Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management which exploits the capacity of many species of trees to put out new shoots from their stump or roots if cut down. In a coppiced wood, called a copse, young tree stems are cut down to near ground level, known as a stool. New growth emerges and after a number of years, the coppiced tree is harvested and the cycle begins anew. Pollarding is a similar process carried out at a higher level on the tree. Many silviculture practices involve regrowth; the widespread and long-term practice of coppicing as a landscape-scale industry is something that remains of special importance in southern England. Many of the English-language terms referenced in this article are relevant to historic and contemporary practice in that area. A coppiced woodland is harvested in sections or coups on a rotation. In this way, a crop is available each year somewhere in the woodland. Coppicing has the effect of providing a rich variety of habitats, as the woodland always has a range of different-aged coppice growing in it, beneficial for biodiversity.
The cycle length depends upon the species cut, the local custom, the use to which the product is put. Birch can be coppiced for faggots on a three- or four-year cycle, whereas oak can be coppiced over a fifty-year cycle for poles or firewood. Coppicing maintains trees at a juvenile stage, a coppiced tree will never die of old age; the age of a stool may be estimated from its diameter, some are so large—perhaps as much as 5.4 metres across—that they are thought to have been continually coppiced for centuries. Evidence suggests. Coppiced stems are characteristically curved at the base; this curve occurs as the competing stems grow out from the stool in the early stages of the cycle up towards the sky as the canopy closes. The curve may allow the identification of coppice timber in archaeological sites. Timber in the Sweet Track in Somerset has been identified as coppiced lime; the silvicultural system now called coppicing was practiced for small wood production. In German this is called Niederwald.
On in Mediaeval times farmers encouraged pigs to feed from acorns and so some trees were allowed to grow bigger. This different silvicultural system is called in English coppice with standards. In German this is called Mittelwald; as modern forestry seeks to harvest timber mechanically, pigs are no longer fed from acorns, both systems have declined. However, there are cultural and wildlife benefits from these 2 silvicultural systems so both can be found where timber production or some other main forestry purpose is not the sole management objective of the woodland. In the 16th and 17th centuries the technology of charcoal iron production became established in England, continuing in some areas until the late 19th century Along with the growing need for oak bark for tanning, this required large amounts of coppice wood. With this coppice management, wood could be provided for those growing industries in principle indefinitely; this was regulated by a statute of 1544 of Henry VIII, which required woods to be enclosed after cutting and 12 standels to be left in each acre, to be grown into timber.
Coppice with standards has been used throughout most of Europe as a means of giving greater flexibility in the resulting forest product from any one area. The woodland provides not only the small material from the coppice but a range of larger timber for jobs like house building, bridge repair, cart-making and so on. In the 18th century coppicing in Britain began a long decline; this was brought about by the erosion of its traditional markets. Firewood was no longer needed for domestic or industrial uses as coal and coke became obtained and transported, wood as a construction material was replaced by newer materials. Coppicing died out first in the north of Britain and contracted towards the south-east until by the 1960s active commercial coppice was concentrated in Kent and Sussex; the shoots may be used either in their young state for interweaving in wattle fencing or the new shoots may be allowed to grow into large poles, as was the custom with trees such as oaks or ashes. This creates long, straight poles which do not have the bends and forks of grown trees.
Coppicing may be practiced to encourage specific growth patterns, as with cinnamon trees which are grown for their bark. Another, more complicated system is called compound coppice. Here some of the standards would be left; some of the coppice would be allowed to grow into new standards and some regenerated coppice would be there. Thus there would be three age classes. Coppiced hardwoods were used extensively in carriage and shipbuilding, they are still sometimes grown for making wooden buildings and furniture. Withies for wicker-work are grown in coppices of various willow species, principally osier. In France, chestnut trees are coppiced for use as canes and bâtons for the martial art Canne de combat; some Eucalyptus species are coppiced in a number of countries. The Sal tree is coppiced in India, the Moringa oleifera tree is
Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae. The 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere; the common English name hornbeam derives from the hardness of the woods and the Old English beam "tree". The American hornbeam is occasionally known as blue-beech, ironwood, or musclewood, the first from the resemblance of the bark to that of the American beech Fagus grandifolia, the other two from the hardness of the wood and the muscular appearance of the trunk, respectively; the botanic name for the genus, Carpinus, is the original Latin name for the European species. Though some botanists grouped them with the hazels and hop-hornbeams in a segregated family, modern botanists place the hornbeams in the birch subfamily Coryloideae. Hornbeams are small to medium-sized trees, Carpinus betulus reaching a height of 32 m; the leaves are deciduous and simple with a serrated margin, vary from 3–10 cm in length. The flowers are wind-pollinated pendulous catkins, produced in spring.
