Roman Catholic Diocese of Bayonne, Lescar and Oloron
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Bayonne and Oloron Diocese of Bayonne, is a suffragan diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France in the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Bordeaux, in the administrative region Pyrénées-Atlantiques. The diocese comprises the Department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. At one time or another, the diocese belonged to the Dukes of Aquitaine, the Kings of England, the Kings of Navarre, the Kings of Spain; the people are Basques, the Basque language flourishes. Its cathedral, the Cathédrale Notre-Dame in Bayonne is a World Heritage Site. Elsewhere in Aquitaine, the diocese contains two former cathedrals: the Ancienne cathédrale Notre-Dame de l’Assomption, in Lescar; the southern boundary of the see, from the Carolingian period, was marked by a series of crosses high in the Pyrenees, of which the southernmost and most famous was Charles's Cross at Roncesvalles. The diocese of Bayonne gained much Spanish territory in 1030 from the Diocese of Pamplona: the four Archpresbyteries of Baztan, Bortziria in Navarre and Hondarribia in Guipuzcoa, a remnant of Charlemagne's conquests beyond the Pyrenees.
In 1566, King Philip II of Spain and angry at the behavior of the Calvinist ruling family of Navarre, petitioned the Pope to save the Catholics on the south side of the Pyrenees by placing them for a time under the government of the Bishop of Pamplona. The diocese of Bayonne, lost territory to the Diocese of Pamplona, by virtue of a papal bull of Pope Pius V of 30 April 1566. On 29 November 1801, the Bull Qui Christi Domini, of Pope Pius VII abolished all the dioceses of France and restored most of them along the lines of the pre-Revolutionary system, but with the boundaries established by the Constitutional Church, which approximated the boundaries of the new French civil departments; the diocese of Bayonne gained territories from the suppressed Diocese of Aire, Diocese of Dax, Diocese of Lescar, Diocese of Lombez, Diocese of Oloron, the Diocese of Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges, Diocese of Tarbes, which Pope Pius chose not to revive. Bayonne was a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Toulouse from 1802 to 1822.
After two decades, it was realized that the territory assigned to Bayonne in 1801 was too large for efficient administration by one bishop, since Catholicism was making progress in Gascony against Protestantism, the diocese of Bayonne was subdivided on 6 October 1822, it lost territory to the reestablished Diocese of Tarbes. Bayonne was suffragan to the Archdiocese of Auch from 1822 until 2002 On 22 June 1909 the diocese was assigned the titles of the Diocese of Lescar and the Diocese of Oloron, suppressed in 1801; the change was purely antiquarian. In the reorganization of the ecclesiastical structure of the Church in France, necessitated by accelerated urbanization and other changes in population, Pope John Paul II, on 8 December 2002, made Bayonne suffragan of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Bordeaux. Local tradition maintains that Leo of Bayonne, the martyr, with whose memory is associated a miraculous fountain, was the first Bishop of Bayonne; as Honoré Fisquet puts it succinctly, these lives have nothing authentic in them.
No bishop is known prior to the eleventh century. Some scholars think, that the fact that the town of Lapurdum, was designated as civitas in the Treaty of Andelot, indicates that the civitas must have had a bishop at that time; that is just a conjecture. Others associate the foundation of the See of Bayonne with the establishment of the Kingdom of Aquitaine; that too is a conjecture. Louis Duchesne concludes that, in the present state of the documentary evidence, no solution presents itself. Bishop Raymond III de Martres was given half of the city of Bayonne by William IX, Duke of Aquitaine. From 1152 to 1451 Bayonne was ruled by Eleanor of Aquitaine and her descendants, the kings of England; the royal coat of arms is to be found on one of the bosses in the vaulting of the choir of the Cathedral. In 1177, the son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, made war in Gascony, besieged Dax and its Count, Pierre de Bigorre, besieged Bayonne and its Vicomte Arnaud for ten days, marched south as far as Port du Cize.
