Outline of academic disciplines
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is defined by the university faculties and learned societies to which she or he belongs and the academic journals in which she or he publishes research. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications. A discipline may have branches, these are called sub-disciplines. There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified, for example whether anthropology and linguistics are disciplines of the social sciences or of the humanities; the following outline is provided as topical guide to academic disciplines. Biblical studies Religious studies Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Greek, Aramaic Buddhist theology Christian theology Anglican theology Baptist theology Catholic theology Eastern Orthodox theology Protestant theology Hindu theology Jewish theology Muslim theology Biological anthropology Linguistic anthropology Cultural anthropology Social anthropology Archaeology Accounting Business management Finance Marketing Operations management Edaphology Environmental chemistry Environmental science Gemology Geochemistry Geodesy Physical geography Atmospheric science / Meteorology Biogeography / Phytogeography Climatology / Paleoclimatology / Palaeogeography Coastal geography / Oceanography Edaphology / Pedology or Soil science Geobiology Geology Geostatistics Glaciology Hydrology / Limnology / Hydrogeology Landscape ecology Quaternary science Geophysics Paleontology Paleobiology Paleoecology Astrobiology Astronomy Observational astronomy Gamma ray astronomy Infrared astronomy Microwave astronomy Optical astronomy Radio astronomy UV astronomy X-ray astronomy Astrophysics Gravitational astronomy Black holes Interstellar medium Numerical simulations Astrophysical plasma Galaxy formation and evolution High-energy astrophysics Hydrodynamics Magnetohydrodynamics Star formation Physical cosmology Stellar astrophysics Helioseismology Stellar evolution Stellar nucleosynthesis Planetary science Also a branch of electrical engineering Pure mathematics Applied mathematics Astrostatistics Biostatistics Academia Academic genealogy Curriculum Multidisciplinary approach Interdisciplinarity Transdisciplinarity Professions Classification of Instructional Programs Joint Academic Coding System List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States List of academic fields Abbott, Andrew.
Chaos of Disciplines. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-00101-2. Oleson, Alexandra; the Organization of knowledge in modern America, 1860-1920. ISBN 0-8018-2108-8. US Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. Classification of Instructional Programs. National Center for Education Statistics. Classification of Instructional Programs: Developed by the U. S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics to provide a taxonomic scheme that will support the accurate tracking and reporting of fields of study and program completions activity. Complete JACS from Higher Education Statistics Agency in the United Kingdom Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification Chapter 3 and Appendix 1: Fields of research classification. Fields of Knowledge, a zoomable map allowing the academic disciplines and sub-disciplines in this article be visualised. Sandoz, R. Interactive Historical Atlas of the Disciplines, University of Geneva
God in Christianity
God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things. Christians believe God to be both immanent. Christian teachings of the immanence and involvement of God and his love for humanity exclude the belief that God is of the same substance as the created universe but accept that God's divine Nature was hypostatically united to human nature in the person of Jesus Christ, in an event known as the Incarnation. Early Christian views of God were expressed in the Pauline Epistles and the early creeds, which proclaimed one God and the divinity of Jesus in the same breath as in 1 Corinthians: "For if there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth, yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we live. "Although the Judeo-Christian sect of the Ebionites protested against this apotheosis of Jesus, the great mass of Gentile Christians accepted it." This began to differentiate the Gentile Christian views of God from traditional Jewish teachings of the time.
The theology of the attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things". In the 8th century, John of Damascus listed eighteen attributes which remain accepted; as time passed, theologians developed systematic lists of these attributes, some based on statements in the Bible, others based on theological reasoning. The Kingdom of God is a prominent phrase in the Synoptic Gospels and while there is near unanimous agreement among scholars that it represents a key element of the teachings of Jesus, there is little scholarly agreement on its exact interpretation. Although the New Testament does not have a formal doctrine of the Trinity as such, "it does speak of the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit... in such a way as to compel a Trinitarian understanding of God." This never becomes a tritheism. Around the year 200, Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trinity which affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the definitive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of 381.
