Peter Geoffrey Brock, otherwise known as "Peter Perfect", "The King of the Mountain", or "Brocky", was one of Australia's best-known and most successful motor racing drivers. Brock was most associated with Holden for 40 years, although he raced vehicles of other manufacturers including BMW, Volvo and Peugeot, he won the Bathurst 1000 endurance race nine times, the Sandown 500 touring car race nine times, the Australian Touring Car Championship three times, the Bathurst 24 Hour once and was inducted into the V8 Supercars Hall of Fame in 2001. Brock's business activities included the Holden Dealer Team that produced Brock's racing machines as well as a number of modified high-performance road versions of his racing cars. Brock was born at the Epworth Hospital, Victoria, the son of Geoff and Ruth Brock; the family lived in the country town of Hurstbridge and Brock continued to live there throughout his life. He attended Eltham High School in Victoria, his first car was an Austin 7 that he bought for £5.
He claimed that his driving skill improved at this point of his life because the car did not have brakes. Brock was drafted into the Australian Army in 1965 and spent his two years of National Service stationed at the Blamey Barracks near Wagga Wagga in New South Wales. During his time in the army, Brock was against the Federal Government's plan to send conscripts to Vietnam. Brock was in the Medical Corps where he served as an ambulance driver. According to his brother Lewis and his mates used to race the ambulances around the base. Although they did not know each other at the time stationed at the Barracks from 1965 to 1967 was a young Dick Johnson who from the 1980s would go on to be one of Brock's chief touring car rivals, it was while on leave from the army in 1966 that Brock first visited Bathurst to watch the 500-mile production car race, to become the Bathurst 1000. It was after watching the race that he decided that he wanted to become a race driver when he left the army, his brother Phil became a racing driver, co-drove with his brother in the Bathurst 1000 on two occasions.
During his early career Brock raced some "wild and woolly" creations including the famous blue 6-cylinder Holden-powered Austin A30. Brock rose to public attention in touring car racing. Brock made his debut at Bathurst in the 1969 Hardie-Ferodo 500 in a Holden HT Monaro GTS 350 alongside Des West, with the pair finishing third behind their winning HDT teammates Colin Bond and Tony Roberts, he won the Bathurst 500 for the first time in 1972. Brock would win the event a total of nine times between 1972 and 1987, a feat that has not been equalled, his 1979 win was remarkable in that he and co-driver Jim Richards claimed victory by six laps, a record that, due to changes in race regulations introduced in the mid- to late 1980s, most notably the introduction of the Safety Car in 1987, may never be broken, broke the circuit lap record for touring cars on the 163rd and final lap of the race. Brock had tried to set the lap record on the final lap of the 1978 race, but he was inadvertently baulked by the Alfa Romeo of Ray Gulson through The Dipper.
In 32 starts at Bathurst he claimed pole position a record six times, with all bar his 1989 pole in a Ford Sierra RS500 being for Holden. Brock sat on pole for the 1997 V8 Supercars race but the time was set by his co-driver Mark Skaife, his record at this race earned him the popular nickname King of the Mountain. Peter Brock won the second Bathurst 24 Hour race in 2003 driving a 7.0L V8-powered Holden Monaro 427C for Garry Rogers Motorsport. Brock won the race, which although not the Bathurst 1000, he regarded as his tenth Bathurst win driving alongside V8 Supercar drivers Greg Murphy, Jason Bright and Todd Kelly; the #05 Monaro won the race by less than half a second from the 2002 race winning GRM Monaro 427C driven by Nathan Pretty, Garth Tander, Steven Richards and Cameron McConville. The two Monaros finished 12 laps in front of the third-placed Porsche 996 GT3 RC of Peter Fitzgerald, Paul Morris, John Teulan and Scott Shearman. Along with his record at the Bathurst race, Brock claimed victory in the traditional lead up race to Bathurst, the Sandown 500, nine times, including a string of seven consecutive wins from 1975 until 1981.