In April 1344, Bishop Pierre de Saint-Johan, O. P. was appointed by King Edward III of England to head an embassy to arrange a peace between subjects of the King and men under the control of King Alfonso XI of Castile and the Count of Biscay. On 2 January 1345 he was appointed to head the Commission, to engage in the late-state negotiations for the treaty of marriage of the King's son John with a daughter of King Alfonso. On 14 February 1348 Bishop de Saint-Johan was named one of the arbitrators on claims and complaints between English and Castilian subjects. Given powers as arbitrators were the Sacristan, the Major Chaplain, another of the Canons of the Cathedral, others; the replacement for the old Romanesque cathedral, whose history is lost, was begun under Arnaud Loup de Bessabat, ca. 1140-1141. In 1199 and again in 1224, fires damaged the fabric, in 1258 another fire destroyed half of the city of Bayonne and much of
A transept is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice. In churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform building within the Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architectural traditions; each half of a transept is known as a semitransept. The transept of a church separates the nave from the sanctuary, choir, presbytery, or chancel; the transepts cross the nave at the crossing, which belongs to the main nave axis and to the transept. Upon its four piers, the crossing may support a central tower or a crossing dome. Since the altar is located at the east end of a church, a transept extends to the north and south; the north and south end walls hold decorated windows of stained glass, such as rose windows, in stone tracery. The basilicas and the church and cathedral planning that descended from them were built without transepts. More the transepts extended well beyond the sides of the rest of the building, forming the shape of a cross.
This design is called a "Latin cross" ground plan, these extensions are known as the arms of the transept. A "Greek cross" ground plan, with all four extensions the same length, produces a central-plan structure; when churches have only one transept, as at Pershore Abbey, there is a historical disaster, war or funding problem, to explain the anomaly. At Beauvais only the chevet and transepts stand. At St. Vitus Cathedral, only the choir and part of a southern transept were completed until a renewed building campaign in the 19th century; the word "transept" is extended to mean any subsidiary corridor crossing a larger main corridor, such as the cross-halls or "transepts" of The Crystal Palace, London, of glass and iron, built for the Great Exhibition of 1851. In a metro station or similar construction, a transept is a space over the platforms and tracks of a station with side platforms, containing the bridge between the platforms. Placing the bridge in a transept rather than an enclosed tunnel allows passengers to see the platforms, creating a less cramped feeling and making orientation easier.
Aisle Apse Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram Glossary of the Catholic Church Transom Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Transept". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. P. 172
Roman Catholic Diocese of Aire and Dax
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Aire and Dax is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese comprises the department of Landes, in the Region of Gascony in Aquitaine, it was a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Auch under the old regime, but was not re-established until 1822, when it was again made a suffragan of the re-established Archdiocese of Auch, was assigned the territory of the former Diocese of Aire and Diocese of Acqs. It is now a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Bordeaux, it has been known since 1857 as the Diocese of Dax. It is a co-cathedral diocese, with episcopal seats in the Cathedral St-Jean-Baptiste d' Aire and in Nôtre Dame de Dax. On April 6, 2017, the resignation letter of recent Bishop Herve Gaschignard was accepted by Pope Francis following allegations that Gaschignard engaged in inappropriate behavior with young people; the first reference to a bishop of Aire, on the river Adour, in history is to Marcellus, represented at the Council of Agde, 506.
Aire was the home of St. Philibert. In 1572, on the death of Bishop Christophe de Candale, the Capitular Vicar of Aire submitted a status report to King Charles IX, providing a picture of the diocese at that time. There were that of Marsan and that of Chalosse. In addition to the two archdeacons, the Cathedral Chapter was composed of ten Canons and seven Prebendaries, two semi-Prebendaries, the Master of the Children of the Choir, the Basse-Contre; the Statutes of the Chapter were confirmed by Bishop Tristan d'Aure in 1459 or 1460. Religious establishments included: the Abbaye du Mas d'Aire the Abbaye de St-Jean de la Castelle the Abbaye of Saint-Loubouer the Collegiate Church of Pimbo the Abbaye of Pontaut the Convent of Augustine Religious at Geune; the Priory of Mongaillard the Commanderie of St-Antoine the Abbaye of Saint-Sever the Jacobins, or Frères Prêcheurs de Ste-Ursule the Priory of Nervis the Collegial Church of Saint-Girons the Commanderie of the Holy Spirit. The Priory of Roquefort the Commanderie de Bessaut the Commanderie de St-Antoine de Gelonies the Priory of Mont-de-Marsan the Priory of Sen a Labrit.