The doctrine of the Trinity can be summed up as: "The One God exists in Three Persons and One Substance, as God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit." Trinitarians, who form the large majority of Christians, hold it as a core tenet of their faith. Nontrinitarian denominations define the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit in a number of different ways. Early Christian views of God are reflected in Apostle Paul's statement in 1 Corinthians, written ca. AD 53-54, i.e. about twenty years after the crucifixion of Jesus: for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we live. Apart from asserting that there is but one God, Paul's statement includes a number of other significant elements: he distinguishes Christian belief from the Jewish background of the time by referring to Jesus and the Father in the same breath, by conferring on Jesus the title of divine honor "Lord", as well as calling him Christ. In the Acts during the Areopagus sermon given by Paul, he further characterizes the early Christian understanding: The God that made the world and all things therein, he, being Lord of heaven and earth and reflects on the relationship between God and Christians: that they should seek God, if haply they might feel after him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us for in him we live.
The Pauline Epistles include a number of references to the Holy Spirit, with the theme which appears in 1 Thessalonians "…God, the God who gives you his Holy Spirit" appearing throughout his epistles. In John 14:26 Jesus refers to "the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name". By the end of the 1st century, Clement of Rome had referred to the Father and Holy Spirit, linked the Father to creation, 1 Clement 19.2 stating: "let us look steadfastly to the Father and creator of the universe". By the middle of the 2nd century, in Against Heresies Irenaeus had emphasized that the Creator is the "one and only God" and the "maker of heaven and earth"; these preceded the formal presentation of the concept of Trinity by Tertullian early in the 3rd century. The period from the late 2nd century to the beginning of the 4th century is called the "epoch of the Great Church" and the Ante-Nicene Period and witnessed significant theological development, the consolidation and formalization of a number of Christian teachings.
From the 2nd century onward, western creeds started with an affirmation of belief in "God the Father" and the primary reference of this phrase was to "God in his capacity as Father and creator of the universe". This did not exclude either the fact the "eternal father of the universe was the Father of Jesus the Christ" or that he had "vouchsafed to adopt as his son by grace". Eastern creeds began with an affirmation of faith in "one God" and always expanded this by adding "the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible" or words to that effect; as time passed and philosophers developed more precise understandin
University of Virginia
The University of Virginia is a public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia. It was founded in 1819 by Declaration of former President Thomas Jefferson. UVA is a World Heritage site of the United States, it is known for its historic foundations, student-run honor code, secret societies. The original governing Board of Visitors included Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe. Monroe was the sitting President of the United States at the time of its foundation and earlier Presidents Jefferson and Madison were UVA's first two rectors. Jefferson designed the original courses of study and Academical Village; as the first elected member to the research-driven Association of American Universities in the American South, since 1904, it remains the only AAU member in Virginia. The university is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation, its recent research efforts have been recognized by such scientific media as the journal Science, which credited UVA faculty with two of the top ten global breakthroughs of 2015.
UVA faculty and alumni have founded a large number of companies, such as Reddit. UVA offers 121 majors across three professional schools; the historic 1,682-acre campus is internationally protected by UNESCO and has been ranked as one of the most beautiful collegiate grounds in the country. UVA additionally maintains 2,913 acres southeast of the city, at Morven Farm; the university manages the College at Wise in Southwest Virginia, until 1972 operated George Mason University and the University of Mary Washington in Northern Virginia. Virginia student athletes compete in 27 collegiate sports and the Cavaliers lead the Atlantic Coast Conference in men's team NCAA championships with 18, additionally placing second in women's national titles with seven. UVA was awarded the men's Capital One Cup in 2015 after fielding the top overall men's athletics program in the nation. In 1802, while serving as President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson wrote to artist Charles Willson Peale that his concept of the new university would be "on the most extensive and liberal scale that our circumstances would call for and our faculties meet," and that it might attract talented students from "other states to come, drink of the cup of knowledge".