He won a total of 37 races during his career in the Australian Touring Car/V8 Supercar championships, a record only equalled by Mark Skaife in 2006 and beaten in 2007. Brock had a brief foray into Open wheel racing when he raced a Ford powered Birrana 273 to 8th place in the 1973 Australian Formula 2 Championship. Although he had some minor, non-championship wins in the car, his best placing in the national championship series was second behind series champion Leo Geoghegan in Round 2 or Oran Park in Sydney. Brock's HDT boss Harry Firth told that he let Brock race the Birrana to get formula racing "out of his system". In early 1984, Brock tested a Ralt RT4 with a view to driving one in the 1984 Australian Drivers' Championship and the end of year Australian Grand Prix, put in some competitive lap times at Calder Park. However, he decided that with the road car business, touring car commitments and the planned Sports Car races at Silverstone and Le Mans, he could not devote enough time to the project to make it worth doing.
Brock and the Holden Dealer Team worked in partnersh
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
LS based GM small-block engine
Not to be confused with the Chevrolet small-block engine. The LS based small-block engine is the primary V-8 used in General Motors' line of rear-wheel-drive cars and trucks. Introduced in January 1995, it is a "clean sheet" design with only rod bearings and bore spacing in common with the longstanding Chevrolet small block V8 that preceded it as the basis for GM small-block V8s; the basic LS variations use cast iron blocks, while performance editions are all aluminium with cast iron cylinder liners. The LS small-block has been manufactured in three Generations – III, IV, V – with preceding Generations I and II of modular GM small-block engines having been based on the Chevrolet small-block V8 designed in 1955. GM recycled the "LT" designation beginning with the LS Generation V "LT1" in 2014. Several versions of the LS were used in the Chevrolet Corvette, beginning with the LS1 in 1997 through the LS9 and others in 2013. Variants of the LT version of the GM small-block have been used since; the GM Generation I and Generation II engine families are both derived from the longstanding Chevrolet small block V8.
The Generation III small-block V8 was a "clean sheet" design, which replaced the Gen I and Gen II engine families in 2003 and 1996 respectively. Like the previous two generations, the Buick and Oldsmobile small blocks, the gen III/IV can be found in many different brands; the engine blocks were cast in aluminium for car applications, iron for most truck applications. The architecture of the LS series makes for an strong engine block with the aluminium engines being nearly as strong as the iron generation I and II engines; the LS engine used coil-near-plug style ignition to replace the distributor setup of all previous small-block based engines. The traditional five-bolt pentagonal cylinder head pattern was replaced with a square four-bolt design, the pistons are of the flat-topped variety, while all other variants, including the new LS9 and LQ4 truck engine received a dished version of the GM hypereutectic piston; the cylinder firing order was changed to 1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3, so that the LS series now corresponds to the firing pattern of other modern V8 engines.
The first of the Generation IIIs, the LS1 was the progenitor of the new architecture design that would transform the entire V8 line and influence the last of the Big Blocks. The Generation III 5.7 L shares little other than similar displacement, external dimensions, rod bearings, with its predecessor. It is an all-aluminium 5,665 cc pushrod engine with a bore and a stroke of 99 mm × 92 mm. LS1 When introduced in the 1997 Corvette the LS1 was rated at 345 hp at 5,600 rpm and 350 lb⋅ft at 4,400 rpm. After improvements to the intake and exhaust manifolds in 2001 the rating improved to 350 hp and 365 lb⋅ft; the LS1 was used in the Corvette from 97-04. It was used in 98-02 GM F-Body cars with a rating of over 305–325 bhp, rumored to be conservative; the extra horsepower was claimed to come from the intake ram-air effect available in the SS and WS6 models. In Australia, continuous modifications were made to the LS1 engine throughout its lifetime, reaching 380 hp/365 ft-lb in the HSV's YII series, a Callaway modified version named "C4B" was fitted to HSV GTS models producing 400 bhp and 405 lb⋅ft of torque.