The hamlet believed to be the birthplace of St. Vincent de Paul is within the limits of the present Diocese of Aire, though in his lifetime it was part of the diocese of Dax and had nothing to do with Aire. In the Gallo-Roman crypt of Mas d'Aire is preserved in a sarcophagus the body of St. Quitteria, daughter of a governor of Gallicia, martyred under Commodus, for her resolution to remain a virgin; the city of Saint-Sever, in the Diocese of Aire. Owes its origin to an ancient Benedictine abbey, built in the tenth century by a Duke of Gascony as an act of thanksgiving for a victory over the Northmen, whose church was dedicated to St. Severus; the Gothic church of Mimizan is the only survival of a Benedictine abbey. The church of Carcarés, dating from the year 810, is one of the oldest in France. 506, 533: Marcellus 585: Rusticus 614: Palladius ca. 620–630: Philibaud ca. 633–675: Ursus ca. 788: Asinarius ca. 977: Gombaud 1823–1827: Jean-François-Marie Le Pappe de Trévern 1827–1839: Dominique-Marie Savy 1839 – 30 June 1856: François-Adélaïde-Adolphe Lanneluc 15 December 1856 – 6 June 1859: Prosper-Michel-Armand Hiraboure 26 September 1859–23 July 1876: Louis-Marie-Olivier Épivent 18 December 1876–7 August 1905: Victor-Jean-Baptiste-Paulin Delannoy 21 February 1906 – 1911: François Touzet 1911–1930: Maurice Charles Alfred de Cormont 1930–1963: Clément Mathieu 1963–1978: Fernand Pierre Robert Bézac des Martinies 1978–2002: Robert Pierre Sarrabère 2002–2012: Philippe Jean Louis Breton 2012–2017: Hervé Gaschignard 2017–present: Nicolas Jean-Marie Souchu Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in France Eubel, Conradus.
Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Munster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 72. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Munster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 80. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Munster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Cazauran, Jean Marie. Pouillé du diocèse d'Aire. Paris: Maisonneuve. Degert, A.. Histoire des évêques d'Aire. Paris: Beauchesne. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Louis Duchesne. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: II. L'Aquitaine et
The Roman Rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom, is one of the Western/Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite became the predominant rite used by the Western Church. Many local variants, not amounting to distinctive Rites, existed in the medieval manuscripts, but have been progressively reduced since the invention of printing, most notably since the reform of liturgical law in the 16th century at the behest of the Council of Trent and more following the Second Vatican Council; the Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and the history of its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages: the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI. The Mass of Paul VI is the current form of the Mass in the Catholic Church, first promulgated in the 1969 edition of the Roman Missal, it is considered the ordinary form of the mass, intended for most contexts.
The Tridentine Mass, as promulgated in the 1962 Roman Missal, may be used as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, according to norms set in the 2007 papal document Summorum Pontificum. The Roman Rite is noted for its sobriety of expression. In its Tridentine form, it was noted for its formality: the Tridentine Missal minutely prescribed every movement, to the extent of laying down that the priest should put his right arm into the right sleeve of the alb before putting his left arm into the left sleeve. Concentration on the exact moment of change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ has led, in the Roman Rite, to the consecrated Host and the chalice being shown to the people after the Words of Institution. If, as was once most common, the priest offers Mass while facing ad apsidem, ad orientem if the apse is at the east end of the church, he shows them to the people, who are behind him, by elevating them above his head; as each is shown, a bell is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed.
Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well. Other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, keeping both hands joined together. In his 1912 book on the Roman Mass, Adrian Fortescue wrote: "Essentially the Missal of Pius V is the Gregorian Sacramentary. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis and allusions to it in the 4th century. So our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all, it is still redolent of that liturgy, of the days when Caesar ruled the world and thought he could stamp out the faith of Christ, when our fathers met together before dawn and sang a hymn to Christ as to a God. The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of changes, there is not in Christendom another rite so venerable as ours." In a footnote he added: "The prejudice that imagines that everything Eastern must be old is a mistake.
Eastern rites have been modified too. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass."In the same book, Fortescue acknowledged that the Roman Rite underwent profound changes in the course of its development. His ideas are summarized in the article on the "Liturgy of the Mass" that he wrote for the Catholic Encyclopedia in which he pointed out that the earliest form of the Roman Mass, as witnessed in Justin Martyr's 2nd-century account, is of Eastern type, while the Leonine and Gelasian Sacramentaries, of about the 6th century, "show us what is our present Roman Mass". In the interval, there was what Fortescue called "a radical change", he quoted the theory of A. Baumstark that the Hanc Igitur, Quam oblationem, Supra quæ and Supplices, the list of saints in the Nobis quoque were added to the Roman Canon of the Mass under "a mixed influence of Antioch and Alexandria", that "St. Leo I began to make these changes. During the same time the prayers of the faithful before the Offertory disappeared, the kiss of peace was transferred to after the Consecration, the Epiklesis was omitted or mutilated into our "Supplices" prayer.