Virginia was home to the College of William and Mary, but Jefferson lost all confidence in his alma mater because of its religious nature – it required all its students to recite a catechism – and its stifling of the sciences. Jefferson had flourished under William and Mary professors William Small and George Wythe decades earlier, but the college was in a period of great decline and his concern became so dire by 1800 that he expressed to British chemist Joseph Priestley, "we have in that State, a college just well enough endowed to draw out the miserable existence to which a miserable constitution has doomed it." These words would ring true some seventy years when William and Mary fell bankrupt after the Civil War and the Williamsburg college was shuttered in 1881 being revived in a limited capacity as a small college for teachers until well into the twentieth century. In 1817, three Presidents and Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court John Marshall joined 24 other dignitaries at a meeting held in the Mountain Top Tavern at Rockfish Gap.
After some deliberation, they selected nearby Charlottesville as the site of the new University of Virginia. Farmland just outside Charlottesville was purchased from James Monroe by the Board of Visitors as Central College; the school laid its first building's cornerstone late in that same year, the Commonwealth of Virginia chartered the new university on January 25, 1819. John Hartwell Cocke collaborated with James Madison and Joseph Carrington Cabell to fulfill Jefferson's dream to establish the university. Cocke and Jefferson were appointed to the building committee to supervise the construction. Like many of its peers, the university owned slaves, they served students and professors. The university's first classes met on March 7, 1825. In contrast to other universities of the day, at which one could study in either medicine, law, or divinity, the first students at the University of Virginia could study in one or several of eight independent schools – medicine, mathematics, ancient languages, modern languages, natural philosophy, moral philosophy.
Another innovation of the new university was that higher education would be separated from religious doctrine. UVA had no divinity school, was established independently of any religious sect, the Grounds were planned and centered upon a library, the Rotunda, rather than a church, distinguishing it from peer universities still functioning as seminaries for one particular strain of Protestantism or another. Jefferson opined to philosopher Thomas Cooper that "a professorship of theology should have no place in our institution", never has there been one. There were two degrees awarded by the university: Graduate, to a student who had completed the courses of one school. Jefferson was intimately involved in the university to the end, hosting Sunday dinners at his Monticello home for faculty and students until his death. So taken with the import of what he viewed the university's foundations and potential to be, counting it amongst his greatest accomplishments, Jefferson insisted his grave mention only his status as author of the Declaration of Independence and Virginia Statute for Religious Fre
Focus on the Family
Focus on the Family is an American Christian conservative organization founded in 1977 in Southern California by psychologist James Dobson, based in Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is active in promoting conservative views on public policy. Focus on the Family is one of a number of evangelical parachurch organizations that rose to prominence in the 1980s; as of the 2015 tax filing year, Focus on the Family declared itself to be a church. Focus on the Family's stated mission is "nurturing and defending the God-ordained institution of the family and promoting biblical truths worldwide", it promotes abstinence-only sexual education. It opposes abortion. Psychologists and social scientists have criticized Focus on the Family for trying to misrepresent their research to bolster FOTF's fundamentalist political agenda and ideology; the core promotional activities of the organization include a daily radio broadcast by its president Jim Daly and his colleagues, providing free resources according to Focus on the Family views, publishing magazines and audio recordings.
The organization produces programs for targeted audiences, such as Adventures in Odyssey for children and Family Minute. From 1977 to 2003, James Dobson served as the sole leader of the organization. In 2003, Donald P. Hodel became president and chief executive officer, tasked with the day-to-day operations; this left Dobson with chiefly creative and speaking duties. Focus on the Family aims to equip families "through radio broadcasts, simulcasts, interactive forums, magazines and counseling." In March 2005, Hodel retired and Jim Daly the Vice President in charge of Focus on the Family's International Division, assumed the role of president and chief executive officer. In November 2008, the organization announced that it was eliminating 202 jobs, representing 18 percent of its workforce; the organization cut its budget from $160 million in fiscal 2008 to $138 million for fiscal 2009. In February 2009, Dobson resigned his chairmanship, He left Focus on the Family in early 2010, subsequently founded Family Talk as a non-profit organization and launched a new broadcast that began airing nationally on May 3, 2010.
