Governor of Maryland
The governor of the State of Maryland heads the executive branch of the government of the State of Maryland, is the commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard units. The governor is the highest-ranking official in the state and has a broad range of appointive powers in both the state and local governments, as specified by the Maryland Constitution; because of the extent of these constitutional powers, the governor of Maryland has been ranked as being among the most powerful governors in the United States. The current governor is Larry Hogan, a Republican who took office on January 21, 2015. Like most state chief executives in the United States, the governor is elected by the citizens of Maryland to serve a four-year term. Under the Constitution of Maryland, the governor can run any number of times, but not more than twice in a row; this makes it possible for a two-term governor to run for the office again after remaining out of office for at least one term. An eligible candidate for governor must be at least 30 years old, a resident of and a registered voter in Maryland for the five years preceding the election.
If a candidate meets this minimum requirement, he or she must file his or her candidacy with the Maryland State Board of Elections, pay a filing fee, file a financial disclosure, create a legal campaign financial body. The governor, like all statewide officials in Maryland, is elected in the even-numbered years in which the election for President of the United States does not occur; as the chief executive of the State of Maryland, the governor heads the executive branch of government, which includes all state executive departments and agencies, as well as advisory boards, commissions and task forces. The main constitutional responsibility of the governor of Maryland, any other State's chief executive, is to carry out the business of the state and to enforce the laws passed by the Legislature; the governor has some say in these laws, since the governor has the ability to veto any bill sent to his or her desk by the Maryland General Assembly, though the assembly may override that veto. The governor is given a number of more specific powers as relates to appropriations of state funds, the appointment of state officials, a variety of less prominent and less utilized powers.
Every year, the governor must present a proposed budget to the Maryland General Assembly. After receiving the proposed budget, the assembly is allowed to decrease any portion of the budget for the executive branch, but it may never increase it or transfer funds between executive departments; the assembly may, increase funds for the Legislative and Judicial branches of government. The governor has the power to veto any law, passed by the General Assembly, including a "line item veto", which can be used to strike certain portions of appropriations bills; the Legislature has the power to override a Governor's veto by vote of three-fifths of the number of members in each house. The governor sits on the board of public works, whose other two members are the comptroller and the treasurer; this board has broad powers in approving the spending of state funds. They must approve state expenditures of all general funds and capital improvement funds, excluding expenditures for the construction of state roads and highways.
It has the power to solicit loans on its own accord either to meet a deficit or in anticipation of other revenues, in addition to approving expenditures of funds from loans authorized by the General Assembly. The governor appoints all military and civil officers of the state government, subject to advice and consent of the Maryland State Senate; the governor appoints certain boards and commissions in each of the 24 Counties and in Baltimore City, such as local Boards of Elections, commissions notaries public, appoints officers to fill vacancies in the elected offices of Attorney General and Comptroller. Should a vacancy arise in either of the two houses of the General Assembly, the governor fills that vacancy, though the governor must choose from among the recommendations of the local party organization to which the person leaving the vacancy belonged. Any officer appointed by the governor, except a member of the General Assembly, is removable by him or her, if there is a legitimate cause for removal.
Among the most prominent of the governor's appointees are the 24 secretaries and heads of departments that make up the governor's Cabinet known as the executive council. The governor of Maryland is the chairman of the governor's executive council which coordinates all state government functions; this is composed of the following members, all of whom, except the lieutenant governor, are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Maryland State Senate as heads of executive departments: Lieutenant governor- Boyd Rutherford Secretary of State- John C. Wobensmith Secretary of Aging- Rona E. Kramer Secretary of Agriculture- Joe Bartenfelder Secretary of Budget and Management- David Brinkley Secretary of Business and Economic Development- R. Michael Gill Secretary of Disabilities-Carol Beatty State Superintendent of Schools - Lillian M. Lowery Secretary of Environment- Ben Grumbles Secretary of General Services- C. Gail Bassette Secretary of Health and Mental Hygiene- Van Mitchell Secretary of Housing and Community Development- Kenneth C. Holt Secretary of Human Resources- Sam Maholtra Secretary of Information Technology- David Garcia Secretary of Juvenile Services- Sam J. Abed Secretary of Labor and Regulation- Kelly Schulz Secretary of Natural Resources- Mark Belton Secretary of Planni
Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws; the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's World Drug Report 2005 estimates the size of the global illicit drug market at US$321.6 billion in 2003 alone. With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally and remains difficult for local authorities to thwart its popularity. Chinese authorities issued edicts against opium smoking in 1729, 1796 and 1800; the West prohibited addictive drugs throughout the late early 20th centuries. In the early 19th century, an illegal drug trade in China emerged; as a result, by 1838 the number of Chinese opium-addicts had grown to between four and twelve million.
