have been suggested as well as linked to Michelangelos personal lifeRebellious Slave – Rebellious Slave
18. Dying Slave – The Dying Slave is a sculpture by the Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo. Created between 1513 and 1516, it was to serve with another figure, the Rebellious Slave and it is a marble figure 2.15 metres in height, and is held at the Louvre, Paris. In 1976 the art historian Richard Fly wrote that it suggests that moment when life capitulates before the force of dead matter. However, in a recent scholarly volume entitled The Slave in European Art, twelve reproductions of the Dying Slave adorn the top storey of the 12th arrondissement police station in Paris. Although Art Deco in style, the building was designed in 1991 by architects Manolo Nunez-Yanowski, st. Quentin Representation of slavery in European art Media related to Michelangelos Dying Slave at Wikimedia CommonsDying Slave – Dying Slave
19. Young Slave – The Young Slave is a marble sculpture of Michelangelo, datable to around 1525–1530 which is conserved in the Galleria dellAccademia in Florence. It is part of the series of Prigioni intended for the Tomb of Julius II. With one on side of each niche, it must have been initially intended for there to be sixteen or twenty Prigioni. In the course of the reductions of the project which followed, according to de Tolnay the Young Slave was intended for the space left of the central niche in the project of 1516. The first examples of the series are the two Prigioni of Paris, which are mentioned in Michelangelos letters and were named the Slaves in the 19th century, the Dying Slave and they were sculpted in Rome around 1513. The Florentine Prigioni were probably sculpted in the half of the 1520s. They are known to have been in the store on the via Mozza until 1544. They were removed there in 1908 to join the Michelangelo collection which had been formed in the Florentine gallery. Wilde proposed 1523, because there is a reference to the cardinal Giulio de Medici having seen them before he left for Rome on that date, a wax bozzetto of the work at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London is generally considered to have been made by Michelangelo himself. The Young slave has slightly bent knees as if bearing an enormous force bearing down his back and his left arm is raised to cover his face and his right arm is behind his back, held by a chain which is not visible. The figure is among the most complete of the group and shows clear definition in his legs, torso and his hands and head are less worked, while the back is completely unsculpted. The whole surface gives clear traces of the chisels and scrapers used in the sculpting process. Because of its unfinished state it has an energy, which connects the figure to some kind of primordial act of liberation from its prison of crude stone – an epic battle with chaos. The meaning of the Prigioni was probably linked to the motif of the Captivi in Roman art, in fact, Vasari identifies them as personifications of the provinces controlled by Julius II. For Condivi, however, they symbolised the Arts, turned into prisoners after the Popes death, other scholars have made suggested philosophical-symbolic meanings or links to the personal life of the artist and his torments. Umberto Baldini, Michelangelo scultore, Rizzoli, Milano 1973, marta Alvarez Gonzáles, Michelangelo, Mondadori Arte, Milano 2007Young Slave – Young Slave
20. Bearded Slave – The Bearded Slave is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo datable to around 1525–1530 and kept in the Galleria dellAccademia in Florence. It forms part of the series of unfinished Prigioni intended for the Tomb of Pope Julius II, with a pair on each side of each niche, there must initially have been sixteen or twenty such statues planned. This number was reduced in successive designs, to twelve, eight and finally maybe only four, before being eliminated from the project altogether in the final version of 1542. The first members of the series, who are mentioned in Michelangelos letters are the two Prigioni of Paris, named the Slaves in the century, the Dying Slave. They were carved in Rome around 1513, the Florentine Prigioni were probably carved instead in the second half of the 1520s, while Michelangelo was employed at San Lorenzo in Florence. It is known that they were in the warehouse on the via Mozza in 1544. The permission was denied and only in 1564 were they donated, along with the Genius of Victory and they were removed from there in 1908, in order to be reunited with other works of Michelangelo in the Florentine gallery. The Bearded Slave is the most finished of the Florentine Prigioni and gets his name from his thick, curly beard. The way his muscular torso twists indicates a knowledge of anatomy, typical of the best works of Michelangelo, his legs, slightly bent. His right arm is raised to hold his bent head, while his hand remains unfinished. The whole surface retains many traces of the chisels and scrapers used on the sculpture. Along his hips there is a fracture, whose cause is unknown. Its unfinished state creates an energy, with the figure caught in a sort of primordial act of freeing himself from the cage of the rough stone. For Condivi, however, they symbolised the Arts, made prisoners by the death of the pontif, other scholars have made proposals of a philosophical/symbolic character or connected to the artists personal life and his torments. Umberto Baldini, Michelangelo scultore, Rizzoli, Milano 1973, marta Alvarez Gonzáles, Michelangelo, Mondadori Arte, Milano 2007. ISBN 88-09-04880-6 Prigioni Tomb of Pope Julius II List of works by Michelangelo http, //www. polomuseale. firenze. it/catalogo/scheda. asp. nctn=00281986&value=1Bearded Slave – Bearded Slave