He is no longer affiliated with Focus on the Family. On June 23, 2017, Vice President Mike Pence attended the organization's 40th anniversary celebration. Pence's attendance at the event, along with Focus on the Family's stances on LGBT rights, were criticized by the Human Rights Campaign. In its IRS Form 990 for Tax Year 2015, dated October 26, 2017, Focus on the Family for the first time declared itself a "church, convention of churches or association of churches", claiming that it was no longer required to file the IRS disclosure form and that the sources and disposition of its $89 million budget were "Not for public inspection." Tax Attorney Gail Harmon, who advises nonprofits on tax law, said she found the declaration "shocking", noting that ""There’s nothing about them that meets the traditional definition of what a church is. They don’t have a congregation, they don’t have the rites of various parts of a person’s life." Focus on the Family sees its primary ministry as helping couples "build healthy marriages that reflect God's design", based on what it sees as "morals and values grounded in biblical principles."
The group opposes same-sex marriage. Focus on the Family formed Love Won Out, an ex-gay ministry, in 1998 and in 2009, it was sold to Exodus International. In June 2013, Exodus ceased activities, it issued a statement which repudiated its aims and apologized for the harm their pursuit caused to LGBT people. Focus on the Family's Wait No More ministry works with adoption agencies, church leaders and ministry partners to recruit families to adopt children from foster care; the program co-sponsors several adoption conferences throughout the country each year. Since November 2008, more than 2,700 families have started the adoption process through Wait No More. In Colorado, the number of children waiting for adoption dropped from about 800 to 350, due in-part to the efforts of Wait No More. Focus on the Family's efforts to encourage adoption among Christian families is part of a larger effort by Evangelicals to, in their perception, live out what they see as the "biblical mandate" to help children.
Focus on the Family supports laws to prevent couples from adopting who are cohabiting together outside of marriage as well as homosexual couples. Focus on the Family's Option Ultrasound Program provides grants to qualifying crisis pregnancy centers to cover 80 percent of the cost of an ultrasound machine or sonography training; as of October 31, 2014, the program has provided 655 grants to centers in all 50 states and Bucharest, Romania. Focus on the Family began OUP in 2004 with the goal of convincing women not to have abortions. FOTF officials said that ultrasound services help a woman better understand her pregnancy and baby's development, creating an important "bonding opportunity" between "mother and unborn child"; the Option Ultrasound Program reported in 2014 that it has helped prevent more than 270,000 abortions since 2004. A study released in February 2012 shows that ultrasounds do not have a direct impact on an abortion decision. In 2011, FOTF Preside
National Coming Out Day
National Coming Out Day is an annual LGBT awareness day observed on October 11. Founded in the United States in 1988, the initial idea was grounded in the feminist and gay liberation spirit of the personal being political, the emphasis on the most basic form of activism being coming out to family and colleagues, living life as an lesbian or gay person; the foundational belief is that homophobia thrives in an atmosphere of silence and ignorance, that once people know that they have loved ones who are lesbian or gay, they are far less to maintain homophobic or oppressive views. In more recent years, the idea of the "lesbian and gay community" has been subsumed into the idea of the LGBT community, the idea of "coming out" expanded to include not only the voluntary self-disclosure of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual sexual orientation, but that of transgender, genderqueer, or other non-mainstream gender identity. NCOD was founded in 1988 by Jean O'Leary. Eichberg, who died in 1995 of complications from AIDS, was a psychologist from New Mexico and founder of the personal growth workshop, The Experience.
O'Leary was an lesbian political leader and long-time activist from New York, was at the time the head of the National Gay Rights Advocates in Los Angeles. LGBT activists, including Eichberg and O'Leary, did not want to respond defensively to anti-LGBT action because they believed it would be predictable; this caused them to found NCOD in order to celebrate coming out. The date of October 11 was chosen because it is the anniversary of the 1987 National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. Most people think they don't know anyone gay or lesbian, in fact, everybody does, it is imperative that we come out and let people know who we are and disabuse them of their fears and stereotypes. – Robert Eichberg, in 1993 Initially administered from the West Hollywood offices of the National Gay Rights Advocates, the first NCOD received participation from eighteen states, garnering national media coverage. In its second year, NCOD headquarters moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico and participation grew to 21 states.