LS6 The LS6 designation was used on a 454 CID Chevrolet Big-Block engine of the 1970s, as well as an iteration of the GM Iron Duke engine from the late 1970sThe LS6 is a higher-output version of GM's LS1 engine and retains the same capacity. The initial 2001 LS6 produced 385 bhp and 385 lb⋅ft, but the engine was modified for 2002 through 2004 to produce 405 bhp and 400 lb⋅ft of torque; the LS6 was only used in the high-performance C5 Corvette Z06 model, with the Cadillac CTS V-Series getting the 400 bhp engine later. The V-Series used the LS6 for two years before being replaced by the LS2 in 2006. For 2006, the Z06 replaced the LS6 with the new LS7; the LS6 shares its basic block architecture with the GM LS1 engine, but other changes were made to the design such as windows cast into the block between cylinders, improved main web strength and bay to bay breathing, an intake manifold and MAF-sensor with higher flow, a camshaft with higher lift and more duration, a higher compression ratio of 10.5:1, sodium-filled valves, a revised oiling system better suited to high lateral acceleration.
LS6 intake manifolds were used on all 2001+ LS1/6 engines. The casting number, located on the top rear edge of the block, is 12561168. Applications: 2001-2004 Corvette Z06 2004–2005 Cadillac CTS V-Series 2007 SSC Ultimate Aero TT The 4.8 L and the 5.3 L are smaller truck versions of the LS1 and were designed to replace the 305 and the 350 in trucks. Both the 4.8 L and the 5.3 L share the same engine block, heads and as they share architecture, some parts interchange between these engines and other variants in the LS family. The Vortec 4800 LR4 is a Generation III small block V8 truck engine. Displacement is 4,806 cc with a stroke of 96 mm × 83 mm, it is the smallest of the Generation III Vortec truck engines and was the replacement for the 5.0 L 5000 L30. The LR4 engines in 1999 produced 255 hp while the 2000 and above models made 270–285 hp and all have a torque rating between 285–295 lb⋅ft, depen
Rally is a form of motorsport that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars. It is distinguished by running not on a circuit, but instead in a point-to-point format in which participants and their co-drivers drive between set control points, leaving at regular intervals from one or more start points. Rallies may be won by pure speed within the stages or alternatively by driving to a predetermined ideal journey time within the stages; the term "rally", as a branch of motorsport dates from the first Monte Carlo Rally of January 1911. Until the late 1920s, few if any other events used the term. Rallying itself can be traced back to the 1894 Paris–Rouen Horseless Carriage Competition, sponsored by a Paris newspaper, Le Petit Journal, which attracted considerable public interest and entries from leading manufacturers. Prizes were awarded to the vehicles by a jury based on the reports of the observers who rode in each car; this event led directly to a period of city-to-city road races in France and other European countries, which introduced many of the features found in rallies: individual start times with cars running against the clock rather than head to head.
The first of these great races was the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race of June 1895, won by Paul Koechlin in a Peugeot, despite arriving 11 hours after Émile Levassor in a Panhard et Levassor. Levassor's time for the 1,178 km course, running without a break, was 48 hours and 48 minutes, an average speed of 24 km/h. From 24 September-3 October 1895, the Automobile Club de France sponsored the longest race to date, a 1,710 km event, from Bordeaux to Agen and back; because it was held in ten stages, it can be considered the first rally. The first three places were taken by a Panhard, a Panhard, a three-wheeler De Dion-Bouton. In the Paris–Madrid race of May 1903, the Mors of Fernand Gabriel took just under five and a quarter hours for the 550 km to Bordeaux, an average of 105 km/h. Speeds had now far outstripped the safe limits of dusty highways thronged with spectators and open to other traffic and animals; the French government banned this style of event. From on, racing in Europe would be on closed circuits on long loops of public highway and in 1907, on the first purpose-built track, England's Brooklands.