The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium. The United Kingdom forced China to allow British merchants to sell Indian-grown opium. Trading in opium was lucrative, smoking opium had become common in the 19th century, so British merchants increased trade with the Chinese; the Second Opium War broke out in 1856. After the two Opium Wars, the British Crown, via the treaties of Nanking, Tianjin, obligated the Chinese government to pay large sums of money for opium they had seized and destroyed, which were referred to as "reparations". In 1868, as a result of the increased use of opium, the UK restricted the sale of opium in Britain by implementing the 1868 Pharmacy Act. In the United States, control of opium remained under the control of individual US states until the introduction of the Harrison Act in 1914, after 12 international powers signed the International Opium Convention in 1912. Between 1920 and 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution banned alcohol in the United States.
Prohibition proved impossible to enforce and resulted in the rise of organized crime, including the modern American Mafia, which identified enormous business opportunities in the manufacturing and sale of illicit liquor. The beginning of the 21st century saw drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a increased demand for marijuana and cocaine; as a result, international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel and'Ndrangheta have increased cooperation among each other in order to facilitate trans-Atlantic drug-trafficking. Use of another illicit drug, has increased in Europe. Drug trafficking is regarded by lawmakers as a serious offense around the world. Penalties depend on the type of drug, the quantity trafficked, where the drugs are sold and how they are distributed. If the drugs are sold to underage people the penalties for trafficking may be harsher than in other circumstances. Drug smuggling carries severe penalties in many countries. Sentencing may include lengthy periods of incarceration and the death penalty.
In December 2005, Van Tuong Nguyen, a 25-year-old Australian drug smuggler, was hanged in Singapore after being convicted in March 2004. In 2010, two people were sentenced to death in Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram of cannabis into the country. Execution is used as a deterrent, many have called upon much more effective measures to be taken by countries to tackle drug trafficking; the countries of drug production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade, though countries receiving the illegally imported substances are adversely affected. For example, Ecuador has absorbed up to 300,000 refugees from Colombia who are running from guerrillas and drug lords. While some applied for asylum, others are still illegal immigrants; the drugs that pass from Colombia through Ecuador to other parts of South America create economic and social problems. Honduras, through which an estimated 79% of cocaine passes on its way to the United States, has the highest murder rate in the world. According to the International Crisis Group, the most violent regions in Central America along the Guatemala–Honduras border, are correlated with an abundance of drug trafficking activity.
In many countries worldwide, the illegal drug trade is thought to be directly linked to violent crimes such as murder. This is true in all developing countries, such as Honduras, but is an issue for many developed countries worldwide. In the late 1990s in the United States the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated that 5% of murders were drug-related. In Colombia, Drug violence can be caused by factors such as, the economy, poor governments, no authority within the law enforcement. After a crackdown by US and Mexican authorities in the first decade of the 21st century as part of tightened border security in the wake of the September 11 attacks, border violence inside Mexico surged; the Mexican government estimates. A report by the UK government's Drug Strategy Unit, leaked to the press, stated that due to the expensive price of addictive drugs heroin and coc
Martin Joseph O'Malley is an American politician and attorney who served as the 61st Governor of Maryland from 2007 to 2015. He served as Mayor of Baltimore from 1999 to 2007, was a councilman from the Third Council District in the northeast section of the city on the Baltimore City Council from 1991 to 1999. O'Malley served as the chair of the Democratic Governors Association from 2011 to 2013, while being governor of Maryland. Following his departure from public office in early 2015, he was appointed to The Johns Hopkins University's Carey Business School as a visiting professor focusing on government and urban issues; as governor, in 2011, he signed a law that would make illegal immigrants brought to the United States as children eligible for in-state college tuition. In 2012, he signed a law to legalize same-sex marriage in Maryland; each law was put to a voter referendum in the 2012 general election, was upheld by the majority of the state electorate. Long rumored to have presidential ambitions, O'Malley publicly announced his candidacy in the 2016 presidential election on May 30, 2015, in Baltimore, after filing his candidacy forms seeking the Democratic Party presidential nomination with the Federal Election Commission the day before.
