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Daylighting

Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, other openings, reflective surfaces so that sunlight can provide effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy use. Energy savings can be achieved from the reduced use of artificial lighting or from passive solar heating. Artificial lighting energy use can be reduced by installing fewer electric lights where daylight is present or by automatically dimming/switching off electric lights in response to the presence of daylight – a process known as daylight harvesting; the amount of daylight received in an internal space can be analyzed by measuring illuminance on a grid or undertaking a daylight factor calculation. Computer programs such as Radiance allow an architect or engineer to calculate benefits of a particular design; the human eye's response to light is non-linear, so a more distribution of the same amount of light makes a room appear brighter.

The source of all daylight is the Sun. The proportion of direct to diffuse light impacts the quality of daylight. "Direct sunlight" reaches a site without being scattered within Earth's atmosphere. Light, scattered in the atmosphere is diffused daylight. Ground reflected light contributes to the daylight; each climate has different composition of these daylights and different cloud coverage, so daylighting strategies vary with site locations and climates. There is no direct sunlight on the polar-side wall of a building from the autumnal equinox to the spring equinox at latitudes north of the Tropic of Cancer and south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, houses were designed with minimal windows on the polar side, but more and larger windows on the equatorial-side. Equatorial-side windows receive at least some direct sunlight on any sunny day of the year, so they are effective at daylighting areas of the house adjacent to the windows. In higher latitudes during midwinter, light incidence is directional and casts long shadows.

This may be ameliorated through light diffusion, light pipes or tubes, through somewhat reflective internal surfaces. In low latitudes in summertime, windows that face east and west and sometimes those that face toward the pole receive more sunlight than windows facing toward the equator. Windows are the most common way to admit daylight into a space, their vertical orientation means that they selectively admit sunlight and diffuse daylight at different times of the day and year. Therefore, windows on multiple orientations must be combined to produce the right mix of light for the building, depending on the climate and latitude. There are three ways to improve the amount of light available from a window: placing the window close to a light colored wall, slanting the sides of window openings so the inner opening is larger than the outer opening, or using a large light colored window-sill to project light into the room. Different types and grades of glass and different window treatments can affect the amount of light transmission through the windows.

The type of glazing is an important issue, expressed by its VT coefficient known as visual light transmittance. As the name suggests, this coefficient measures. A low VT can reduce by half or more the light coming into a room, but be aware of high VT glass: high VT numbers can be a cause of glare. On the other hand, you should take into account the undesirable effects of large windows. Windows grade into translucent walls. Another important element in creating daylighting is the use of clerestory windows; these are high, vertically placed windows. They can be used to increase direct solar gain; when facing toward the sun and other windows may admit unacceptable glare. In the case of a passive solar house, clerestories may provide a direct light path to polar-side rooms that otherwise would not be illuminated. Alternatively, clerestories can be used to admit diffuse daylight that evenly illuminates a space such as a classroom or office. Clerestory windows shine onto interior wall surfaces painted white or another light color.

These walls are placed so as to reflect indirect light to interior areas. This method has the advantage of reducing the directionality of light to make it softer and more diffuse, reducing shadows. Another roof-angled glass alternative is a sawtooth roof. Sawtooth roofs have vertical roof glass facing away from the equator side of the building to capture diffused light; the angled portion of the glass-support structure is opaque and well insulated with a cool roof and radiant barrier. The sawtooth roof's lighting concept reduces the summer "solar furnace" skylight problem, but still allows warm interior air to rise and touch the exterior roof glass in the cold winter, with significant undesirable heat transfer. Skylights are light transmitting fenestration forming all, or a portion of, the roof of a building space. Skylights are used in daylighting design in residential and commercial buildings because they are the most