Racing was going its own separate way. One of the earliest of road races, the Tour de France of 1899, was to have a long history, running 18 times as a reliability trial between 1906 and 1937, before being revived in 1951 by the Automobile Club de Nice. Italy had been running road competitions since 1895, when a reliability trial was run from Turin to Asti and back; the country's first true motor race was held in 1897 along the shore of Lake Maggiore, from Arona to Stresa and back. This led to a long tradition of road racing, including events like Sicily's Targa Florio and Giro di Sicilia, which went right round the island, both of which continued on and off until after World War II; the first Alpine event was held in 1898, the Austrian Touring Club's three-day Automobile Run through South Tyrol, which included the infamous Stelvio Pass. In Britain, the legal maximum speed of 12 mph precluded road racing, but in April and May 1900, the Automobile Club of Great Britain organised the Thousand Mile Trial, a 15-day event linking Britain's major cities, in order to promote this novel form of transport.
Seventy vehicles took part, the majority of them trade entries. They had to complete thirteen stages of route varying in length from 43 to 123 miles at average speeds of up to the legal limit of 12 mph, tackle six hillclimb or speed tests. On rest days and at lunch halts, the cars were shown to the public in exhibition halls; this was followed in 1901 by a five-day trial based in Glasgow The Scottish Automobile Club organised an annual Glasgow–London non-stop trial from 1902 to 1904 the Scottish Reliability Trial from 1905. The Motor Cycling Club allowed cars to enter its trials and runs from 1904. In 1908 the Royal Automobile Club held its 2,000 mi International Touring Car Trial, 1914 the important Light Car Trial for manufacturers of cars up to 1400 cc, to test comparative performances and improve the breed. In 1924, the exercise was repeated as the Small Car Trials. In Germany, the Herkomer Trophy was first held in 1905, again in 1906; this challenging five-day event attracted over 100 entrants to tackle its 1,000 km road section, a hillclimb and a speed trial, but sadly it was marred by poor organisation and confusing regulations.
One participant had been Prince Henry of Austria, inspired to do better, so he enlisted the aid of the Imperial Automobile Club of Germany to create the first Prinz Heinrich Fahrt in 1908. Another trial was held in 1910; these were successful, attracting top drivers and works cars from major teams – several manufacturers added "Prince Henry" models to their ranges. The first Alpine Trial was held in 1909, in Aus
The Shelby Daytona Coupe is an American sports-coupé related to the AC Cobra roadster, loosely based on its chassis and drive-train. It was built for auto racing to take on Ferrari and its 250 GTO in the GT class. Just six Shelby Daytona Coupes were built between 1964 and 1965, as Shelby was reassigned to the Ford GT40 project to compete at the 24 hours of Le Mans, again to beat Ferrari in the highest level prototype class. With the Shelby Daytona, Shelby became the first American constructor to win a title on the international scene at the FIA World Sportscar Championship in 1965; the Shelby Daytona has been chosen for historic preservation as a significant vehicle in the history of auto racing. During 1964 and 1965, Ford entered their six Shelby Daytona Coupes in numerous races through the British Alan Mann Racing Ford factory team, as well as a temporarily selling or leasing to other racing teams such as "Tri-Colore" of France and Scuderia Filipinetti of Switzerland. During this period, Shelby Daytona Coupes raced in GT Division III, for engine displacements over 2000 cc.