After a media push in 1990 NCOD was observed in all seven other countries. Participation continued to grow and in 1990 NCOD merged their efforts with the Human Rights Campaign. National Coming Out Day is observed annually to celebrate coming out and to raise awareness of the LGBT community and civil rights movement; the first decades of observances were marked by private and public people coming out in the media, to raise awareness and let the mainstream know that everyone knows at least one person, lesbian or gay. In more recent years, because coming out as a lesbian or gay man is now far less risky in most Western countries, the day is more of a holiday. Participants wear pride symbols such as pink triangles and rainbow flags. National Coming Out Day is observed in Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. In the United States, the Human Rights Campaign sponsors NCOD events under the auspices of their National Coming Out Project, offering resources to LGBT individuals, couples and children, as well as straight friends and relatives, to promote awareness of LGBT families living honest and open lives.
Candace Gingrich became the spokesperson for NCOD in April 1995. From 1999 to 2014 the Human Rights Campaign announced a theme to go with each NCOD: 1999: Come Out to Congress 2000: Think it O-o-ver 2001: An Out Odyssey 2002: Being Out Rocks! 2003: It's a Family Affair 2004: Come Out. Speak Out. Vote. 2005: Talk About It 2006: Talk About It 2007: Talk About It 2009: Conversations from the Heart 2010: Coming Out for Equality 2011: Coming Out for Equality 2012: Come Out. Vote. 2013: Coming Out Still Matters 2014: Coming Out Still Matters While NCOD has been a celebratory day for the LGBT community, there have been several criticisms on how the holiday perpetuates homonormativity. Preston Mitchum, a black queer writer, wrote an article called "On National Coming Out Day, Don't Disparage the Closet", published in The Atlantic in 2013 that discusses the assumptions that NCOD makes. In the article, Mitchum does not discredit those who have come out, still praising them for their bravery. Instead, he acknowledges how coming out may not always be safe for LGBT people who are a part of multiple marginalized communities.
Mitchum suggests that coming out can lead to hypervisibility for those with intersecting identities leading to discrimination in the workplace, family exile and criminalization. Furthermore, radical feminist Adrienne Rich touches on the reasons people feel the need to come out in her essay "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence," suggesting that it stems from the pressure to adhere to heterosexuality from birth, or compulsory heterosexuality. Rich uses the example that heterosexual people never have to come out as heterosexual, displaying the way that homosexuality is viewed as an anomaly. Ally Week, observed in October Day of Silence, observed in April Harvey Milk Day International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia, observed on May 17 LGBT History Month LGBT rights in the United States Mattachine Society National Equality March, October 11, 2009 World AIDS Day, December 1 National Coming Out Day National Coming Out Day RUComingOut – Real Life Coming Out stories
Kenneth Lee Hutcherson was an American football linebacker in the National Football League and senior pastor at Antioch Bible Church in Kirkland, where he had been since 1985. His nickname from his NFL days was "The Hutch". Hutcherson died on December 18, 2013, after more than a decade-long battle with prostate and bone cancer. Ken Hutcherson is survived by his mother and four children. Hutcherson attended Anniston High School, he played linebacker for Livingston University from 1970 to 1973. He was a starting outside linebacker for the Tiger's 1971 NAIA National Championship team, was an All-American both his junior and senior seasons, he was the NAIA National Player of the Week in 1972. Hutcherson was named GSC Defensive Player of the Year in 1972, was an All-GSC and All-Alabama Small College selection. In 1973, he led his team with 86 tackles. In 1985, he was inducted into the West Alabama Tigers Athletics Hall of Fame. Hutcherson was selected in the fourth round of the 1974 NFL Draft by the Dallas Cowboys, after dropping because he was seen as an undersized player.