21. The Genius of Victory – The Genius of Victory is a 1532–34 marble sculpture by Michelangelo, produced as part of a design for the tomb of Pope Julius II. It is 2.61 m high and is now in the Salone dei Cinquecento of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, the exact date of execution of the statue is unknown, but it is usually related to the project for the tomb of Julius II. On the other hand, the monument may have been coupled with a pair of fighters. Vasari suggested rather giving the statue to Duke Cosimo I de Medici, if the Slaves from Juliuss tomb ended up in Buontalentis Grotto in the Boboli Gardens, the Victory came to decorate the Salone dei Cinquecento of the Palazzo Vecchio. It was placed along the wall, among the statues of the Labors of Hercules by Vincenzo de Rossi, in 1868, three years after the opening of the National Museum of the Bargello, the statue was included in the collection of Florentine sculpture gathered in the museum. Only in recent years has the Victory been restored to its position along the right wall. In addition, the head has a crown of oak leaves that allude to the Della Rovere emblem, the sculpture does not represent a moment of fighting, but rather serves as an allegory of victoriousness. It depicts the winner who dominates the submissive loser with great agility, with one leg that blocks the body of the captive, who is folded and chained. The young man who is the genius is beautiful and elegant, while the man is old and bearded, with a flabby body. Umberto Baldini, Michelangelo scultore, Rizzoli, Milan 1973, howard Hibbard, Michelangelo, New York,1974. Marta Alvarez Gonzalez, Michelangelo, Art Mondadori, Milan 2007The Genius of Victory – The Genius of Victory
22. Cristo della Minerva – It is in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome, to the left of the main altar. A new version was substituted in 1519-1520 to fulfil the terms of the contract. There it remained, described by Aldrovandi in 1556, and noted in some contemporary letters as apparently for sale in 1607, despite all these problems, the second version impressed the contemporaries. Sebastiano del Piombo declared that the knees alone were worthy of more than the whole Rome, christ is shown by Michelangelo unclothed in a standing pose. During the Baroque period a girdle was added, a leg is flexed and the head turned back, according to the principle of contrappostoCristo della Minerva – Christ Carrying the Cross
23. Medici Madonna – The Medici Madonna is a marble sculpture carved by Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti that measures about 88.98 inches in height. Dating from 1521–1534 the sculpture is a piece of the decoration of the Sagrestia Nuova in the Basilica of San Lorenzo. The work, according to Michelangelos letters and other documents, was one of the first works begun for the decoration of the Sagrestia Vecchia, as early as 1521. In 1526 it was incomplete and in 1534, when Michelangelo moved to Rome, it was left in the current unfinished state. The Medici Madonna depicts a scene of the infant Jesus Christ sitting in the lap of the Virgin Mary, Christ is attempting to nurse from the Virgin Mother, who by every indication appears to be denying her breast to her child. Another indication of the Virgin Mother denying the infant Christ of her breast is shown through the girdled chiton garment she is wearing that completely conceals her, there has been speculation that a Roman copy of the 5th century statue of Penelope influences the pose in this sculpture. Several preparatory drawings show a less compact composition, in which the Madonnas legs were parallel to each other, the composition is somewhat similar to the Madonna of the Stairs, with the Virgin sitting on nearly cubic block and breastfeeding the Child. The latter is turning his body towards his mother, hiding the face from the seer and it is believed that although the work was commissioned, the Medici Madonna is largely tied to his own deep rooted personal issues. Marys Motherhood According to Leonardo and Michelangelo, Michelangelos Madonna Medici and Related Works. Media related to Madonna Medici at Wikimedia CommonsMedici Madonna – Plaster cast of the Medici Madonna in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow
24. Apollo (Michelangelo) – The Apollo, Apollo-David, David-Apollo, or Apollino is a 1.46 m unfinished marble sculpture by Michelangelo that dates from approximately 1530. It now stands in the Bargello museum in Florence, the statue had been commissioned for the private palace of Baccio Valori when the fierce governor was imposed on Florence by Clement VII after recovery of the city from a protracted siege. Work on the sculpture stopped shortly after Alessandro de Medici was made duke, the sculpture then entered the collection of Duke Cosimo I. It was placed in his quarters along with a Bacchus of Baccio Bandinelli, a work of Andrea Sansovino. Hallmarks of his style and methods exist on the work that support the attribution of the statue to Michelangelo. The subject of the statue was never noted by Michelangelo, however. According to Vasari it is an Apollo, perhaps in the act of taking an arrow from a quiver, in the inventory of Cosimo I of 1553, however, it is identified as, David, by whoever drew up the historic catalogue. Art critics therefore identify the sculpture as one or the other, or, by showing a title, Apollo-David or David-Apollo. Conjecture exists that the sculptor had started the work as David, perhaps toward 1525, there also are those who have attempted to identify the work as the lost Apollo Cupid, carved in 1537 by Jacopo Galli in Rome. In 1824 the statue was transported to the Uffizi, and later placed into the collection at the Bargello, now it is in the National Gallery of Art Museum, part of the Renaissance wing complete with European paintings and sculptures. Arms and legs are set to play an effective correlation with some joints bent, for example, the left arm is bent and stretched the right, and the right leg is extended and the left is bent over an unfinished structure on the ground. Some declare that the structure was intended to become the head of Goliath, behind the figure is a tree trunk, which essentially, is static and has a function of support for the whole statue. Another unfinished portion of the marble extends upward along its back from the waist, the strong movement of the head to the left is contrasted by the extreme straightness of the right arm. From another angle, the left arm isolates the upper body from the lower, generating a dynamic effect that is taught to art students as creating. If considered as a David rather than an Apollo, the statue presents a striking difference from the famous, athletic. Another interpretation is that the pose could express a veiled, but deep animosity by the sculptor against the conquerors of Florence, umberto Baldini, Michelangelo scultore, Rizzoli, Milano,1973. Marta Alvarez Gonzáles, Michelangelo, Mondadori Arte, Milano,2007, ISBN 978-88-370-6434-1 Lutz Heusinger, Michelangelo, in I protagonisti dellarte italiana, Scala Group, Firenze,2001Apollo (Michelangelo) – An unfinished statue ascribed to Michelangelo - National Museum of the Bargello
25. The Deposition (Michelangelo) – The Deposition is a marble sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo. The sculpture, on which Michelangelo worked between 1547 and 1555, depicts four figures, the body of Jesus Christ, newly taken down from the Cross, Nicodemus, Mary Magdalene. The sculpture is housed in the Museo dellOpera del Duomo in Florence, according to Vasari, Michelangelo made the Florence Pietà to decorate his tomb in Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Vasari noted that Michelangelo began to work on the sculpture around the age of 72, without commission, Michelangelo worked tirelessly into the night with just a single candle to illuminate his work. Vasari wrote that he began to work on this piece to amuse his mind, after 8 years of working on the piece, Michelangelo would go on and attempt to destroy the work in a fit of frustration. Since its inception, the piece has been plagued by ambiguities and never ending interpretations, the face of Nicodemus under the hood is considered to be a self-portrait of Michelangelo himself. The composition of work has caused controversy and debate since its creation. Art historians have argued back and forth about what scene or scenes are being presented in this piece as well as the identity of the hooded figure encapsulating the scene. The only way to know which scenes or scenes are being depicted lies within the identity of the hooded figure. Right away, it is clear who the three figures are in this piece. The body of Christ just after his crucifixion in the middle, being assisted by a distraught Virgin Mary to his left, all three of the known figures are in some way helped by the hooded figure in supporting Christs body. The hooded figure can be one of two people, or even both, historians argue that the figure can either be Joseph of Arimathea or Nicodemus, the latter of which is most generally accepted. Conventionally speaking, Joseph of Arimathea is usually shown with a beard and broods over Christs head, on the other hand, this figure could be Nicodemus who is typically shown with some type of head covering, which would be the hood in this case. Both Joseph and Nicodemus had significant roles in Christs final days, Joseph gave up his own tomb for Christ to use and he helped remove Christs body from the cross. Nicodemus moreover, had a conversation with Christ about how one could be again and obtain eternal life. From that conversation on, Nicodemus became involved with Christ and also aided Joseph of Arimathea in Christs deposition. Since both Joseph and Nicodemus were involved in the deposition, there is an argument that that is the scene being shown, so much so that to some. Christs serpentine shaped body sulks heavily in the arms of his loved ones as if he was in the process of descending from the cross straight into his mothers armsThe Deposition (Michelangelo) – The Deposition ("The Florentine Pietà")
