Livestock is defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, milk, fur and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. Horses are considered livestock in the United States; the USDA uses livestock to some uses of the term “red meat”, in which it refers to all the mammal animals kept in this setting to be used as commodities. The USDA mentions pork, veal and lamb are all classified as livestock and all livestock is considered to be red meats. Poultry and fish are not included in the category; the breeding and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture, practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal husbandry practices have varied across cultures and time periods. Livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming".
Now, over 99% of livestock are raised on factory farms. These practices increase yield of the various commercial outputs, but have led to negative impacts on animal welfare and the environment. Livestock production continues to play a major economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities. Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a merger between the words "live" and "stock". In some periods, "cattle" and "livestock" have been used interchangeably. Today, the modern meaning of cattle is domesticated bovines. United States federal legislation defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities eligible or ineligible for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 defines livestock only as cattle and sheep, while the 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as "cattle, goats, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, other animals designated by the Secretary."Deadstock is defined in contradistinction to livestock as "animals that have died before slaughter, sometimes from illness".
It is illegal in many countries, such as Canada, to sell or process meat from dead animals for human consumption. Animal-rearing originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild; the dog was domesticated early. Goats and sheep were domesticated in multiple events sometime between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia. Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near 6,000 BC in China. Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC. Cattle have been domesticated since 10,500 years ago. Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC; the term "livestock" is may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose.
This can mean semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are only domesticated or of disputed status; these populations may be in the process of domestication. Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but the fuel, clothing and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs and blood were harvested while the animal was still alive. In the traditional system of transhumance and livestock moved seasonally between fixed summer and winter pastures. Animals can be kept intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing over public and private lands. Similar cattle stations are found in South America and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall.
Ranching systems have been used for sheep, ostrich, emu and alpaca. In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter. In rural locations and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, still produce one or two eggs a week. At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are intensively managed. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cove
Lamesa is a city in and the county seat of Dawson County, United States. The population was 9,422 at the 2010 census, down from 9,952 at the 2000 census. Located south of Lubbock on the Llano Estacado, Lamesa was founded in 1903. Most of the economy is based on cotton farming; the Preston E. Smith prison unit, named for the former governor of Texas, is located just outside Lamesa. Lamesa is located in the center of Dawson County at 32°44′4″N 101°57′29″W. U. S. Highway 87 passes through the eastern side of the city, leading north 61 miles to Lubbock and southeast 44 miles to Big Spring. U. S. Highway 180 passes through the center of town as 4th Street and leads west 41 miles to Seminole and east 62 miles to Snyder. Texas State Highway 137 passes through the city as Bryan Avenue and leads northwest 38 miles to Brownfield and south 45 miles to Stanton. Texas State Highway 349 branches off Highway 137 south of Lamesa and leads southwest 55 miles to Midland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.0 square miles, of which 0.03 square miles, or 0.62%, is water.
The Dal Paso Museum, a collection of local artifacts housed in an impressive former hotel, is located in downtown Lamesa. The name is derived from the fact. On display are home furnishings, pioneer tools, ranch and farm equipment. There are exhibits by local artists; the museum, at 306 South First Street, has limited afternoon hours to the public. As of the census of 2000, 9,952 people, 3,696 households, 2,679 families resided in the city; the population density was 2,080.8 people per square mile. The 4,270 housing units averaged 892.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 41.9% White non-Hispanic, 4.2% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 19.51% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 52.96% of the population. Of the 3,696 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were not families. About 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city, the population was distributed as 29.7% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,362, for a family was $31,556. Males had a median income of $26,393 versus $16,826 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,211. About 18.1% of families and 21.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.4% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. Lamesa is served by the Lamesa Independent School District, which includes Lamesa High School and Lamesa Middle School, whose school mascots are the Golden Tornadoes and the Whirlwinds, respectively. A branch of Howard College, a community college in Big Spring, is located in Lamesa.