The male and female flowers are on the same tree. The fruit is a small nut about 3–6 mm long, held in a leafy bract; the asymmetry of the seedwing makes it spin. The shape of the wing is important in the identification of different hornbeam species. 10–30 seeds are on each seed catkin. The 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, with the greatest number of species in east Asia China. Only two species occur in Europe, only one in eastern North America, one in Mesoamerica. Carpinus betulus can be found in Europe and Ukraine. Hornbeams are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including autumnal moth, common emerald, feathered thorn, walnut sphinx, Svensson's copper underwing, winter moth as well as the Coleophora case-bearers C. currucipennella and C. ostryae. Hornbeams yield a hard timber, giving rise to the name "ironwood". Dried heartwood billets are suitable for decorative use. For general carpentry, hornbeam is used due to the difficulty of working it.
The wood is used to construct carving boards, tool handles, handplane soles, coach wheels, piano actions, shoe lasts, other products where a tough, hard wood is required. The wood can be used as gear pegs in simple machines, including traditional windmills, it is sometimes coppiced to provide hardwood poles. It is used in parquet flooring and for making chess pieces. Accepted species Carpinus betulus L. – European hornbeam - widespread across much of Europe. Carpinus caroliniana Walter – American hornbeam - Quebec, eastern half of US Carpinus chuniana Hu – Guangdong, Hubei Carpinus cordata Blume – Sawa hornbeam - Primorye, Korea, Japan Carpinus dayongiana K. W. Liu & Q. Z. Lin – Hunan Carpinus eximia Nakai – Korea Carpinus faginea Lindl. – Nepal, Himalayas of northern India Carpinus fangiana Hu – Sichuan, Guangxi Carpinus hebestroma Yamam. – Taiwan Carpinus henryana H. J. P. Winkl. – southern China Carpinus japonica Blume — Japanese hornbeam – Japan Carpinus kawakamii Hayata – Taiwan, southeastern China Carpinus kweichowensis Hu – Guizhou, Yunnan Carpinus langaoensis Z. Qiang Lu & J. Quan Liu – Shaanxi, China Carpinus laxiflora Blume – Aka-shide hornbeam - Japan, Korea Carpinus lipoensis Y.
K. Li – Guizhou Carpinus londoniana H. J. P. Winkl. – southern China, northern Indochina Carpinus luochengensis J. Y. Liang – Guangxi Carpinus mengshanensis S. B. Liang & F. Z. Zhao – Shandong Carpinus microphylla Z. C. Chen ex Y. S. Wang & J. P. Huang – Guangxi Carpinus mollicoma Hu – Tibet, Yunnan Carpinus monbeigiana Hand.-Mazz. – Tibet, Yunnan Carpinus omeiensis Hu & W. P. Fang – Sichuan, Guizhou Carpinus orientalis Mill. – Oriental hornbeam - Hungary, Italy, Turkey, Caucasus Carpinus paohsingensis W. Y. Hsia – China Carpinus polyneura Franch. – southern China Carpinus pubescens Burkill – China, Vietnam Carpinus purpurinervis Hu – Guizhou, Guangxi Carpinus putoensis W. C. Cheng – Putuo hornbeam - Zhejiang Carpinus rankanensis Hayata – Taiwan Carpinus rupestris A. Camus – Yunnan, Guizhou Carpinus shensiensis Hu – Gansu, Shaanxi Carpinus shimenensis C. J. Qi – Hunan †Carpinus tengshongensis W. C. Cheng – Zhejiang but extinct Carpinus tropicalis Lundell – Mexico, Central America Carpinus tsaiana Hu – Yunnan, Guizhou Carpinus tschonoskii Maxim.
