The Bruce Highway is a major highway in Queensland, Australia. Commencing in the state capital, Brisbane, it passes through areas close to the eastern coast on its way to Cairns in Far North Queensland; the route is part of the Australian National Highway and part of Highway 1. Its length is 1,679 kilometres; the highway is named after Harry Bruce. Bruce was the state Minister for Works when the highway was named after him, in the mid-1930s, was considered to be a good bloke; the highway once passed through Brisbane, but was truncated at Bald Hills when the Gateway Motorway became National Highway 1 upon its opening in December 1986. The highway is the biggest traffic carrier in Queensland, it joined all the major coastal centres. As a result, the highway is being shortened; the road is a dual carriageway from Brisbane to Cooroy with some dual carriageway lengths at Gympie, many of these upgrades being completed in the 1980s and 1990s. The highway commences just south of the bridge over the Pine River at the Gateway Motorway interchange, 21 kilometres north of the Brisbane central business district.
The highway has changed its route numbering from National Highway 1 to the M1 or A1. Major cities along the route include Maryborough, Mackay and Cairns; the highway passes the Glasshouse Mountains and pastures in the Sunshine Coast, the Gunalda Range, Mount Larcom, the arid countryside north of Rockhampton. Commencing in Bald Hills at the junction of the Gateway Motorway and Gympie Arterial Road, the Bruce Highway is a motorway standard road for its first 136 kilometres to Kybong, where it becomes a two-lane sealed highway for most of its remainder; the first 2.5 kilometres to the Dohles Rocks Road interchange has eight lanes and a variable speed limit of up to 100 kilometres per hour. The next 22 kilometres to the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange has six lanes and a maximum speed limit of 100 kilometres per hour. From there to Kybong the road has four lanes and, with one short exception, a speed limit of 110 kilometres per hour; this section of the Bruce Highway crosses the Pine River into the Moreton Bay Region, passing through urban areas before crossing the Caboolture River and reaching the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange after 24.5 kilometres.
It runs past or through Murrumba Downs, Kallangur, Mango Hill, North Lakes, Narangba and Morayfield. On the way it is crossed by the Redcliffe Peninsula railway line and passes the Caboolture BP Travel Centre; the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange provides access to the D'Aguilar Highway via a service road. After the D'Aguilar Highway interchange the Bruce passes through rural areas and the Beerburrum and Beerwah State Forests, entering the Sunshine Coast Region before reaching the Caloundra Road interchange after a further 36.1 kilometres. It passes the southern entry to Steve Irwin Way, a bypassed section of the highway, which provides access to Beerburrum, Glass House Mountains, Australia Zoo and Landsborough before terminating at the Caloundra Road interchange; the next 5.6 kilometres to the Sunshine Motorway interchange, providing access to the Sunshine Coast, has a speed limit of 100. The speed limit reverts to 110. After another 7.5 kilometres the Maroochydore Road interchange provides access to Maroochydore and Woombye.
The Bli Bli Road interchange, after a further 7 kilometres, provides access to Bli Nambour. The Yandina -- Coolum Road interchange, after 6.7 kilometres, provides access to Coolum. The Eumundi interchange, after 8.4 kilometres, provides access to Noosa. The Cooroy interchange, after 7.2 kilometres, provides access to Cooroy and Noosa. Total distance from Caloundra Road to this interchange is 42.4 kilometres. The 33 kilometres to the end of the M1 at Kybong includes three interchanges that provide access to the Old Bruce Highway. From Kybong the highway is designated A1, it has numerous parts with lower speed limits, including urban areas, high crash zones and roadwork sites. After 8 kilometres from Kybong the Mary Valley Road interchange provides access to the west of the Mary River; the highway passes through the Gympie urban fringe, with several at grade intersections providing access to various parts of the city. North of Gympie, 14.3 kilometres from the Mary Valley Road interchange, the Wide Bay Highway interchange is reached, providing access to Kilkivan.