He struggled to attract significant support as one of three major party candidates and eight months on February 1, 2016, he suspended his campaign after finishing third in the Iowa caucuses. Martin Joseph O'Malley was born on January 18, 1963, in Washington, D. C. the son of Barbara and Thomas Martin O'Malley. Martin's father served as a bombardier in the U. S. Army Air Force in the Pacific theater during the Second World War, recalled witnessing the mushroom cloud rise over Hiroshima while on a routine mission. Thomas became a Montgomery County–based criminal defense lawyer, an assistant United States Attorney for the District of Columbia. O'Malley's father was of Irish descent, his mother's ancestry include Irish, German and Scottish. He is a descendant of a War of 1812 veteran, is an active member of the General Society of the War of 1812, he was inducted as an honorary colonel in the Fort McHenry Guard of reenactor soldiers at the War of 1812 historical site and park/shrine. O'Malley attended the Our Lady of Lourdes School in Gonzaga College High School.
He graduated from the Catholic University of America in 1985. That year, he enrolled in the University of Maryland School of Law, on the urban campus of the University of Maryland at Baltimore, earning his J. D. in 1988, was admitted to the Maryland bar that same year. In December 1982, while still in college, O'Malley joined the Gary Hart presidential campaign for the 1984 election. In late 1983, he volunteered to go to Iowa where he phone-banked, organized volunteers, played guitar and sang at small fundraisers and other events. In 1986, while in law school, O'Malley was named by U. S. Representative in the Third Congressional District, Barbara Mikulski as state field director for her successful primary and general election campaigns for the U. S. Senate, he served as a legislative fellow in Mikulski's Senate office in 1987 and 1988. That year, he was hired as an assistant State's Attorney for the City of Baltimore, holding that position until 1990. In 1990, O'Malley ran for the Maryland State Senate in the 43rd State Senate District in northeast Baltimore.
He challenged one-term incumbent John A. Pica in the Democratic Party primary, lost by just 44 votes, he was considered an underdog when he first filed to run, but "came out of nowhere" to lead Pica on election night. He lost when the absentee ballots were counted. In 1991, he was elected to the Baltimore City Council representing the 3rd Councilmanic District and served from 1991 to 1999; as councilman, he served as chairman of the Legislative Investigations Committee and chairman of the Taxation and Finance Committee. During the 1992 Democratic primaries, he served as Nebraska Senator Bob Kerrey's Maryland coordinator. O'Malley announced his decision to run for Mayor of Baltimore in 1999, after incumbent Kurt Schmoke decided not to seek re-election to a third term, his entrance into the race was unexpected, he faced initial difficulties as the only Caucasian candidate for mayor of a city, predominantly African-American since the 1960 Census and had had two successive black mayors. His strongest opponents in the crowded Democratic primary of seven were former City Councilman Carl Stokes, Baltimore Registrar of Wills Mary Conaway, Council President Lawrence Bell.
In his campaign, O'Malley focused on reducing crime and received the endorsement of several key African-American lawmakers and church leaders, as well as that of former mayor of Baltimore and Maryland governor William Donald Schaefer, the city's last Caucasian mayor, who had served 1971-1987. On September 14, he won the Democratic primary with a 53% majority and went on to win the general election with 90% of the vote, defeating Republican Party nominee, developer David Tufaro. In 2003, O'Malley ran for re-election, he was challenged in the Democratic primary by four candidates, but defeated them with 67% of the vote. In the general election, he won re-election with 87% of the vote. During his first mayoral campaign, O'Malley focused on a message of reducing crime. In his first year in office, he adopted a statistics-based tracking system called "CitiStat", modeled after Compstat, a crime-management program first employed in the mid-1990s in New York City; the system logged every call for service into a database for analysis.