They competed at numerous 500 km, 1000 km, 2000 km, 12 hour and 24 hour races on the World Sportscar Championship circuit, including events at Le Mans, Sebring, Reims, Spa Francorchamps, Goodwood Circuit, Oulton Park, Circuito Piccolo delle Madonie, the multi-race Tour de France Automobile, Rouen, Nürburgring. The Shelby Daytona Coupes, in their first year of competition, finished second in GT III class for the 1964 World Sportscar Championship season; the Shelby Daytona Coupes won the GT III class for the 1965 World Sportscar Championship season. A partial list of competitions and results includes: 1964 12 Hours of Sebring 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans 1964 RAC Tourist Trophy 1965 24 Hours of Daytona 1965 12 Hours of Sebring 1965 Italian Grand Prix at Monza 1965 Nürburgring 1000 km 1965 12 Hours of Reims 1965 Enna-Pergusa 1965 25 land speed records at Bonneville Carroll Shelby, after winning Le Mans in 1959, wanted to return to Europe to beat Enzo Ferrari at Le Mans with a car of his own design.
Having developed the AC Cobra/Shelby Cobra into a successful GT race car, he realised that the weakness of the open-cockpit sports cars at Le Mans was the aerodynamic drag which limited top speed on the 3 miles long Mulsanne Straight to around 157 miles per hour, nearly 30 miles per hour less than the Ferrari 250 GTO, which itself could hold speeds of circa 186 miles per hour. Given the length of this straight, this speed differential represented a loss of over 10 seconds per lap which could negate any power and acceleration advantage that the Cobra had in the slower sections. Shelby asked employee Pete Brock to design the Daytona's aerodynamic bodywork and Bob Negstad to design the car's suspension. Negstad designed the chassis and suspension for the GT40 and the CSX 3000 series Shelby Cobra referred to as the "coil-Spring Cobra" chassis. After sketching the proposed design on the floor of the Shelby America workshop, starting with the roadster chassis crashed at the 1963 Le Mans race, Brock removed the bodywork and placed a seat and steering wheel in alignment of where he felt that they should be.
He placed driver Ken Miles in the car, using scrap wood and gaffer tape, designed the windscreen - the first component to be manufactured for the car. He interspaced wooden formers and, using these as a guide, hand-beat the aluminum bodywork for chassis #CSX2287 around them. Shelby conferred with an aerodynamics consultant from Convair who said that the design needed to be extended on the tail by at least 3 feet, but Brock stood by his design. Miles took the car to the Riverside Raceway, on the 1 mile main straight, took the car on his first five laps to 186 miles per hour, admittedly after it had been found to have "almost flown, lightening the steering a great deal" at speeds above 160 miles per hour, it took another 30 days of development before Miles signed off the car, clocked at that point capable of speeds over 190 miles per hour. CSX2287 was transported to Daytona Speedway for its debut race in the February 16, 1964 Daytona Continental 2000 km. Driver Dave MacDonald earned the pole position with a time of 2:08.200 and average speed of 106.464 MPH.
The first Shelby Daytona Coupe was built at the Shelby American race shop in California. The remaining five were built at Carrozzeria Gransport in Italy. A seventh semi-related car, the 427 "Type 65" Shelby Daytona Super Coupe # CSB3054 prototype, developed but never completed by Shelby, is not included in this article. Owned and crashed by S. Robson Walton at Laguna Seca Raceway in August 2012; the car has since been repaired and restored. Chassis #CSX2287 was the first prototype Cobra Daytona Coupe, is the only coupe, built at the Shelby American race shop in Venice, California, it has an extensive race history, competing at Daytona, Reims, Spa Francorchamps, Oulton Park TT, Le Mans, Tour de France and Bonneville Salt Flats. It was driven by Dave MacDonald, Bob Holbert, Jo Schlesser, Phil Hill, Jochen Neerpasch, Chris Amon, Innes Ireland, André Simon, Maurice Dupeyron, Bob Johnson and Tom Payne. Chassis CSX2287 won the GT class at the 12 Hours of Sebring in March 1964 with MacDonald and Holbert behind the wheel.