Total distance from the Cooroy interchange is 55.4 kilometres. The 73.9 kilometres from the Wide Bay Highway interchange to the Maryborough–Biggenden Road interchange at Maryborough passes through Tiaro and the Gympie Road exit to Maryborough before crossing the Mary River. With the completion of Section C of the Bruce Highway - Cooroy to Curra upgrade project in February 2018 the M1 has now been extended to Kybong, 10 kilometres south of Gympie; the Bruce Highway from Kybong to Gympie remains signed as A1. Section D of the project (Wo
Benaraby is a town and locality in the Gladstone Region, Australia. The population of Benaraby at the 2006 census was 594. Benaraby is 20 kilometres south of Gladstone in Central Queensland, it is the access point to Lake Awoonga. Benaraby Post Office opened around 1912 and closed in 1982. A rural locality, in recent times it has become more of a residential suburb for the workers in Gladstone, Boyne Island and Tannum Sands. Benaraby contains 2 petrol stations, a primary school, a community hall, a nursery and three accommodation providers. Benaraby State School is a public school located in O'Connor Road and caters for students from Prep to Year 6, it was established in 1886. Media related to Benaraby at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Gladstone Localities Benaraby State School
Springsure is a town and a locality in the Central Highlands Region, Australia. It is 66 kilometres south of Emerald on the Gregory Highway, it is the northern terminus of the Dawson Highway. It is 765 kilometres northwest of Brisbane. At the 2016 census, Springsure had a population of 1103; the town takes its name from a pastoral run name used from 1861, so named because of a permanent spring on the run. The area was occupied by Aboriginal people, for thousands of years. Ludwig Leichhardt was the first European to explore the area between 1843 and 1845, his favourable reports encouraged settlers to move in and settle the land whose domains were those of Aboriginal groups. In 1861 squatter Horatio Wills and a party of Victorian settlers arrived near modern-day Springsure in 1861. Two weeks 19 men women and children, including Wills, were killed by Aboriginal Australian people, the Kairi or Gayiri, in the Cullin-La-Ringo massacre, the largest massacre of European settlers by Aborigines in Australian history.
At least 15 Aboriginal men and children were killed by the Queensland Native Police and militias of local European colonists and their employees, in a series of reprisals over the months that followed. However, the massacre of the 19 European family members was itself a retaliatory response to an earlier shooting of fugitive murderer, Gayiri tribesman by Jesse Gregson with Second Lieutenant Alfred March Patrick and Native Police Troops in his command. Prior to the massacre of the 19 colonists, Second Lieutenant Patrick had complained, in early 1861, to Charles Dutton that other officers in the Queensland Native Police "...had been able to bag their first Aborigine after only a few weeks in the Force. The Old Rainworth Fort was built in 1862 by the colonists of Springsure in order to defend themselves from future raids by Aboriginals. Horatio's son, star cricketer and Australian rules football pioneer Tom Wills, survived the massacre, remained on site until 1864; the town was surveyed by Charles Frederick Gregory in August 1863.
On 6 December 1919, the Springsure State School Memorial Fountain was dedicated by Mrs Annie Wheeler, a former pupil at the school. The memorial is a marble fountain and commemorates students of the school who served in World War I. On 16 November 1943 a Douglas C-47A Skytrain broke up in mid-air during a violent storm in the area, crashed on Rewan Station, just south of Spingsure. All 19 people on board the aircraft perished in the crash. Today, Springsure is a pastoral settlement serving cattle farms, sunflower, sorghum and chickpea plantations. Springsure State School opened on 14 March 1870. Springsure has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 13 Woodbine Street: Springsure Hospital Museum Wealwandangie Road, Cairdbeign: Old Rainworth Stone Store A cliff face in the hills surrounding Springsure is known to the area as Virgin Rock, named because it once looked like the Virgin Mary cradling the baby Jesus, although years of erosion have blurred the original resemblance. Facilities at Springsure include an airport, caravan park, motocross track, police station, service station and showground.
The Central Highlands Regional Council operate a public library in Springsure at 27 Eclipse Street. The Springsure branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association has its rooms at 27 Eclipse Street. Springsure State School has 17 teachers, their school motto is'Success by Effort'. Springsure is the hub for several coal mines such as the Rolleston Mine. Significant exploration is ongoing in the district, it is a staging point for expeditions to the Carnarvon National Park. John Denis Fryer after whom the Fryer Library at the University of Queensland is named John Humphreys, Olympic fencer Roy Moore, U. S. judge and Senate candidate, worked on the Telemon cattle station outside town in 1984. Keith Slater, Anglican priest in Springsure Bishop of Grafton Theophilus Wilson, cricketer Queensland portal Media related to Springsure at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Springsure Town map of Springsure, 1989
Highways in Australia
Highways in Australia are high capacity roads managed by state and territory government agencies, though Australia's federal government contributes funding for important links between capital cities and major regional centres. Prior to European settlement, the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australians; the formal construction of roads began in 1788, after the founding of the colony of New South Wales, a network of three major roads across the colony emerged by the 1820s. Similar road networks were established in the other colonies of Australia. Road construction programs in the early 19th century were underfunded, as they were dependent on government budgets and tolls. Local government authorities known as Road Boards, were therefore established to be responsible for funding and undertaking road construction and maintenance; the early 1900s saw both the widespread use of motorised transportation, the creation of state road authorities in each state, between 1913 and 1926.