During the last weekend of April, Lamesa hosts the annual Chicken-fried Steak Cook-off. Lamesa has been called "the birthplace of the chicken-fried steak", but the reporter who made the designation confessed that the claim is fictional. In 2011, Governor Rick Perry declared Lamesa the home of the chicken-fried steak. In the 2013 competition, Mayor Dave Nix teamed with city councilman Greg Hughes as contestants; the community event attracted 104 booths. La Entrada al Pacifico is an international trade corridor that begins in Topolobampo, runs through Midland-Odessa and ends in Lamesa. Lamesa's Sky-Vue Drive-In Theater at 3015 South Dallas Avenue, established in 1948, became a well-known regional fixture, it has been closed since a kitchen fire destroyed the snack bar on November 27, 2015. Known for its "Chihuahua sandwich", conceived by owners R. A. "Skeet" Noret and his wife, the Sky-Vue was one of only 14 remaining drive-in theaters in Texas. Others are in Clarendon. Before he became famous, musician Buddy Holly performed on the roof of the Sky Vue's projector building.
The theater was used as cover art and named in the title of country music album Down at the Sky-Vue Drive-In by country music artist Don Walser. Additionally, "Hot Rod Mercury", track number two from the album, sings about life in Lamesa. Lamesa has an indoor movie theater, which has two screens; the Wall is an edifice on which graduating seniors of Lamesa High School spray-paint their names onto the wall until next year's class adds its own graffiti on top. The CBS television series Dallas had one of Ewing 23, in Lamesa. In one of the more dramatic scenes of the series, in season four, J. R. Ewing flies in his Learjet to the Lamesa airport. Shortly thereafter, gunfire erupts and Dawson County sheriff's deputies shoot a man who blew up the oilfield after a failed effort to blackmail Ewing; the city is served by a biweekly newspaper, The Lamesa Press Reporter, which charges $.75 per issue, by local and area radio stations KPET, KBKN, KTXC, KJJT. The cable TV system is operated by Northland Cable Television.
Other signals are received from stations in Lubbock, Midland-Odessa, other area towns. Television signals are provided by ABC, CBS, NBC, PBS, Telemundo and CW stati
Texas's 11th congressional district
Texas District 11 of the United States House of Representatives is a congressional district that serves the midwestern portion of the state of Texas. The current Representative from District 11 is Mike Conaway. Texas has had at least 11 districts since 1883. Major cities in the district are Lamesa, Odessa, San Angelo and Brownwood; the district is one of the most Republican districts in the nation. Much of the territory now in the district began shaking off its Democratic roots far sooner than the rest of Texas. For instance, Barry Goldwater did well in much of this area in 1964, Midland itself last supported a Democrat for president in 1948, it was President George W. Bush's strongest district in the entire nation in the 2004 election. While Democrats continued to hold most local offices here well into the 1980s and continued to represent parts of the region through the 1990s, today Republicans dominate every level of government winning by well over 70 percent of the vote. From 1903-2005 the district was contained Waco.
List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Terry County, Texas
Terry County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 12,651, its county seat is Brownfield. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1904, it is named for a colonel in the Confederate Army. Terry County is now a moist county. In 1877, the ill-fated Nolan Expedition crossed the county in search of livestock stolen by Comanche renegades; the various Indian tribes had moved on by the time of white settlement, due to the depletion of the buffalo herds by hunters. Terry County was formed from Bexar County in 1876 and named for Col. Benjamin Franklin Terry, who commanded the Terry's Texas Rangers in the Civil War. Terry County was organized in 1904. Brownfield as became the county seat; the county was settled by ranchers such as Ira J. Coulver, J. R. Quinn, Englishman Q. Bone and Marion V. Brownfield. By 1910 Terry County had 235 farms and 23,000 acres of improved land, with corn being the most important crop. Oil was discovered in the county in 1940 Terry County lies in the oil-rich north Permian Basin, the discovery of oil led to production.