He tore cartilage in his knee during rookie orientation practices in the spring. He overcame the surgery to report on time to training camp, he was a standout on special teams. On September 9, 1975, he was traded to the San Diego Chargers in exchange for a seventh round draft choice, he was released by the Chargers after being hampered with a leg injury during the season and was claimed by the Green Bay Packers, who placed him on the injured reserve list. The Seattle Seahawks selected him from the Packers roster in the 1976 NFL Expansion Draft. On September 7, 1976, he was placed on the injured reserve list with torn knee ligaments; the next year, he left the team. After ending his football career, Hutcherson conducted theological studies at Cascade Bible College in Bellevue, Washington in 1979. After finishing his studies, he served eight years as director of high school ministries at Westminster Chapel in Bellevue. In 1984, he started the multicultural Antioch Bible Church in Kirkland, along with Mark Webster and Dwight Englund.
Hutcherson accepted the position of senior pastor in 1985 and was ordained in 1986. Regarding the modern day Christian church, Hutcherson believed "the greatest need today in the church - which does not seem to be important in the average church - is the training of people in evangelism and the responsibility they have for the church and responsibility they have for God."In early 2010, Hutcherson shot a video for the I Am Second organization, in which he shared his testimony. In the video, Hutcherson talked about his experiences with racism growing up in the Deep South in the 1950s and 60s, revealed that he grew to hate white people; the hatred, left him feeling empty and that's when he "ran into Jesus Christ." Hutcherson and Rush Limbaugh were close friends, the two spent a good amount of time together. Publicly, Hutcherson would call in to The Rush Limbaugh Show around NFL playoff and Super Bowl time, he officiated at Limbaugh's fourth wedding in June 2010. On his show of December 19, 2013, one day after Hutcherson's death, Limbaugh reflected on what Hutcherson meant to him and on the impact his death would have on others: "He was a man, folks.
There was no complaining. There was no bleeding on people. There was none of that, he didn't want his relationship with anybody to be defined in what turned out to be the latter months of his life, by his illness. He was a devout Christian, he was a devout practicing Christian. And, as such, I don't think, but he's gone now, it's a great, great loss for his congregation and his family because he's a unique individual. Nobody can be replaced when they're gone, but he's created an huge void for a lot of people because he was a counselor to people in trouble, no matter what the problem was." Hutcherson made frequent appearances on Glenn Beck's programs. On December 17, 2013, Beck posted a 10-minute video on his website, in which he talked at length about his relationship with Hutcherson. Beck tweeted the same day: "I just spoke to Hutch tonight, he is dying. He promised me. Pray for his sweet wife and children." Hutcherson would die the next day. A sparring partner of Hutcherson's, gay activist and The Stranger reporter Eli Sanders wrote a blog post one day after Hutcherson's death, entitled: "Ken Hutcherson's Last Goodbye".
In the post, Sanders revealed that Hutcherson had sent him a New Testament Bible in the mail in April 2011 and had embossed his name on the front. Inside, Hutcherson wrote: "Eli, now you can know what we are talking about! - Dr. Ken Hutcherson, Rom. 12:1-2". In the post, Sanders wrote, "I will miss him." Hutcherson battled prostate and bone cancer for 13 years before passing away on December 18, 2013. In July 2013, Hutcherson told TheBlaze.com: "I've had cancer for 13 years and I have been condemned to die for five. Cancer is one of the greatest things that happened to me." Hutcherson went on. There's nothing. What cancer has done is given me an absolute focus on Jesus Christ, my Lord and Savior."Hutcherson told KVI host John Carlson in July 2012, "As a Christian, my perspective about living and dying is different from most. I believe in Christ, and I believe the Bible, which tells me in Romans 8:28-30, there's nothing that comes to
Coming out of the closet shortened to coming out, is a metaphor for LGBT people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation or of their gender identity. The term coming out can be used in various non-LGBT applications. Framed and debated as a privacy issue, coming out of the closet is described and experienced variously as a psychological process or journey. Author Steven Seidman writes that "it is the power of the closet to shape the core of an individual's life that has made homosexuality into a significant personal and political drama in twentieth-century America". American gender theorist Judith Butler argues that the process of "coming out" does not free gay people from oppression. Although they may feel free to act as themselves, the opacity involved in entering a non-heterosexual territory insinuates judgment upon their identity, she argues in Imitation and Gender Insubordination. Coming out of the closet is the source of other gay slang expressions related to voluntary disclosure or lack thereof.