These authorities managed each state's road network, with the main arterial roads controlled and maintained by the state, other roads remaining the responsibility of local governments. The federal government became involved in road funding in the 1920s, distributing funding to the states; the depression of the 1930s slowed the funding and development of the major road network until the onset on World War II. Supply roads leading to the north of the country were considered vital, resulting in the construction of Barkly and Eyre Highways; the decades following the war saw substantial improvements to the network, with freeways established in cities, many major highways sealed, development of roads in northern Queensland and Western Australia under the Beef Cattle Roads Grants Acts, interstate routes between Sydney and Melbourne upgraded. In 1974, the federal government assumed responsibility for funding the nations most important road links, between state and territory capitals cities, which were declared National Highways.
Some sections of the 16,000-kilometre-long National Highway system were no more than dirt tracks, while others were four lane dual carriageways. The network was improved, by 1989, all gravel road sections had been sealed. In the following decades, the National Highway system was amended through legislation, was superseded in 2005 by the broader National Land Transport Network, which included connections to major commercial centres, intermodal freight transport facilities; the first route marking system was introduced in the 1950s by the Conference of State Road Authorities, which became the National Association of Australian State Road Authorities and Austroads. National Routes were assigned to significant interstate routes "which, both now and in the future, comprise the more important arteries of road communications throughout Australia in all its aspects". East-west routes were planned to have numbers, increasing from south to north, while north-south routes would have odd numbers, with numbers increasing from east to west.
National Route 1 would be an exception, as a "circumferential route along the coastline of Australia". A state route marking systems was designed to supplement the national system, for inter-regional and urban routes within states; each state could choose their own numbering scheme, as long as National Route and State Route numbers weren't duplicated in the same state, or nearby routes in another state. When the National Highway system was introduced, National Routes along it became National Highway routes with the same numbers, but with distinctive green and gold route markers. During the 1990s, planning began for a new alphanumeric route system. Alphanumeric routes have been introduced in most states and territories in Australia or replacing the previous systems; the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australian prior to European settlement. The formal construction of roads began after the founding of the colony of New South Wales.
These roads were little more than cleared paths, constructed without grading, drainage systems, road surfaces. There was no system wide planning for roads, with the Surveyor-General's 1788 proposed town plan dismissed as being too ostentatious. By the end of his term in 1822 the colony had a network of three major roads, with the Great Western Road as the most important link, traversing the Blue Mountains from Sydney to Bathurst. Similar road networks were established in the other colonies of Australia. Road construction programs in the early 19th century were underfunded, as they were dependent on government budgets, loans and public subscription; this problem was exacerbated by the huge increase in road usage, due to the Australian gold rushes. Local government authorities were therefore established as authorities responsible for funding and undertaking road construction and maintenance; the increasing amount of motorised transportation in the early 1900s lead to another major increase in traffic levels.
The vehicles required higher standard of roads. State road authorities were established in each state between 1913 and 1926; these authorities managed each state's road network, with the main arterial roads controlled and maintained by the state, other roads remaining the responsibility of local governments. Though legislation
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t
Woorabinda is an Aboriginal community in Central Queensland, inland about two hours' west drive of Rockhampton. At the 2006 census, Woorabinda had a population of 851. Woorabinda was first established in 1927, with land gazetted from the County of Waroona, as a replacement for the Taroom Aboriginal Settlement; the land at Taroom was repossessed for the development of proposed Nathan Dam for the Dawson River Irrigation Scheme, never built. Central Queensland had a high level of frontier violence and Aboriginal deaths, such as at Cullin-La-Ringo at nearby Springsure and Hornet Bank along the Dawson River. There was a forcible relocation of dispossessed survivors into government-controlled settlements starting from 1897, with the introduction of the Aboriginals Protection Act—initially at Taroom, Woorabinda. Peoples from at least 17 different language groups were placed within the camp, some from as far as Mornington Island, were under the control of a local Superintendent beneath the state Chief Protector of Aborigines.