26. The Torment of Saint Anthony (Michelangelo) – The Torment of Saint Anthony is the earliest known painting by Michelangelo, painted after an engraving by Martin Schongauer when he was only 12 or 13 years old. It is currently in the permanent collection of the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, but this composition shows a later episode where St Anthony, normally flown about the desert supported by angels, was ambushed in mid-air by devils. The painting was attributed to the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio. Under that attribution it was bought at a Sothebys auction in July 2008 by an American art dealer for US$2 million, on the basis of stylistic hallmarks such as emphatic cross hatching, it was decided that the painting was indeed by Michelangelo. It was soon bought by the Kimbell Art Museum for an undisclosed amount, besides this enhancement, Michelangelo also added a landscape below the figures, and altered the expression of the saint. Schongauers late-Gothic style is also in strong contrast with the rest of Michelangelos oeuvre, the prints of Schongauer, just reaching the end of his short life when Michelangelo copied him, were widely distributed in Europe, including ItalyThe Torment of Saint Anthony (Michelangelo) – The Torment of Saint Anthony
27. Manchester Madonna – The Madonna and Child with St John and Angels, also known as The Manchester Madonna, is an unfinished painting attributed to Michelangelo in the National Gallery, London. It is one of three surviving panel paintings attributed to the artist and is dated to his first period in Rome, the paintings attribution to Michelangelo was in doubt for much of the 19th and 20th centuries, but now most scholars are in agreement. The work first came to attention in the Art Treasures Exhibition in Manchester in 1857. The Virgin is depicted with one breast bared, as if she has recently been suckling her infant son, in her hands is a book which she attempts to hold away from her son, the contents of which probably foretell his future sacrifice. She looks over her left shoulder onto a scroll being read by a pair of angels, the figures are arranged as if in a frieze, revealing Michelangelos sculptors mindset. The frieze becomes more convex at its centre with the figures of Virgin and Child, another similarity to relief sculpture is in the plain background, rather than the landscapes more common for exterior settings, Michelangelo has simply painted an expanse of sky. He also eschewed the richly-decorated throne typical of sacra conversazione altarpieces, media related to Manchester Madonna at Wikimedia Commons David Ward, Michelangelos Madonna returns to Manchester, The Guardian, 05-10-2007Manchester Madonna – Madonna and Child with St John and Angels
28. The Entombment (Michelangelo) – The chronological position of this work has been the source of some dispute, although it is generally considered an early work. Some authorities believe that it may have been executed by one of Michelangelos pupils from a drawing by the master or was an imitation of his work. According to documents discovered in 1981, Michelangelo had been commissioned to paint a panel for the church of SantAgostino in Rome and it is probable that this work was the Entombment, which remained unfinished upon Michelangelos return to Florence. The centre of the panel portrays Christ being carried up a flight of steps to the sepulchre, the bearded older man behind him is probably Joseph of Arimathea, who gave up his tomb for use as Christs sepulchre. The long-haired figure on the left is probably Saint John, wearing a long orange-red gown, the identity of the two figures on the right is uncertain. Suggested identities for the elongated inner figure range from Nicodemus to one of the Marys, the large unfinished area at the bottom right was intended to be used for the kneeling form of the Virgin Mary. The floating appearance of some of the figures may be explained by the fact that the painting is intended to be viewed from below. However, the apparent incongruity of the stance of the bearer on the right remains problematical, many of the unfinished parts of the painting, such as the cloak of the missing Virgin, would have required quantities of the expensive lapis lazuli blue. If this was in short supply, it could be that this would have held up completion of the painting, which may explain why it was unfinished. However, even if this were so, it would not explain why the artist could not have completed the other parts of the painting that did not require any blue. There is also an anecdote that Michelangelo received a letter from his saying that he should abandon whatever he was doing because a great piece of marble had arrived for him. So he did, and turned that marble into David, study of a Kneeling Nude Girl for The Entombment National Gallery pageThe Entombment (Michelangelo) – The Entombment