Of the various theories suggested to account for this it seems reasonable to say with Rauschen: "Although the question is by no means decided there is so much in favour of Drews's theory that for the present it must be considered the right one. We must admit that between the years 400 and 500 a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon". In the same article Fortescue went on to speak of the many alterations that the Roman Rite of Mass underwent from the 7th century on, in particular through the infusion of Gallican elements, noticeable chiefly in the variations for the course of the year; this infusion Fortescue called the "last change since Gregory the Great". The Eucharistic Prayer used in the Byzantine Rite is attributed to Saint John Chrysostom, who died in 404 two centuries before Pope Gregory the Great; the East Syrian Eucharistic Prayer of Ad
Concordat of 1801
The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris. It remained in effect until 1905, it sought national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics and solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France, with most of its civil status restored. The hostility of devout French Catholics against the state had largely been resolved, it did not restore the vast church lands and endowments, seized upon during the revolution and sold off. Catholic clergy returned from exile, or from hiding, resumed their traditional positions in their traditional churches. Few parishes continued to employ the priests who had accepted the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of the Revolutionary regime. While the Concordat restored much power to the papacy, the balance of church-state relations tilted in Napoleon's favour, he selected the supervised church finances. Napoleon and the pope both found the Concordat useful. Similar arrangements were made with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon Italy and Germany.
During the French Revolution, the National Assembly had taken Church properties and issued the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which made the Church a department of the State removing it from papal authority. At the time, the nationalized Gallican Church was the official church of France, but it was Catholicism; the Civil Constitution caused hostility among the Vendeans towards the change in the relationship between the Catholic Church and the French government. Subsequent laws abolished Christian holidays; the Concordat was drawn up by a commission with three representatives from each party. Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the French Republic at the time, appointed Joseph Bonaparte, his brother, Emmanuel Crétet, a counselor of state, Étienne-Alexandre Bernier, a doctor in theology. Pope Pius VII appointed Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, Cardinal Giuseppe Spina, archbishop of Corinth, his theological adviser, Father Carlo Francesco Maria Caselli; the French bishops, whether still abroad or returned to their own country, had no part in the negotiations.
The concordat as arranged ignored them. While the Concordat restored some ties to the papacy, it was in favor of the state. Napoleon understood the utility of religion as an important factor of social cohesion, his was a utilitarian approach. He could now win favor with French Catholics while controlling Rome in a political sense. Napoleon once told his brother Lucien in April 1801, "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests, they can both contain them and use them." As a part of the Concordat, he presented. Napoleon looked for the recognition by the Church of the disposition of its property and geographical reorganization of bishoprics, while Rome sought the protection of Catholics and the recognition of a special status of the Catholic Church in the French State; the main terms of the Concordat of 1801 between France and Pope Pius VII included: A declaration that "Catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French" but not the official state religion, thus maintaining religious freedom, in particular with respect to Protestants.
The Church was to be free to exercise its worship in public in accordance with police regulations that the Government deems necessary for the public peace. The authority to determine if a public religious observance would violate the public peace, resided with each mayor who had the power to prohibit a public ceremony if he considered it a threat to peace his commune; the Papacy had the right to depose bishops. The state would pay clerical salaries and the clergy swore an oath of allegiance to the state; the Catholic Church gave up all its claims to Church lands that were confiscated after 1790. Sunday was reestablished as a "festival", effective Easter Sunday, 18 April 1802; the rest of the French Republican Calendar, abolished, was not replaced by the traditional Gregorian Calendar until 1 January 1806. According to Georges Goyau, the law known as "The Organic Articles", promulgated in April 1802, infringed in various ways on the spirit of the concordat; the document claimed Catholicism was "the religion of the majority of Frenchman," and still gave state recognition to Protestants and Jews as well.