– Chonowski's hornbeam - China, Japan Carpinus turczaninowii Hance – Korean hornbeam, - China, Japan Carpinus viminea Wall. Ex Lindl. – China, Himalayas, northern Indochina Eichhorn, Markus. "Hornbeam". Test Tube. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
The chestnuts are a group of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the genus Castanea, in the beech family Fagaceae. They are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere; the name refers to the edible nuts they produce. Chestnuts belong to the family Fagaceae, which includes oaks and beeches; the four main species groups are known as American, European and Japanese chestnuts. The two accepted species of American chestnuts are Castanea pumila. Asian chestnuts include Castanea mollissima, Castanea henryi, Castanea seguinii and Castanea crenata. A tropical version of chestnut trees can reach 20–30 m with fruits or seeds half the size of the Chinese version, it taste like C. mollissima. It is found in Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries, as well; because its seeds are small, it is not commercially cultivated. The European chestnut, Castanea sativa, is the only European species of chestnut, though it was introduced to the Himalayas and other temperate parts of Asia.
Chestnuts should not be confused with horse chestnuts, in the genus Aesculus, which are not related to true chestnuts but are named for producing nuts of similar appearance that are mildly poisonous to humans. Nor should they be confused with water chestnuts, which are tubers of an aquatic herbaceous plant in the sedge family Cyperaceae. Other trees mistaken for chestnut trees are the chestnut oak and the American beech, both of which are in the Fagaceae; the name "chestnut" is derived from an earlier English term "chesten nut", which descends from the Old French word chastain. The French word in turn derives from Latin Castanea, which traces to the Ancient Greek word κάστανον. A possible source of the Greek word is the ancient town of Kastanea in Thessaly. In the Mediterranean climate zone, chestnut trees are rarer in Greece because the chalky soil is not conducive to the tree's growth. Kastania is located on one of the few sedimentary or siliceous outcrops, they grow so abundantly there, their presence would have determined the place's name.
Still others take the name as coming from the Greek name of Sardis glans – Sardis being the capital of Lydia, Asia Minor, from where the fruit had spread. The name is cited twice in the King James Version of the Bible. In one instance, Jacob puts peeled twigs in the water troughs to promote healthy offspring of his livestock. Although it may indicate another tree, it indicates the fruit was a local staple food in the early 17th century; these synonyms are or have been in use: Fagus Castanea, Sardian nut, Jupiter's nut, husked nut, Spanish chestnut. Chestnut trees are of moderate growth rate to fast-growing for European species, their mature heights vary from the smallest species of chinkapins shrubby, to the giant of past American forests, C. dentata that could reach 60 m. Between these extremes are found the Japanese chestnut at 10 m average; the Chinese and more so the Japanese chestnuts are both multileadered and wide-spreading, whereas European and American species tend to grow erect when planted among others, with little tapering of their columnar trunks, which are set and massive.
When standing on their own, they spread on the sides and develop broad, dense crowns at maturity. The latter two's foliage has striking yellow autumn coloring, its bark is smooth when young, of a vinous maroon or red-brown color for the American chestnut, grey for the European chestnut. With age, American species' bark becomes grey and darker and furrowed; the leaves are simple, ovate or lanceolate, 10–30 cm long and 4–10 cm wide, with pointed spaced teeth, with shallow rounded sinuates between. The flowers follow the leaves, appearing into July, they are arranged with both kinds being borne on every tree. Some catkins are made of only male flowers; each flower has 10 to 12 for C. mollissima. The ripe pollen carries a sweet odor that some people find too sweet or unpleasant. Other catkins have these pollen-bearing flowers, but carry near the twig from which these spring, small clusters of female or fruit-producing flowers. Two or three flowers together form a four-lobed prickly calybium, which grows together to make the brown hull, or husk, covering the fruits.