29. Doni Tondo – The Doni Tondo or Doni Madonna, sometimes called The Holy Family, is the only finished panel painting by the mature Michelangelo to survive. The painting is in the form of a tondo, or round frame, the Doni Tondo features the Christian Holy family along with John the Baptist in the foreground and contains five ambiguous nude male figures in the background. The inclusion of these figures has been interpreted in a variety of ways. The Virgin Mary is the most prominent figure in the composition, Mary sits directly on the ground without a cushion between herself and the ground, to better communicate the theme of her relationship to the earth. The grass directly below the figure is green, which contrasts to the grassless ground surrounding her, although the green is now darker. Saint Joseph has a position in the image compared to Mary, perhaps as the head of the family. Mary is located between his legs, as if he is protecting her, there is some debate as to whether Mary is receiving the Christ child from Joseph or vice versa. Saint John the Baptist, the saint of Florence, is very commonly included in Florentine works depicting the Madonna. He is in the middle-ground of the painting, between the Holy Family and the background, the elements around the family include plants and perhaps water. The painting is still in its frame, one that Michelangelo might have influenced or helped design. The frame is ornately carved and rather unusual for the five heads it contains which protrude three-dimensionally into space, similar to the nudes of the background, the meanings of these heads has been subject to speculation. The frame also contains carvings of crescent moons, stars, vegetation and these symbols are, perhaps, references to the Doni and Strozzi families, taken from each one’s coat of arms. As depicted on the frame, “the moons are bound together with ribbons that interlock with the lions, there is a horizontal band separating the foreground and background, whose function is to separate the Holy Family from the background figures and St. John the Baptist. The background figures are five nudes, whose meaning and function are subject to much speculation, the Holy Family is much larger in size than the nudes in the background, and there appears to be water in between the land where the Holy Family and the nudes are situated. The Holy Family all gaze at Christ, but none of the nudes look directly at him, the far background contains a landscape. The juxtaposition of bright colors foreshadows the same use of color in Michelangelo’s later Sistine ceiling frescoes, the folds of the drapery are sharply modeled, and the skin of the figures is so smooth, it looks as if the medium is marble. The surface treatment of the massive figures resembles a more than a painting. The nude figures in the background have softer modeling and look to be precursors to the ignudi, Michelangelo’s technique includes shading from the most intense colors first to the lighter shades on top, using the darker colors as shadows, a technique called cangianteDoni Tondo – Doni Tondo (Doni Madonna)
30. Leda and the Swan – Leda and the Swan is a story and subject in art from Greek mythology in which the god Zeus, in the form of a swan, seduces Leda. According to later Greek mythology, Leda bore Helen and Polydeuces, children of Zeus, while at the time bearing Castor and Clytemnestra, children of her husband Tyndareus. Yeats version, it is suggested that Clytemnestra, although being the daughter of Tyndareus, has somehow been traumatized by what the swan has done to her mother. According to many versions of the story, Zeus took the form of a swan, in some versions, she laid two eggs from which the children hatched. In other versions, Helen is a daughter of Nemesis, the goddess who personified the disaster that awaited those suffering from the pride of Hubris. The subject undoubtedly owed its popularity to the paradox that it was considered more acceptable to depict a woman in the act of copulation with a swan than with a man. The earliest depictions show the pair love-making with some explicitness—more so than in any depictions of a pair made by artists of high quality in the same period. The fate of the erotic album I Modi some years later shows why this was so, the theme remained a dangerous one in the Renaissance, as the fates of the three best known paintings on the subject demonstrate. The earliest depictions were all in the more private medium of the old master print, the earliest known explicit Renaissance depiction is one of the many woodcut illustrations to Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, a