The race at Sebring marked the
In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame or space structure is a rigid, truss-like structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to span large areas with few interior supports. Like the truss, a space frame is strong because of the inherent rigidity of the triangle. Steel space frames provide great freedom of expression and composition as well as the possibility to evenly distribute loads along each rod and external constraints. With these features, steel space frames can be used to achieve complex geometries with a structural weight lower than any other solution; the inner hyper-static system provides an increased resistance to damages caused by fire, explosions and earthquakes. Space frames are modular and made of industrialized elements designed with a remarkable dimensional accuracy and precise surface finish. Alexander Graham Bell from 1898 to 1908 developed space frames based on tetrahedral geometry. Bell's interest was in using them to make rigid frames for nautical and aeronautical engineering, with the tetrahedral truss being one of his inventions.
Dr. Ing. Max Mengeringhausen developed the space grid system called MERO in 1943 in Germany, thus initiating the use of space trusses in architecture; the used method, still in use has individual tubular members connected at node joints and variations such as the space deck system, octet truss system and cubic system. Stéphane de Chateau in France invented Unibat system, Pyramitec. A method of tree supports was developed to replace the individual columns. Buckminster Fuller patented the octet truss in 1961 while focusing on architectural structures. Space frames are designed using a rigidity matrix; the special characteristic of the stiffness matrix in an architectural space frame is the independence of the angular factors. If the joints are sufficiently rigid, the angular deflections can be neglected, simplifying the calculations; the simplest form of space frame is a horizontal slab of interlocking square pyramids and tetrahedra built from aluminium or tubular steel struts. In many ways this looks like the horizontal jib of a tower crane repeated many times to make it wider.
A stronger form is composed of interlocking tetrahedra. More technically this is referred to as an isotropic vector matrix or in a single unit width an octet truss. More complex variations change the lengths of the struts to curve the overall structure or may incorporate other geometrical shapes. Within the meaning of space frame, we can find three systems different between them:Curvature classification Space plane covers; these spatial structures are composed of planar substructures. Their behavior is similar to that of a plate in which the deflections in the plane are channeled through the horizontal bars and the shear forces are supported by the diagonals. Barrel vaults; this type of vault has a cross section of a simple arch. This type of space frame does not need to use tetrahedral modules or pyramids as a part of its backing. Spherical domes and other compound curves require the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids and additional support from a skin. Classification by the arrangement of its elements Single layer grid.
All elements are located on the surface to be approximated. Double layer grid; the elements are organized in two layers parallel to each other at a certain distance apart. Each of the layers form a lattice of triangles, squares or hexagons in which the projection of the nodes in a layer may overlap or be displaced relative to each other. Diagonal bars connect the nodes of both layers in different directions in space. In this type of meshes, the elements are associated into three groups: upper cordon and cordon lower diagonal. Triple layer grid. Elements are placed in three parallel layers, linked by the diagonals, they are always flat. Other examples classifiable. Emerged to try to solve the problems that formwork and pouring concrete had their counterparts. Run with welded joint, but may raise prefabricated joints, a fact which makes them space meshes. Hanging covers. Designs on the cable taut and the catenary arch antifunicular show their ability to channel forces theoretically better than any other alternative, have an infinite range of possibilities for composition and adaptability to any type of plant cover or ensure vain.
However, imprecisions in shape having the loaded strand and the risk of bending the arc to unexpected stresses are problems that require pre-compression and prestressing elements. Although in most cases tend to be the cheapest and the technical solution that best fits the acoustics and ventilation of the covered enclosure, are vulnerable to vibration. Pneumatic structures. Wherein the closure membrane is subjected to a pressurized state, may be considered within this group. Space frames are a common feature in modern building construction. Examples of buildings based on space frames include: Stansted airport, by Foster and Partners Bank of China Tower and the Louvre Pyramid, by I. M. Pei Rogers Centre by Rod Robbie and Michael Allan McCormick Place East in Chicago Eden Project in Cornwall, England Globen, Sweden - Dome with diameter of 110 m, Biosphere 2 by John P. Allen, Phil Hawes, Peter Jon Pearce in Oracle, Arizona Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New