Chestnut flowers are not self-compatible, so two trees are required for pollination. All Castanea species hybridize with each other; the fruit is contained in a spiny cupule 5–11 cm in diameter called "bur" or "burr". The burrs are paired or clustered on the branch and contain one to seven nuts according to the different species and cultivars. Around the time the fruits reach maturity
Thundersley is a district and an ecclesiastical parish based on a manor of early origin in the north of the Castle Point Borough, in southeast Essex, England. The settlement, between the size of a typical village and town, is clustered and sits on clay ridge shared with Basildon and Hadleigh, 31 miles east of Charing Cross, London, its main parish takes in Daws Heath to the east, part of the current Cedar Hall local government electoral ward. The two areas have Anglican churches. A third Anglican church is in the secular ward of St John's, conflated on maps with South Benfleet which it adjoins and it is separated from Thundersley by a narrow green buffer. Between the two wards is the main ward of St Peter's, which loosely resembles the longstanding church parish. One ward is in Thundersley, Boyce which includes Thundersley Green and various short streets next to the town itself. Thundersley derives from the Old English Þunres lēah = "grove or meadow belonging to the god Thunor or Thor", it has historically been known as Thunresleam.
The place-name is first attested in the Domesday Book of 1086. The place-name is significant as a survival from England's pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon paganism; the area is hilly for Essex, a typical height for the central and eastern part of Thundersley is about 200 feet above sea level. The district is rural, with large woods and commons. Thundersley is suburban, with large areas of housing built since c.1950, small industrial parks. A clear majority of households in all wards are economically employed; the proportion of people who are retired is higher than the national average. The wards have a high rate of owner-occupation. In the 2011 census tenure is stated for all 8570 wards of England and Wales, all of Thundersley's wards ranked between 236th and 341st as to this statistic; these varied in owner-occupation between 87.5% and 88.6%, the average in the jurisdiction being 67.8%. Samuel Lewis's major work, a Topographical Dictionary of England in 1848 gives this account: THUNDERSLEY, a parish, in the union of Billericay S. division of Essex, 2¼ miles from Rayleigh.
This parish is about two miles in length, a mile and a half in breadth, comprises 2100 acres, of which 100 are common or waste. The living... valued in the king's books at £14. 13. 4. and in the gift [appointment of the Rev. G. Hemming: the tithes have been commuted for £570; the church is a venerable structure in the Norman and early English styles, with a tower and spire. There are three secondary schools in the district – The King John School and Sixth Form, The Deanes School and The Appleton School and sixth form college. Five primary schools are Thundersley, Kingston and Robert Drake; the main campus of SEEVIC Further education college is in the district. Since the Local Government Act 1972, along with Canvey Island and South Benfleet, has formed the parliamentary constituency of Castle Point and local government district and borough of Castle Point. Thundersley elects one councillor to Essex County Council. Within Castle Point Borough Council, Thundersley is represented by 12 councillors, all Conservative, elected from the wards of St George, St Peter and Cedar Hall.
The Parish of Thundersley includes Daws Heath. The western part of Thundersley is known as New Thundersley. Thundersley is within the SS7 Postcode Area.. Thundersley is bounded by the A127 road to the north, where it borders the Borough of Rayleigh, the A130 road to the west where it borders the villages of North Benfleet and Bowers Gifford in the Borough of Basildon, the A13 road to the south, plus a triangular salient further southward as far as Benfleet Road and Thundersley Glen, eastwards beyond the A129 road bordering through Daws Heath, Belfairs Park in the Leigh-on-Sea Borough of Southend-on-Sea, Hadleigh within the borough; the nearest railway stations are Benfleet railway station and Rayleigh railway station. The London Tilbury and Southend LT&SR 79 Class 4-4-2T No. 80 locomotive Thundersley was named after this area, it is on exhibition at Bressingham Steam and Gardens in Norfolk, on loan from the National Railway Museum. The district has no fixed speed enforcement cameras, but mobile ones are sometimes observed in Daws Heath Road about 0.5 miles east of The Woodmans Arms junction.
Thundersley Rovers Sports Club was formed in 1963 by local football fan Keith Walker. The Club was a founder member of the Thundermite League in 1966 and it is from the club that the league took part of its name. From those ea
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of medium to large trees deciduous, though a few subtropical species are evergreen; the genus is widespread across much of Europe and North America. The tree's common English name, "ash", traces back to the Old English æsc which relates to the Proto-Indo-European for the tree, while the generic name originated in Latin from a Proto-Indo-European word for birch. Both words are used to mean "spear" in their respective languages as the wood is good for shafts; the leaves are opposite, pinnately compound, simple in a few species. The seeds, popularly known as "keys" or "helicopter seeds", are a type of fruit known as a samara. Most Fraxinus species are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants but gender in ash is expressed as a continuum between male and female individuals, dominated by unisexual trees. With age, ash may change their sexual function from predominantly male and hermaphrodite towards femaleness.