book published in Venice in 1499. This shows Leda and the Swan making love with gusto, despite being on top of a car, being pulled along. An engraving dating to 1503 at the latest, by Giovanni Battista Palumba, also shows the couple in coitus, another engraving, certainly from Venice and attributed by many to Giulio Campagnola, shows a love-making scene, but there Ledas attitude is highly ambiguous. Palumba made another engraving, perhaps in about 1512, presumably influenced by Leonardos sketches for his composition, showing Leda seated on the ground. There were also significant depictions in the decorative arts, also private media. Benvenuto Cellini made a medallion, now in Vienna, early in his career, leonardo da Vinci began making studies in 1504 for a painting, apparently never executed, of Leda seated on the ground with her children. In 1508 he painted a different composition of the subject, with a nude standing Leda cuddling the Swan, the original of this is lost, probably deliberately destroyed, and was last recorded in the French royal Château de Fontainebleau in 1625 by Cassiano dal Pozzo. However it is known from copies, of which the earliest are probably the Spiridon Leda, perhaps by a studio assistant and now in the Uffizi. Michelangelos cartoon for the work—given to his assistant Antonio Mini, who used it for several copies for French patrons before his death in 1533—survived for over a century and this composition is known from many copies, including an ambitious engraving by Cornelis Bos, c. 1563, the sculpture by Bartolomeo Ammanati in the Bargello, Florence, two copies by the young Rubens on his Italian voyage, and the painting after MichelangeloLeda and the Swan – Leda and the Swan, a 16th-century copy by Peter Paul Rubens, after a lost painting by Michelangelo (National Gallery, London)
31. Palazzo Vecchio – The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence, Italy. It overlooks the Piazza della Signoria with its copy of Michelangelos David statue as well as the gallery of statues in the adjacent Loggia dei Lanzi, the building acquired its current name when the Medici dukes residence was moved across the Arno to the Palazzo Pitti. The cubical building is made of rusticated stonework, with two rows of two-lighted Gothic windows, each with a trefoil arch. In the 15th century, Michelozzo Michelozzi added decorative bas-reliefs of the cross, the building is crowned with projecting crenellated battlement, supported by small arches and corbels. Under the arches are a series of nine painted coats of arms of the Florentine republic. Some of these arches can be used as embrasures for dropping heated liquids or rocks on invaders, the solid, massive building is enhanced by the simple tower with its clock. This tower contains two cells, that, at different times, imprisoned Cosimo de Medici and Girolamo Savonarola. The tower is named after its designer Torre dArnolfo, Duke Cosimo I de Medici moved his official seat from the Medici palazzo in via Larga to the Palazzo della Signoria in May 1540, signalling the security of Medici power in Florence. Cosimo commissioned Giorgio Vasari to build a walkway, the Vasari corridor, from the Palazzo Vecchio, through the Uffizi. Cosimo I also moved the seat of government to the Uffizi, the palace gained new importance as the seat of united Italys provisional government from 1865–71, at a moment when Florence had become the temporary capital of the Kingdom of Italy. The tower currently has three bells, the oldest was cast in the 13th century, above the front entrance door, there is a notable ornamental marble frontispiece, dating from 1528. In the middle, flanked by two gilded lions, is the Monogram of Christ, surrounded by a glory, above the text, Rex Regum et Dominus Dominantium (translation, King of Kings and Lord of Lords. This text dates from 1851 and does not replace an earlier text by Savonarola as mentioned in guidebooks, between 1529 and 1851 they were concealed behind a large shield with the grand-ducal coat of arms. Michelangelos David also stood at the entrance from its completion in 1504 to 1873, a replica erected in 1910 now stands in its place, flanked by Baccio Bandinellis Hercules and Cacus. The first courtyard was designed in 1453 by Michelozzo, in the lunettes, high around the courtyard, are crests of the church and city guilds. In the center, the fountain is by Battista del Tadda. The Putto with Dolphin on top of the basin is a copy of the original by Andrea del Verrocchio and this small statue was originally placed in the garden of the Villa Medici at Careggi. The water, flowing through the nose of the dolphin, is brought here by pipes from the Boboli Gardens, in the niche, in front of the fountain, stands Samson and Philistine by Pierino da VinciPalazzo Vecchio – Palazzo Vecchio overlooks Piazza della Signoria