The movement of 300 Taroom residents occurred via foot and hired truck over the 250 km. This walk from Taroom to Woorabinda was commemorated by the community with a supported re-enactment in 2014; the Woorabinda community is the only DOGIT Aboriginal community within the Central Queensland region. DOGIT communities have a special type of land tenure which applies only to former Aboriginal reserves; the land title is a system of community level land trusts and administered by the local council. Woorabinda is a township with the seasonal Mimosa Creek nearby a source of local water. During rainy season, the township can be isolated due to road flooding. Access is via the Fitzroy Developmental Road, sealed north towards Duaringa and where it meets the Capricorn Highway to Rockhampton. To the south, it is gravel road to Bauhinia Downs, where it meets the Dawson Highway and access to Gladstone. East is the sealed Baralaba-Woorabinda Road, seasonally cut off by flooding. West has a number of cattle properties until the base of the Blackdown Tablelands, serviced by gravel roads.
There is a sealed airstrip along the north road into town, used by chartered flights and aeromedical retrieval services. No commercial flights operate to the airstrip. In May 1942, during World War II, a Lutheran Aboriginal mission at Cape Bedford on Cape York in far North Queensland was closed to become used as an army camp; the relocation has been attributed to governmental fears of Aboriginal loyalty to the German Lutheran pastor and against non-Aboriginal Australian interests in favour of the Japanese. The 254 Aboriginal residents, of Guugu Yimithirr identity, were forcibly relocated; this trip was poorly provisioned and people arrived at their end destination having been deprived of food and blankets during the winter overland trip. There was tension between the Cape Bedford evacuees and the residents of Woorabinda due to the strong Lutheran Christian beliefs held by those from Cape Bedford. However, the evacuees experienced many cultural experiences unavailable to them because of the strong church presence, such as corroborrees.
During this time, informal Lutheran church services and ministering were maintained by the evacuees to hold onto their Christian beliefs, creating a core strength of spiritual leadership within this group. Choral singing started during this time within the Guugu Yimithirr language from translated hymns as part of their services, which became a core part of their future church identity, they maintained a separate identity to the Woorabinda residents during the seven years they spent within the community. Many died from sickness and exposure due to the poor sanitation and inadequate shelter from the frost and cold winter nights of the inland climate, which the Guugu Yimithirr peoples would not have experienced, as they were from a warm, humid coastal climate; the official number of deaths during this period was 33, but could have been up to 48. There were 13 recorded births during that time. During their time at Woorabinda, the Cape Bedford peoples experienced paid labour and schooling for the first time.
The survivors were allowed to return to Cape Bedford in 1949, after the war, to what is now known as Hopevale. Most returned north, however, a small contingent remained, which maintained a presence and link to the north which remains to this day; the latest figures identify Woorabinda residents as having a mean annual income of $27,924, as compared to the mean Australia-wide income of $42,081 in the same census. Unemployment is at 70%. Woorabinda has been identified as amongst Queensland's most disadvantaged suburbs, the others of which are Indigenous townships. Government service providers are the main source of employment, with local industry in the form of the takeaway cafe and Woorabinda Pastoral Company, owned by the council; the satellite Foleyvale Station is just north of Duaringa, is included in the Woorabinda lands used pastorally. In 2008, the community and council voted for the total ban of alcohol consumption within the town limits to become a "dry" community; the town has had a significant decrease in alcohol-fuelled violence since the Alcohol Management Plan was introduced.
As of 2013, there has been ongoing movement within the community for a reintroduction of alcohol, with a community-led vote majority for its reintroduction. This has been as part of a larger movement within Aboriginal communities of Queensland for Alcohol Management Plan reviews; the town als
Central Highlands Region
Central Highlands Region is a local government area in Queensland, Australia. The Central Highlands Region was created in March 2008 as a result of the report of the Local Government Reform Commission released in July 2007; the new local government area, located in Central Queensland, contains the entire areas of four previous local government areas: the Shire of Bauhinia. Legislation introduced into the Queensland Parliament gave the name of the new region as Central Highlands; the report recommended that the new local government area should not be divided into wards and elect eight councillors and a mayor. The Central Highlands Region has an area of 53,677 square kilometres, contains an estimated resident population in 2006 of 26,824 and has an estimated operating budget of A$66 million; the Central Highlands Region includes the following settlements: The Central Highlands Region operates public libraries at Bauhinia, Capella, Duaringa, Rubyvale, Rolleston and Tieri. 2008 - 2016: Peter John Eric Maguire 2016 -: Kerry Hayes Central Highlands Regional Council Central Highlands Regional Council - Local Transition Committee University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Central Highlands Regional Council Springsure Library