Rowans or mountain ashes have leaves and buds superficially similar to those of true ashes, but belong to the unrelated genus Sorbus in the rose family. Species arranged into sections supported by phylogenetic analysis. Section DipetalaeFraxinus anomala Torr. Ex S. Watson – singleleaf ash Fraxinus dipetala Hook. & Arn. – California ash or two-petal ash Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. – blue ash Fraxinus trifoliataSection FraxinusFraxinus angustifolia Vahl – narrow-leafed ash Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. Oxycarpa – Caucasian ash Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. Syriaca Fraxinus excelsior L. – European ash Fraxinus holotricha Koehne Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr. – Manchurian ash Fraxinus nigra Marshall – black ash Fraxinus pallisiae Wilmott – Pallis' ash Fraxinus sogdiana BgeSection Melioides sensu latoFraxinus chiisanensis Fraxinus cuspidata Torr. – fragrant ash Fraxinus platypoda Fraxinus spaethiana Lingelsh. – Späth's ashSection Melioides sensu strictoFraxinus albicans Buckley – Texas ash Fraxinus americana L. – white ash or American ash Fraxinus berlandieriana DC.
– Mexican ash Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. – Carolina ash Fraxinus latifolia Benth. – Oregon ash Fraxinus papillosa Lingelsh. – Chihuahua ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall – green ash Fraxinus profunda Bush – pumpkin ash Fraxinus uhdei Lingelsh. – Shamel ash or tropical ash Fraxinus velutina Torr. – velvet ash or Arizona ashSection OrnusFraxinus apertisquamifera Fraxinus baroniana Fraxinus bungeana DC. – Bunge's ash Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. – Chinese ash or Korean ash Fraxinus floribunda Wall. – Himalayan manna ash Fraxinus griffithii C. B. Clarke – Griffith's ash Fraxinus japonica – Japanese ash Fraxinus lanuginosa – Japanese ash Fraxinus longicuspis Fraxinus malacophylla Fraxinus micrantha Lingelsh. Fraxinus ornus L. – manna ash or flowering ash Fraxinus paxiana Lingelsh. Fraxinus sieboldiana Blume – Japanese flowering ashSection PaucifloraeFraxinus dubia Fraxinus gooddingii – Goodding's ash Fraxinus greggii A. Gray – Gregg's ash Fraxinus purpusii Fraxinus rufescensSection SciadanthusFraxinus dimorpha Fraxinus hubeiensis Ch'u & Shang & Su – 湖北梣 hu bei qin Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Wall.
Ex DC. – Afghan ash North American native ash tree species are a critical food source for North American frogs, as their fallen leaves are suitable for tadpoles to feed upon in ponds, large puddles, other water bodies. Lack of tannins in the American ash makes their leaves a good food source for the frogs, but reduces its resistance to the ash borer. Species with higher leaf tannin levels are taking the place of native ash, thanks to their greater resistance to the ash borer, they produce much less suitable food for the tadpoles, resulting in poor survival rates and small frog sizes. Ash species native to North America provide important habit and food for various other creatures native to North America, such as a long-horn beetle, avian species, mammalian species. Ash is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; the emerald ash borer is a wood-boring beetle accidentally introduced to North America from eastern Asia via solid wood packing material in the late 1980s to early 1990s.
It has killed tens of millions of trees in 22 states in the United States and adjacent Ontario and Quebec in Canada. It threatens some seven billion ash trees in North America. Research is being conducted to determine if three native Asian wasps that are natural predators of EAB could be used as a biological control for the management of EAB populations in the United States; the public is being cautioned not to transport unfinished wood products, such as firewood, to slow the spread of this insect pest. The European ash, Fraxinus excelsior, has been affected by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing ash dieback in a large number of trees since the mid-1990s in eastern and northern Europe; the disease has infected about 90% of Denmark's ash trees. At the end of October 2012 in the UK, the Food and Environment Research Agency reported that ash dieback had been discovered in mature woodland in Suffolk. In 2016, the ash tree was reported as in danger of extinction in Europe. Ash is a hardwood and is hard, dense and strong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats and other uses demanding high strength and resilience.