By 1991 363,143,000 barrels of crude had been extracted from Terry County lands since 1940. In 1991 Terry County was among the leading cotton counties in Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 891 square miles, of which 889 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 62 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 380 U. S. Highway 385 State Highway 137 Hockley County Lynn County Dawson County Gaines County Yoakum County Cochran County Lubbock County As of the census of 2000, there were 12,761 people, 4,278 households, 3,247 families residing in the county; the population density was 14 people per square mile. There were 5,087 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.55% White, 5.00% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 14.28% from other races, 3.40% from two or more races. 44.09% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,278 households out of which 35.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.70% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.10% were non-families.
22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.40% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 108.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,090, the median income for a family was $33,339. Males had a median income of $24,321 versus $20,131 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,860. About 19.20% of families and 23.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.50% of those under age 18 and 13.90% of those age 65 or over. The county is served by a weekly newspaper, nearby stations KBXJ and KPET, the various Lubbock radio and TV stations.
KKUB and KTTU-FM are licensed to Brownfield but operate from offices and studios in Lubbock. Brownfield Wellman Meadow Needmore Tokio Dry counties Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Terry County Terry's Texas Rangers Terry County government’s website Terry County from the Handbook of Texas Online Terry County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
An agricultural show is a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals and recreation associated with agriculture and animal husbandry. The largest comprise a livestock show, a trade fair and entertainment; the work and practices of farmers, animal fanciers and zoologists may be displayed. The terms agricultural show and livestock show are synonymous with the North American terms county fair and state fair. Agricultural shows are an important part of cultural life in small country towns, a popular event in larger towns and cities. Shows range from small events in small country towns lasting two days, through medium-sized events of three days, to large shows, which may run for up to two weeks and combine elements of an amusement park with those of an agricultural show. Although in many countries agriculture shows are under financial pressure, many towns or areas have a show society and in some areas, several towns and villages in the area all have an annual show. Larger shows include live entertainment and fireworks in the main arena.
The first known agricultural show was held by Salford Agricultural Society, Lancashire, in 1768. Since the 19th century, agricultural shows have provided local people with an opportunity to celebrate achievements and enjoy a break from day-to-day routine. With a combination of serious competition and light entertainment, annual shows acknowledged and rewarded the hard work and skill of primary producers and provided a venue for rural families to socialise. City shows provide city people with an opportunity to engage directly with rural life and food production. Agriculture shows are enlivened with competitive events, including sheaf tossing, show jumping, food competitions, tent pegging. Demolition Derbys and rodeos are popular in the US and campdrafting and wood chopping are held in Australia. Studs are available for a fee. A livestock show is an event where livestock are exhibited and judged on certain phenotypical breed traits as specified by their respective breed standard. Species of livestock that may be shown include pigs, sheep, horses, rabbits and alpacas.
Poultry such as chickens, ducks and pigeons are shown competitively. There are competitive shows for dogs and cats. Prize-winners at agricultural shows are awarded inscribed medals, rosettes or ribbons; the National Museum of Australia has a rare collection of medals documenting the history of agricultural shows and rural industries across Australia. The 111 medals range in date from the mid-19th to the early 20th century and many are associated with significant individuals and organizations. Related to a show is the "field day", with elements of a trade show for machinery and skills required for broadacre farming. Field days do not involve livestock, showbags or sideshows, but may include events such as ploughing competitions not associated with shows due to the larger space required. In some communities in northern England Field Days have lost their agricultural character and have become community celebrations; the events are good sources of agricultural information, as organizers can arrange for guest speakers to talk on a range of topics, such as the talk on the yellow-flowering alfalfa at the South Dakota field day.