32. Battle of Cascina (Michelangelo) – The Battle of Cascina is an influential lost artwork by Michelangelo. The painting was commissioned from Michelangelo by Piero Soderini, statesman of the Democratic of Florence and it was intended to wall of the Salone dei Cinquecento in Palazzo Vecchio. The opposite wall was to be decorated by Leonardo da Vinci, the two battles were notable medieval Florentine victories. The Battle of Cascina was fought on 28 July 1364 between the troops of Florence and Pisa, resulting in victory of the former, a thousand Pisans were killed and two hundred more were captured. Michelangelo never completed the painting, but did produce a cartoon of the composition. The cartoon was copied by artists, the most notable extant copy being by Michelangelos pupil Sangallo. Some of Michelangelos preparatory drawings survive, along with prints of part of the scene by Marcantonio Raimondi. According to Michelangelos biographer Giorgio Vasari the original cartoon was deliberately destroyed by Michelangelos rival Bartolommeo Bandinelli because of his jealousy of its fame, Michelangelo depicted a scene at the beginning of the battle when the Florentine army was initially taken by surprise when the Pisans attacked. He depicts Florentine soldiers bathing naked in the river Arno responding to a trumpet which warns them of the sudden Pisan attack, as the soldiers emerge from the river and buckle on their armour, they are threatened by shots from the Pisans. Several soldiers look or point towards the Pisan position to the left, one soldier has apparently been hit and fallen back into the river, while others leap energetically into action. The chosen episode allowed Michelangelo to depict his favoured topic, the male figure in varieties of contrapposto. The Battle of Anghiari by Leonardo da Vinci, the pendant to this painting Studies to the Battle of CascinaBattle of Cascina (Michelangelo) – Copy of the Battle by Michelangelo's pupil Aristotele da Sangallo
33. Sistine Chapel – The Sistine Chapel is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City. Originally known as the Cappella Magna, the chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, since that time, the chapel has served as a place of both religious and functionary papal activity. Today it is the site of the Papal conclave, the process by which a new pope is selected, the fame of the Sistine Chapel lies mainly in the frescos that decorate the interior, and most particularly the Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Last Judgment by Michelangelo. In a different climate after the Sack of Rome, he returned, the fame of Michelangelos paintings has drawn multitudes of visitors to the chapel ever since they were revealed five hundred years ago. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 15th century, there were 50 occasions during the year on which it was prescribed by the Papal Calendar that the whole Papal Chapel should meet. Of these 50 occasions,35 were masses, of which 8 were held in Basilicas, in general St. Peters and these included the Christmas Day and Easter masses, at which the Pope himself was the celebrant. The other 27 masses could be held in a smaller, less public space, the Cappella Maggiore derived its name, the Greater Chapel, from the fact that there was another chapel also in use by the Pope and his retinue for daily worship. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV, this was the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V, the Cappella Maggiore is recorded as existing in 1368. The proportions of the present chapel appear to follow those of the original. The first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on 15 August 1483, the Sistine Chapel has maintained its function to the present day, and continues to host the important services of the Papal Calendar, unless the Pope is travelling. There is a permanent choir, the Sistine Chapel Choir, for whom much original music has been written, one of the functions of the Sistine Chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. On the occasion of a conclave, a chimney is installed in the roof of the chapel, if white smoke appears, created by burning the ballots of the election, a new Pope has been elected. The conclave also provided for the cardinals a space in which they can hear mass, and in which they can eat, sleep, and pass time attended by servants. From 1455, conclaves have been held in the Vatican, until the Great Schism, canopies for each cardinal-elector were once used during conclaves—a sign of equal dignity. After the new Pope accepts his election, he would give his new name, at this time, until reforms instituted by Saint Pius X, the canopies were of different colours to designate which Cardinals had been appointed by which Pope. Its exterior is unadorned by architectural or decorative details, as is common in many Italian churches of the Medieval, subsidence and cracking of masonry such as must also have affected the Cappella Maggiore has necessitated the building of very large buttresses to brace the exterior walls. The accretion of other buildings has further altered the appearance of the Chapel. The building is divided into three stories of which the lowest is a tall basement level with several utilitarian windowsSistine Chapel – View of the interior of the Sistine Chapel.