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. English names variously applied to different species include poplar and cottonwood. In the September 2006 issue of Science Magazine, the Joint Genome Institute announced that the western balsam poplar was the first tree whose full DNA code had been determined by DNA sequencing; the genus has a large genetic diversity, can grow from 15–50 m tall, with trunks up to 2.5 m in diameter. The bark on young trees is smooth, white to greenish or dark grey, has conspicuous lenticels; the shoots are stout, with the terminal bud present. The leaves are spirally arranged, vary in shape from triangular to circular or lobed, with a long petiole. Leaf size is variable on a single tree with small leaves on side shoots, large leaves on strong-growing lead shoots; the leaves turn bright gold to yellow before they fall during autumn. The flowers are dioecious and appear in early spring before the leaves.
They are borne in long, sessile or pedunculate catkins produced from buds formed in the axils of the leaves of the previous year. The flowers are each seated in a cup-shaped disk, borne on the base of a scale, itself attached to the rachis of the catkin; the scales are obovate and fringed, hairy or smooth, caducous. The male flowers are without calyx or corolla, comprise a group of four to 60 stamens inserted on a disk; the female flower has no calyx or corolla, comprises a single-celled ovary seated in a cup-shaped disk. The style is short, with two to four stigmata, variously lobed, numerous ovules. Pollination is by wind, with the female catkins lengthening between pollination and maturity; the fruit is a two- to four-valved dehiscent capsule, green to reddish-brown, mature in midsummer, containing numerous minute light brown seeds surrounded by tufts of long, white hairs which aid wind dispersal. Poplars of the cottonwood section are wetlands or riparian trees; the aspens are among the most important boreal broadleaf trees.
Poplars and aspens are important food plants for the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species. Pleurotus populinus, the aspen oyster mushroom, is found on dead wood of Populus trees in North America. Several species of Populus in the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe have experienced heavy dieback; the genus Populus has traditionally been divided into six sections on the basis of leaf and flower characters. Recent genetic studies have supported this, confirming some suspected reticulate evolution due to past hybridisation and introgression events between the groups; some species had differing relationships indicated by their nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA sequences, a clear indication of hybrid origin. Hybridisation continues to be common in the genus, with several hybrids between species in different sections known. Populus section Populus – aspens and white poplar Populus adenopoda – Chinese aspen Populus alba – white poplar Populus × canescens – grey poplar Populus spp. X – Pacific albus Populus davidiana – Korean aspen Populus grandidentata – bigtooth aspen Populus sieboldii – Japanese aspen Populus tremula – aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, quaking aspen Populus tremuloides – quaking aspen or trembling aspen Populus section Aigeiros – black poplars, some of the cottonwoods Populus deltoides – eastern cottonwood Populus fremontii – Fremont cottonwood Populus nigra – black poplar, placed here by nuclear DNA.
Populus Populus × canadensis – hybrid black poplar Populus × inopina – hybrid black poplar Populus section Tacamahaca – balsam poplars Populus angustifolia – willow-leaved poplar or narrowleaf cottonwood Populus balsamifera – Balsam poplar Populus cathayana – Populus koreana J. Rehnder – Korean poplar Populus laurifolia – laurel-leaf poplar Populus maximowiczii A. Henry – Maximowicz' poplar, Japanese poplar Populus simonii – Simon's poplar Populus suaveolens Fischer – Mongolian poplar Populus szechuanica – Sichuan poplar, placed here by nuclear DNA. Aigeiros Populus trichocarpa – western balsam poplar or black cottonwood Populus tristis, placed here by nuclear DNA.