LGBT people who have revealed or no longer conceal their sexual orientation or gender identity are out, i.e. LGBT. Oppositely, LGBT people who have yet to come out or have opted not to do so are labelled as closeted or being in the closet. Outing is the deliberate or accidental disclosure of an LGBT person's sexual orientation or gender identity, without their consent. By extension, outing oneself is self-disclosure. Glass closet means the open secret of when public figures' being LGBT is considered a accepted fact though they have not come out. In 1869, one hundred years before the Stonewall riots, the German homosexual rights advocate Karl Heinrich Ulrichs introduced the idea of self-disclosure as a means of emancipation. Claiming that invisibility was a major obstacle toward changing public opinion, he urged homosexual people to reveal their same-sex attractions. In his 1906 work, Das Sexualleben unserer Zeit in seinen Beziehungen zur modernen Kultur, Iwan Bloch, a German-Jewish physician, entreated elderly homosexuals to self-disclose to their family members and acquaintances.
In 1914, Magnus Hirschfeld revisited the topic in his major work The Homosexuality of Men and Women, discussing the social and legal potentials of several thousand homosexual men and women of rank revealing their sexual orientation to the police in order to influence legislators and public opinion. The first prominent American to reveal his homosexuality was the poet Robert Duncan. In 1944, using his own name in the anarchist magazine Politics, he wrote that homosexuals were an oppressed minority; the decidedly clandestine Mattachine Society, founded by Harry Hay and other veterans of the Wallace for President campaign in Los Angeles in 1950, moved into the public eye after Hal Call took over the group in San Francisco in 1953, with many gays emerging from the closet. In 1951, Donald Webster Cory published his landmark The Homosexual in America, exclaiming, "Society has handed me a mask to wear... Everywhere I go, at all times and before all sections of society, I pretend." Cory was a pseudonym, but his frank and subjective descriptions served as a stimulus to the emerging homosexual self-awareness and the nascent homophile movement.
In the 1960s, Frank Kameny came to the forefront of the struggle. Having been fired from his job as an astronomer for the Army Map service in 1957 for homosexual behavior, Kameny refused to go quietly, he fought his dismissal appealing it all the way to the U. S. Supreme Court; as a vocal leader of the growing movement, Kameny argued for unapologetic public actions. The cornerstone of his conviction was that, "we must instill in the homosexual community a sense of worth to the individual homosexual", which could only be achieved through campaigns led by homosexuals themselves. With the spread of consciousness raising in the late 1960s, coming out became a key strategy of the gay liberation movement to raise political consciousness to counter heterosexism and homophobia. At the same time and continuing into the 1980s, gay and lesbian social support discussion groups, some of which were called "coming-out groups", focused on sharing coming-out "stories" with the goal of reducing isolation and increasing LGBT visibility and pride.
The present-day expression "coming out" is understood to have originated in the early 20th century from an analogy that likens homosexuals' introduction into gay subculture to a débutante's coming-out party. This is a celebration for a young upper-class woman, making her début – her formal presentation to society – because she has reached adult age or has become eligible for marriage; as historian George Chauncey points out: Gay people in the pre-war years... did not speak of coming out of what we call the gay closet but rather of coming out into what they called homosexual society or the gay world, a world neither so small, nor so isolated, nor... so hidden as closet implies In fact, as Elizabeth Kennedy observes, "using the term'closet' to refer to" previous times such as "the 1920s and 1930s might be anachronistic". An article on coming out in the online encyclopedia glbtq.com states that sexologist Evelyn Hooker's observations introduced the use of "coming out" to the academic community in the 1950s.
The article continues by echoing Chauncey's observation that a subsequent shift in connotation occurred on. The pre-1950s focus was on entrance into "a