34. Sistine Chapel ceiling – The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art. The ceiling is that of the Sistine Chapel, the papal chapel built within the Vatican between 1477 and 1480 by Pope Sixtus IV, for whom the chapel is named. It was painted at the commission of Pope Julius II, the chapel is the location for papal conclaves and many important services. Pope Julius II was a pope who in his papacy undertook an aggressive campaign for political control, to unite. He invested in symbolism to display his power, such as his procession, in the Classical manner. It was Julius who began the rebuilding of St. Peters Basilica in 1506, in the same year 1506, Pope Julius conceived a program to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The walls of the chapel had been decorated twenty years earlier, the lowest of three levels is painted to resemble draped hangings and was hung on special occasions with the set of tapestries designed by Raphael. The middle level contains a scheme of frescoes illustrating the Life of Christ on the right side. It was carried out by some of the most renowned Renaissance painters, Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Pinturicchio, Signorelli, the upper level of the walls contains the windows, between which are painted pairs of illusionistic niches with representations of the first thirty-two popes. A draft by Matteo dAmelia indicates that the ceiling was painted blue like that of the Arena Chapel and decorated with gold stars, Michelangelo, who was not primarily a painter but a sculptor, was reluctant to take on the work. Also, he was occupied with a large sculptural commission for the popes own tomb. The pope was adamant, leaving Michelangelo no choice but to accept, but a war with the French broke out, diverting the attention of the pope, and Michelangelo fled from Rome to continue sculpting. The tomb sculptures, however, were never to be finished because in 1508 the pope returned to Rome victorious, the contract was signed on 10 May 1508. The scheme proposed by the pope was for large figures of the Apostles to occupy the pendentives. However, Michelangelo negotiated for a grander, much more complex scheme and was permitted, in his own words. It is unknown and is the subject of speculation among art historians whether Michelangelo was really able to do as he liked. It has been suggested that the Augustinian friar and cardinal, Giles of Viterbo, was a consultant for the aspect of the work. Many writers consider that Michelangelo had the intellect, the Biblical knowledge, a total of 343 figures were painted on the ceilingSistine Chapel ceiling – Detail from The Creation of Adam
35. Separation of Light from Darkness – Michelangelo probably completed this panel in the summer of 1512, the last year of the Sistine ceiling project. It is one of five smaller scenes that alternate with four scenes that run along the center of the Sistine ceiling. The Separation of Light from Darkness is based on verses 3–5 from the first chapter of the Book of Genesis, 3And God said, Let there be light, 4God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the darkness. 5God called the day, and the darkness he called night. And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day, Michelangelo painted the Sistine ceiling in two stages. Between May 1508 and the summer of 1511, he completed the half of the Sistine chapel and ended this stage by painting the Creation of Eve. After an idle period of about 6 months, he painted the altar half, starting with the Creation of Adam, in the Separation of Light from Darkness, the image of God is framed by four ignudi and by two shields or medallions. The ignudi are young, nude males that Michelangelo painted as supporting figures at each corner of the five smaller narrative scenes along the center of the ceiling, there are a total of 20 ignudi. These figures are all different and appear less constrained within their space than the Ancestors of Christ or the Bronze Nudes, in the earliest frescoes painted by Michelangelo toward the entrance of the Sistine chapel, the ignudi are paired, and their poses are similar but with minor variations. The variations in the increase with each set until the poses of the final set of four ignudi in the Separation of Light from Darkness bear no relation to each other. Pfeiffer and other scholars have suggested that in Michelangelos Sistine iconography the ignudi represent angels. Two shields or medallions accompany each set of four ignudi in the five smaller Genesis panels along the center of the Sistine ceiling and they are often described as painted to resemble bronze. Each is decorated with a picture from either the Old Testament or the Book of Maccabees from the Apocrypha, the subjects of the shields are often violent. At the center of the composition, God is shown in contrapposto rising into the sky, Michelangelo employed in this fresco the challenging ceiling fresco technique of sotto in su, which makes a figure appear as if it is rising above the viewer by using foreshortening. The contrapposto pose was also used by Michelangelo in the David and it is reported that Michelangelo painted this fresco in a single giornata, that is, a single working day of approximately eight hours. During Michelangelos lifetime, this fresco was considered evidence of the technical prowess at its peak. Art historians have noted several features of this fresco. In addition it has noted that the anatomy of Gods neck is too complexSeparation of Light from Darkness – Separation of Light from Darkness
36. The Creation of the Sun, Moon and Vegetation – The Creation of the Sun, Moon and Vegetation, is one of the frescoes from Michelangelos nine Book of Genesis scenes on the Sistine Chapel ceiling. It is the scene in the chronological sequence on the ceiling, depicting the third. On the left, God is depicted from behind, extending his arm towards a bush, on the right, God points and divides the sun and moon in the heavens. The faint moon is on the side, touched by the Gods left hand. The Gods face expresses the stupendous force needed for the creation of the abode of living beings, the abstract patterns of drapery emphasize the motion of both figures of God. The Creation of the Sun, Moon and Planets is featured on the stamps of Vatican CityThe Creation of the Sun, Moon and Vegetation – The Creation of the Sun, Moon and Vegetation