Pecan growers were given a talk on insect control by an entomologist at a recent field day at LSU AgCenter’s Pecan Research/Extension Station in Shreveport, La. A Landcare survey conducted in 1992/93 revealed that field days in Australia have a high value among local farmers. New Zealand's National Agricultural Fieldays is held annually in June at Mystery Creek, near Hamilton, New Zealand, attracts 1,000 exhibitors and over 115,000 visitors through its gates. Smaller shows, held annually in New Zealand's towns and communities, are called agricultural and pastoral shows. Denbigh Agricultural ShowThe Denbigh Show is the oldest and most dynamic agricultural show in the English-speaking Caribbean, one of Jamaica's most iconic events, was held for the first time in 1952; the Denbigh Show has achieved the name for the Caribbean's premier agricultural event, epitomizes wholesome family entertainment and attracts over 80,000 patrons to the event annually. Mazayen al-Ibl Thrissur Pooram Exhibition La Rural - Buenos Aires Expointer - Esteio Canterbury A&P Show - Christchurch Fieldays - Hamilton National Agricultural Fieldays Royal New Zealand Show Incomplete list of shows in Australia: Ayer's Cliff Fair - Ayer's Cliff, Quebec Brome Fair - Brome, Quebec Calgary Stampede - Calgary, Alberta Canadian National Exhibition - Toronto, Ontario Canadian Western Agribition - Regina, Saskatchewan Farm Fair - Prince Albert, Saskatchewan Grande Prairie Stompede - Grande Prairie, Alberta Hants County Exhibition - Windsor, Nova Scotia Royal Agricultural Winter Fair - Toronto, Ontario Royal Manitoba Winter Fair - Brandon, Manitoba Schomberg Fair - Schomberg, Ontario Cinco Días con Nuestra Tierra - Mayagüez Bathurst Agricultural Show - Bathurst Rand Easter Show - Johannesburg The Royal Agricultural Show www.royalshow.co.za - Pietermaritzburg Nampo - Bothaville Paris International Agricultural Show - Paris, France Salon international du machinisme agricole - Paris, France Salon du fromage et des produits laitiers - Paris, France National Ploughing Championships - various sites, Ireland Ballinasloe Horse Fair Banagher Horse Fair Clifden Show Tullamore Show Agritourism Lakeland Shows State fair Trade fair
The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation; the Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, being annexed by the United States. The revolution began in October 1835, after a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas; the Mexican government had become centralized and the rights of its citizens had become curtailed regarding immigration from the United States.
Colonists and Tejanos disagreed on whether the ultimate goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the war's motives, Texians and a flood of volunteers from the United States defeated the small garrisons of Mexican soldiers by mid-December 1835; the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texian Army. In March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, Santa Anna vowed to retake Texas, his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered.
Santa Anna led a larger force to San Antonio de Béxar, where his troops defeated the Texian garrison in the Battle of the Alamo, killing all of the defenders. A newly created Texian army under the command of Sam Houston was on the move, while terrified civilians fled with the army, in a melee known as the Runaway Scrape. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groce's Landing on the Brazos River, for the next two weeks, the Texians received rigorous military training. Becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houston's army staged a surprise assault on Santa Anna and his vanguard force at the Battle of San Jacinto; the Mexican troops were routed, vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage. Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s; the annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, led directly to the Mexican–American War.
After a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, Spanish Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. On the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States claimed the land west of the Sabine River, all the way to the Rio Grande. From 1812 to 1813 anti-Spanish republicans and U. S. filibusters rebelled against the Spanish Empire in what is known today as the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition during the Mexican War of Independence. They won battles in the beginning and captured many Texas cities from the Spanish that led to a declaration of independence of the state of Texas as part of the Mexican Republic on April 17, 1813; the new Texas government and army met their doom in the Battle of Medina in August 1813, 20 miles south of San Antonio, where 1,300 of the 1,400 rebel army were killed in battle or executed shortly afterwards by royalist soldiers.