The Concordat was abrogated by the law of 1905 on the separation of state. However, some provisions of the Concordat are still in effect in the Alsace-Lorraine region under the local law of Alsace-Moselle, as the region was controlled by the German Empire at the time of the 1905 law's passage. Napoleon and the Jews Concordat in Nigel. Religion and revolution in France, 1780-1804, pp. 279–315. Consalvi, Ercole. J. Crétineau-Joly, ed. Mémoires du Cardinal Consalvi, avec une introduction et des notes de J. Crétineau-Joly. H. Plon. Crétineau-Joly, Jacques. Bonaparte, le concordat de 1801 et le cardinal Consalvi. Paris: H. Plon. Roberts, William."Napoleon, the Concordat of 1801, Its Consequences." in: Frank J. Coppa, ed. Controversial Concordats: The Vatican's Relations with Napoleon and Hitler pp: 34-80. Sévestre, Emile. L'histoire, le texte et la destinée du Concordat de 1801. Paris: Lethielleux. Theiner, Augustin. Histoi
A choir sometimes called quire, is the area of a church or cathedral that provides seating for the clergy and church choir. It is in the western part of the chancel, between the nave and the sanctuary, which houses the altar and Church tabernacle. In larger medieval churches it contained choir-stalls, seating aligned with the side of the church, so at right-angles to the seating for the congregation in the nave. Smaller medieval churches may not have a choir in the architectural sense at all, they are lacking in churches built by all denominations after the Protestant Reformation, though the Gothic Revival revived them as a distinct feature; as an architectural term "choir" remains distinct from the actual location of any singing choir – these may located in various places, sing from a choir-loft over the door at the liturgical western end. In modern churches, the choir may be located centrally behind the pulpit; the back-choir or retroquire is a space behind the high altar in the choir of a church, in which there may be a small altar standing back to back with the other.
In the Early Church, the sanctuary was connected directly to the nave. The choir was the east part of the nave, was fenced off by a screen or low railing, called cancelli, where the English word chancel comes from; the development of the architectural feature known as the choir is the result of the liturgical development brought about by the end of persecutions under Constantine the Great and the rise of monasticism. The word "choir" is first used by members of the Latin Church. Isidore of Seville and Honorius of Autun write that the term is derived from the "corona", the circle of clergy or singers who surrounded the altar; when first introduced, the choir was attached to the bema, the elevated platform in the center of the nave on which were placed seats for the higher clergy and a lectern for scripture readings. This arrangement can still be observed at the Basilica of St. Mary Major in Rome. Over time, the bema and choir moved eastward to their current position. In some churches, such as Westminster Cathedral, the choir is arranged in the apse behind the altar.
The architectural details of the choir developed in response to its function as the place where the Divine Office was chanted by the monastic brotherhood or the chapter of canons. The chancel was regarded as the clergy's part of the church, any choirboys from a choir school counted as part of the clergy for this purpose. After the Reformation, when the number of clergy present in large churches and cathedrals tended to reduce, lay singing choirs became more frequent, there were objections to placing them in the traditional choir stalls in the chancel; the pulpit and lectern are usually found at the front of the choir, though both Catholic and Protestant churches have sometimes moved the pulpit to the nave for better audibility. The organ may be in a loft elsewhere in the church; some cathedrals have a retro-choir behind the High Altar, opening eastward towards the chapels in the eastern extremity. After the Reformation Protestant churches moved the altar forward to the front of the chancel, used lay choirs who were placed in a gallery at the west end.
The choir and rear of deep chancels became little used in churches surviving from the Middle Ages, new churches often omitted one. With the emphasis on sermons, their audibility, some churches converted their chancels to seat part of the congregation. In 19th-century England one of the battles of the Cambridge Camden Society, the architectural wing of the Anglo-Catholics in the Church of England, was to restore the chancel, including the choir, as a necessary part of a church. By pushing the altar back to its medieval position and having the choir used by a lay choir, they were successful in this, although the harder end of the High Church objected to allowing a large group of laity into the chancel. Different approaches to worship in the 20th century again tended to push altars in larger churches forward, to be closer to the congregation, the chancel again risks being a less used area of the church; the choir area is occupied by sometimes finely carved and decorated wooden seats known as choir stalls, where the clergy sit, stand or kneel during services.
The choir may be furnished either with individual choir stalls. There may be several rows of seating running parallel to the walls of the church; the use of choir stalls is more traditional in collegiate churches. Monastic choir stalls are fitted with seats that fold up when the monastics stand and fold down when they sit; the hinged seat will have a misericord on the underside on which he can lean while standing during the long services. The upper part of the monk's stall is so shaped as to provide a headrest while sitting, arm rests when standing. Monasteries will have strict rules as to when the monastics may sit and when they must stand during the services. Choir benches are more common in parish churches; each bench may have padded kneelers attached to the back of it so that the person behind may kneel at the appropriate times during services. The front row will have a long prie-dieu running in front of it for the choir members to place their books on, which may be fitted with kneelers. In a cathedral, the bishop's throne or cathedra is located in this space.
Cathedral architecture Cathedral floorplan Kathisma Kliros Matroneum Texts on Wikisource: "Choir". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. 1911. Pp. 260–261. Poole, Thomas Henr