The Washington Post wrote in
Elijah Eugene Cummings is an American politician and the U. S. Representative for Maryland's 7th congressional district serving in his 13th term in the House, having served since 1996; the district includes just over half of Baltimore City, most of the majority-black precincts of Baltimore County, as well as most of Howard County. He served in the Maryland House of Delegates, he is a member of the Democratic Party and current chair of the United States House Committee on Oversight and Reform. Cummings was born on January 1951, in Baltimore, the son of Ruth Elma and Robert Cummings, he was the third child of seven. Cummings graduated with honors from the Baltimore City College high school in 1969, he attended Howard University in Washington, D. C. where he served in the student government as sophomore class president, student government treasurer and student government president. He became a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society and graduated in 1973 with a Bachelor's degree in Political Science. Cummings graduated from law school at the University of Maryland School of Law, receiving his J.
D. in 1976, was admitted to the Maryland Bar that year. He practiced law for 19 years before first being elected to the House in the 1996 elections. Cummings has received 12 honorary doctoral degrees from universities across America, most an honorary doctorate of public service from the University of Maryland, College Park in 2017. For 14 years, Cummings served in the Maryland House of Delegates, his predecessor, Lena King Lee, campaigned for him. In the Maryland General Assembly, he served as Chairman of the Legislative Black Caucus of Maryland and was the first African American in Maryland history to be named Speaker Pro Tempore, the second highest position in the House of Delegates. Cummings serves on several boards and commissions, both in and out of Baltimore; those include SEED Schools of Maryland Board of Directors and the University of Maryland Board of Advisors. Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Subcommittee on Railroads and Hazardous Materials Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy.
Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, Post Office, District of Columbia. Select Committee on Benghazi In December 2010 Edolphus Towns announced that he would not seek the position of Ranking Minority Member of the Oversight Committee in the next Congress though his seniority and service as Chair would result in him filling this post. Towns withdrew because of a lack of support from Nancy Pelosi who feared that he would not be a sufficiently aggressive leader of Democrats in an anticipated struggle with incoming committee chair Republican Darrell Issa; the White House wanted Towns to be replaced. Cummings defeated Carolyn Maloney in a vote of the House Democratic Caucus. In his role as chair of the "Oversight Committee" he presided over the first public testimony by President Trump's former lawyer, Michael Cohen. Task Force on Health Care Reform Co-founder and Chairman of the Congressional Caucus on Drug Policy Congressional Arts Caucus Afterschool CaucusesCummings is a member of the Congressional Progressive Caucus.
He served as Chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus during the 108th United States Congress. Cummings received praise and a boost in notoriety following the Congressional panel hearings on steroids in March 2005. While investigating the use of steroids in sports, the panel called numerous baseball players to testify, including former single season home run record holder Mark McGwire. After McGwire answered many questions in a vague fashion, Cummings demanded to know if he was "taking the Fifth", referring to the Fifth Amendment. McGwire responded by saying, "I am here to talk about the future, not about the past." The exchange came to epitomize the entire inquiry. Cummings introduced the Presidential and Federal Records Act Amendments of 2014, a bipartisan bill signed into law by President Barack Obama in December 2014; the bill, which Cummings cosponsored with Representative Darrell Issa, Republican of California, is a set of amendments to the Federal Records Act and Presidential Records Act.
Among other provisions, the bill modernizes the definition of a federal record to expressly include electronic documents. Cummings supported the Smart Savings Act, a bill that would make the default investment in the Thrift Savings Plan an age-appropriate target date asset allocation investment fund instead of the Government Securities Investment Fund. Cummings called the bill a "commonsense change" and argued that the bill "will enable workers to take full advantage of a diversified fund designed to yield higher returns". Cummings introduced the All Circuit Review Extension Act, a bill that would extend for three years the authority for federal employees who appeal a judgment of the Merit Systems Protection Board to file their appeal at any federal court, instead of only the U. S. Court of Appeals. Cummings said that this program is important to extend because it "allows whistleblowers to file appeals where they live rather than being limited to the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals", he said that the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals has "an abysmal track record in whistleblower cases".