It was the deadliest single battle in Texas history. 300 republican government officials in San Antonio were captured and executed by the Spanish royalists shortly after the battle. What is significant is a Spanish royalist lieutenant named Antonio López de Santa Anna fought in this battle and followed his superiors' orders to take no prisoners. Another interesting note is two founding fathers of the Republic of Texas and future signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence in 1836, José Antonio Navarro and José Francisco Ruiz, took part in the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition. Although the United States renounced that claim as part of the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain in 1819, many Americans continued to believe that Texas should belong to their nation, over the next decade the United States made several offers to purchase the region. Following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, the provinces of Texas and Coahuila were combined to become the state Coahuila y Tejas.
Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. After months of grumbling by Tejanos outraged at the loss of their political autonomy, state officials agreed to make Tex
The Dawson massacre called the Dawson expedition, was an incident in which 36 Texian militiamen were killed by Mexican soldiers on September 17, 1842 near San Antonio de Bexar. The event occurred during the Battle of Salado Creek; this was among numerous armed conflicts over the area between the Rio Grande and Nueces rivers, which the Republic of Texas tried to control after achieving independence in 1836. On April 21, 1836, the independence of the Republic of Texas was secured by a decisive victory over the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its southern border but had sufficient military power to control only land north of the Nueces River. Although Antonio López de Santa Anna, the ruler of Mexico, signed the Treaties of Velasco ceding Texas territory from Mexican control, the treaty was never ratified by the Mexican Government. Santa Anna repudiated the treaty. Mexican forces and allied Cherokee guerrillas under Vicente Cordova and Chicken Trotter continued to resist Texan attempts to occupy the area between the Rio Grande and Nueces rivers.
For the Cherokees, it was a war of vengeance following the massacre of Cherokee and Delaware Indians by Texas Army regulars in the summer of 1839. For the Mexicans, it was to prove. On September 11, 1842, a Mexican force of 1,600 entered San Antonio and took control there, with minimal resistance from the Texans; when the news of the fall of San Antonio reached Gonzales, Mathew Caldwell formed a militia of 210 men and marched toward San Antonio. Caldwell's troops made camp about twenty miles east of the town, near Salado Creek, planned their attack on the Mexicans. On September 17, Caldwell sent a small band of rangers to draw the Mexicans toward the battlefield he had chosen. At least 1,000 Mexican soldiers moved out of San Antonio to attack the Texans. A separate company of 54 Texans from Fayette County, under the command of Nicholas Mosby Dawson, arrived at the battlefield and began advancing on the rear of the Mexican Army; the Mexican commander, General Adrián Woll, afraid of being surrounded, sent 500 of his cavalry soldiers and two cannons to attack the group.
The Texans were able to hold their own against the Mexican rifles, but once the cannons got within range, their fatalities mounted quickly. Dawson raised a white flag of surrender. In the fog of war, both sides continued to fire and Dawson was killed; the battle was over after a little more than one hour. It ended with 36 Texans dead, two escaped. At the front, Caldwell's men inflicted heavy casualties. Woll was forced to retreat to San Antonio and towards the Rio Grande; the next morning Caldwell's troops located the Dawson battleground and buried the dead Texans in shallow graves. The dead Mexicans were not buried. Caldwell unsuccessfully pursued Woll's forces south as they retreated from San Antonio. Caldwell returned to San Antonio, after the Mexicans recrossed the Rio Grande. In late summer of 1848, a group of La Grange citizens retrieved the remains of the men killed in the Dawson Massacre from their burial site near Salado Creek; these remains, the remains of the men killed in the failed Mier Expedition, were reinterred in a common tomb in a cement vault on a bluff one mile south of La Grange.
The grave site is now part of Kreische Brewery State Historic Sites. List of massacres in the United States Abolafia-Rosenzweig, Mark; the Dawson and Mier Their Place in Texas History. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2nd printing April 1991. Interpretive Guide to: Monument Hill/Kreische Brewery State Historic Sites. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. "Santa Anna’s revived invasion plans crushed at Salado Creek". San Antonio Express News. Retrieved Sep. 13, 1992. An annotated list of the members of the Dawson Expedition