USP College is a further education college located in Thundersley, Benfleet and Grays Thurrock, England. 4,500 students attend the college. The Seevic campus name was an acronym for South East Essex Sixth Form College; the Thundersley campus opened in September 1972. The Palmer's Campus in Grays can trace its history back to 1706; the Seevic Campus offers adult education courses for learners of any age. Both campuses offer a special needs department for anyone with a learning disability; the Palmer's campus opened its special needs department in September 2018, following the success of the Seevic Campus one, running for several years and has over 94 students in the department. In 2018 Seevic merged with Palmer's College as part of a government initiative. From September 2018 the colleges were renamed USP College with a new logo. In 2017 it was announced that Palmer's College and Seevic College would merge to make one college, over the year running up to September 2018, both colleges underwent extensive changes.
In June 2018 the college was renamed USP College. The new name included a new look to both campuses; the new college would continue to offer a mixture of Further Education, Adult Education and Higher Education courses. SEEVIC College was a Sixth Form college located in Essex, it offered A-Levels and Higher Education courses. This is now the SEEVIC campus of USP College; the name was an acronym for South East Essex Sixth Form College. The College in Thundersley opened in September 1972 and was designed to support 12 partner schools across Castle Point and Rochford districts. During the 1990s the college expanded into the former temporary home of Castle Point Borough Council in a building called the White House, the Training for the Millennium Centre on Canvey and a small centre at the former Park School site in Rayleigh. During the noughties they had planned to expand by knocking both the main site and the White House down and rebuilding. In 2017 OFSTED rated SEEVIC as requires improvement however it came third in the national results for GCSE in Maths.
The college offers courses such as performing arts, science and social care. 2,500 students attend the college. In 2008 SEEVIC opened a new centre at the Icon in Basildon, named New Campus Basildon in partnership with Prospects College and South East Essex College as part of a government initiative to increase FE provision in the town. In 2011 a second campus was opened at Church Walk, but after the merger of Thurrock and Basildon College with South East Essex College in 2010, the ICON building was closed. New Campus Basildon as an FE centre was closed and it became a Studio school in 2013, with SEEVIC as its main sponsor. SEEVIC withdrew from sponsoring the studio school in 2016 and it closed in 2017; the Seevic Campus is located on Kiln Road Thundersley, Essex, England. Ashley Banjo Jordan Banjo Emma Blackery Bobby Lockwood Andrew Zisserman FRS Joseph Mackenzie Won the'Golden Glove' award in the Nottingham IMS Football League, despite suffering a near fatal brain injury Palmer's College was a sixth form college for 16- to 19-year-olds in Thurrock, England.
It offers a wide range of courses including BTECs and Secretarial. It is now one of two campuses of USP College. Palmer's was first opened in 1706 when the merchant William Palmer founded a charity school for "ten poore children" of the parish of Grays Essex, endowing it with valuable property in the town and Lombard Street in the City of London. Located in a small building inside the churchyard the school evolved into a boys' school. However, in response to the changing educational landscape initiated by the 1870 Education Act, the trustees of Palmer's charity re-launched the school on a new site on the hill above the town in 1874. To this a girls' school was added in 1876; the schools were grammar schools for both boys' and girls', William Strang, 1st Baron Strang Palmer's most distinguished alumnus, recalled it in 1905 as'a modest establishment, modest, in size and in material equipment, but not at all modest in the opinion which it held of itself'. The boy school which admitted both day pupils and boarders until 1970, achieved the status of a public school in 1931–46.
In 1972, as part of the reorganisation of education in Essex, the boys' and girls' schools amalgamated, together with Aveley Technical High School, to constitute a sixth form college. During the mid-1970s, the boys' and Aveley schools relocated to the College's present site; the College was supported by the William Palmer College Education Trust, the direct successor of the trustees William Palmer appointed to administer his charity. Artifacts from the schools' past can be seen in the College library. A 2007 inspection by Ofsted concluded: "Palmer's is an outstanding college." Student achievement and the standard of work were good and success rates overall'well above national averages for learners from all backgrounds'. The College was praised for its retention rates and value-added scores. In 2013 a subsequent report rated the college as "Requires Improvement" because few students studying academic courses were achieving high grades, there were no consistent standards of teaching and assessment, the college's leadership had failed to maintain the high standards reached in 2007, with many of the implemented measures regarding the performance management of teachers, being ineffective.2008 saw a record number of students applying to the