General Patton vs. The X-Ecutioners

General Patton vs. The X-Ecutioners is a collaboration album released by Mike Patton and New York City's hip-hop DJ trio The X-Ecutioners, it was released on February 5, 2005 through Ipecac Recordings, was produced by Mike Patton. The album was produced over a course of two years; the X-Ecutioners built the album's basic tracks around samples from albums and films suggested by Mike Patton, who finalized the album. The album's musical style draws from free glitch, it is themed around a war between the two vastly different musical styles. The album contains various samples including kung fu movies and Dirty Harry. One of the larger samples includes dialog from actors John Hillerman and Dennis Olivieri, taken from the soundtrack of the film "The Naked Ape." All lyrics by Mike Patton, published by Mal di Golda. Produced and mixed at Vulcan Studios, San Francisco, California. Mastered at Oasis Mastering, Los Angeles, California. Mike Patton - vocals, guitar and percussion, editing and programming, arrangement, artwork Rob Swift - turntables Roc Raida - turntables Total Eclipse - turntables Gene Grimaldi - mastering Martin Kvamme - artwork

Khudgarz

Khudgarz is a 1987 Bollywood action drama film and directed by Rakesh Roshan under the Film Kraft banner. It stars Jeetendra, Shatrughan Sinha, Bhanupriya, Amrita Singh, Neelam Kothari in the lead roles and music composed by Rajesh Roshan; the film marks the directorial debut of actor Rakesh Roshan. The movie was remade in Telugu in 1988 as Prana Snehithulu, in Tamil in 1992 as Annaamalai and in Odia in 2003 as Ae Jugara Krushna Sudama; the movie was based on Jeffrey Archer's novel Abel. Khudgarz is the story of two thick childhood friends Amar Saxena, a young boy from a wealthy family and Bihari Sinha, a boy of the same age from an impoverished background. Amar falls in love with Jaya, a florist and Bihari with Lata, a labourer and they marry the respective women. Amar's father Brij Bhushan Saxena is an industrialist and wants to give a 5-star hotel to his son, as a wedding present; the land for the construction of the hotel incidentally belongs to Bihari. Bihari had turned down several offers of selling his land because the house and land were his ancestral property.

When Amar requests BIhari, the latter agrees. However, at the behest of Brij Bhushan, the agreement is drafted in a way that Amar and Brj Bhushan become the sole owners of the land. Bihari, in good faith loses his ancestral property; the 5-star hotel gets ready, but on the opening day, a certain section of people condemn Bihari's place, on the same premises of the 5-star hotel as a black spot which must be demolished. Amar, convinced with the comments offers Bihari a new house and hotel in return; as Bihari is sentimental about his hotel and place, he loses his temper and slaps Amar. This sours their relationship. Sudhir, one of the most trusted workers of Brij Bhushan is a corrupt man, he takes the fullest advantage of the misunderstanding between the two friends and takes Brij Bhushan into his confidence, demolishes Bihari's place and hotel by a bulldozer and claims that Amar, in a state of inebriation had order its demolition. Amar believes Sudhir and pleads for forgiveness from Bihari, offering to rebuild the structure for him.

However Bihari does not relent and declares that he will himself build a chain of hotels and outshine Amar one day. Bihar is given shelter by his most trusted friend Bhimji Nanji Premji Batiwada, a lawyer by profession. In the meantime, Amar throws him out of his house. Sudhir joins hands with Bihari who he perceives to be on the way up. Bihari builds his first hotel, he fixes his sister Lalita's marriage with Sudhir. Amar and his pregnant Jaya are invited to the wedding and are on their way, but Sudhir manipulates so that Amar and Bihari do not come face to face. In this trap, Jaya is injured, Amar takes her to the hospital where she gives birth to a son and dies. Bihari becomes more and more successful, his wife birth to a baby girl. Sudhir takes advantage of Bihari's illiteracy and gets blank papers signed by him, thus becoming Biharis equal partner; as luck would have it, the son and daughter of Amar and Bihari fall in love with each other, despite knowing about the enemity of their respective families.

Bihari's wife, Lata decides to pay a visit to Amar's house. She overhears a conversation and learns that the loans with which Bihari could grow and prosper were backed by Amar. Lalita, Bihari's sister, suffering physical abuse at the hands of her husband Sudhir learns that he is making plans to kill her brother, she approaches Amar for the safety of Bihari. Lata informs Bihari about. Bihari goes to Amar and reconciles; the two friends confront Sudhir and thrash him but stop short of killing him because he is married to Bihari's sister Lalita. Khudgarz on IMDb