In remarks at the 2016 Democratic National Convention, Cumming declared: "Our party does not just believe, but understands, that Black Lives Matter. But we recognize that our community and our law enforcement work best when they work together." Five-term Congressman for Maryland's 7th congressional
Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs. In popular usage, any act in which an incendiary device is used to initiate a fire is described as a "firebombing"; this article is concerned with aerial incendiary bombing as a military tactic. Although simple incendiary bombs have been used to destroy buildings since the start of gunpowder warfare, World War I saw the first use of strategic bombing from the air to damage the morale and economy of the enemy, such as the German Zeppelin air raids conducted on London during the Great War; the Chinese wartime capital of Chongqing was firebombed by the Imperial Japanese starting in early 1939. London and many other British cities were firebombed during the Blitz by Nazi Germany. Most large German cities were extensively firebombed starting in 1942, all large Japanese cities were firebombed during the last six months of World War II.
This technique makes use of small incendiary bombs. If a fire catches, it could spread, taking in adjacent buildings that would have been unaffected by a high explosive bomb; this is a more effective use of the payload. The use of incendiaries alone does not start uncontrollable fires where the targets are roofed with nonflammable materials such as tiles or slates; the use of a mixture of bombers carrying high explosive bombs, such as the British blockbuster bombs, which blew out windows and roofs and exposed the interior of buildings to the incendiary bombs, are much more effective. Alternatively, a preliminary bombing with conventional bombs can be followed by subsequent attacks by incendiary carrying bombers. Early in World War II many British cities were firebombed. Two notable raids were the Coventry Blitz on 14 November 1940, the blitz on London on the night of 29 December/30 December 1940, the most destructive raid on London during the war with much of the destruction caused by fires started by incendiary bombs.
During the Coventry Blitz the Germans pioneered several innovations which were to influence all future strategic bomber raids during the war. These were: The use of pathfinder aircraft with electronic aids to navigate, to mark the targets before the main bomber raid; the first wave of follow-up bombers dropped high explosive bombs, the intent of, to knock out the utilities, to crater the road — making it difficult for the fire engines to reach fires started by the successive waves of bombers. The follow-up waves dropped a combination of high incendiary bombs. There were two types of incendiary bombs: those made of magnesium and iron powders, those made of petroleum; the high-explosive bombs and the larger air-mines were not only designed to hamper the Coventry fire brigade, they were intended to damage roofs, making it easier for the incendiary bombs to fall into buildings and ignite them. As Sir Arthur Harris, commander of RAF Bomber Command, wrote after the war: In the early days of bombing our notion, like that of the Germans, was to spread an attack out over the whole night, thereby wearing down the morale of the civilian population.
The result was, of course, that an efficient fire brigade could tackle a single load of incendiaries, put them out, wait in comfort for the next to come along. But it was observed that when the Germans did get an effective concentration... our fire brigades had a hard time. The Germans and again, missed their chance, as they did during the London blitz that I watched from the roof of the Air Ministry, of setting our cities ablaze by a concentrated attack. Coventry was adequately concentrated in point of space, but all the same, there was little concentration in point of time, nothing like the fire tornadoes of Hamburg or Dresden occurred in this country, but they did do us enough damage to teach us the principle of concentration, the principle of starting so many fires at the same time that no firefighting services, however efficiently and they were reinforced by the fire brigades of other towns could get them under control. The tactical innovation of the bomber stream was developed by the RAF to overwhelm the German aerial defenses of the Kammhuber Line during World War II to increase the RAF's concentration in time over the target.
But after the lessons learned during the Blitz, the tactic of dropping a high concentration of bombs over the target in the shortest time possible became standard in the RAF as it was more effective than a longer raid. For example, during the Coventry Blitz on the night of 14/15 November 1940, 515 Luftwaffe bombers, many flying more than one sortie against Coventry, delivered their bombs over a period of time lasting more than 10 hours. In contrast, the much more devastating raid on Dresden on the night of 13/14 of February 1945 by two waves of the RAF Bomber Command's main force, involved the bomb released at 22:14, with all but one of the 254 Lancaster bombers releasing their bombs within two minutes, the last one released at 22:22; the second wave of 529 Lancasters dropped all of their bombs between 01:21 and 01:45. This means that in the first raid, on average, one Lancaster dropped a full load of bombs e
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo