In the United States, a SWAT team is a law enforcement unit which uses specialized or military equipment and tactics. First created in the 1960s to handle riot control or violent confrontations with criminals, the number and usage of SWAT teams increased in the 1980s and 1990s during the War on Drugs and in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. In the United States as of 2005, SWAT teams were deployed 50,000 times every year 80% of the time to serve search warrants, most for narcotics. SWAT teams are equipped with military-type hardware and trained to deploy against threats of terrorism, for crowd control, hostage taking, in situations beyond the capabilities of ordinary law enforcement, sometimes deemed "high-risk". Other countries have developed their own paramilitary police units which are described as or comparable to SWAT forces. SWAT units are equipped with specialized firearms including submachine guns, assault rifles, breaching shotguns, sniper rifles, riot control agents, stun grenades.
In addition, they may use specialized equipment including heavy body armor, ballistic shields, entry tools, armored vehicles, night vision devices, motion detectors for covertly determining the positions of hostages or hostage takers, inside enclosed structures. The United States National Tactical Officers Association definition of SWAT is: SWAT: A designated law enforcement team whose members are recruited, trained and assigned to resolve critical incidents involving a threat to public safety which would otherwise exceed the capabilities of traditional law enforcement first responders and/or investigative units. According to the Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement, the term "SWAT" was used as an acronym for the "Special Weapons and Tactics" established as a 100-man specialized unit in 1964 by the Philadelphia Police Department in response to an alarming increase in bank robberies; the purpose of this unit was to react and decisively to bank robberies while they were in progress, by utilizing a large number of specially trained officers who had at their disposal a great amount of firepower.
The tactic worked and was soon to resolve other types of incidents involving armed criminals. Los Angeles Police Department Inspector Daryl Gates has said that he first envisioned "SWAT" as an acronym for "Special Weapons Attack Team" in 1967, but accepted "Special Weapons and Tactics" on the advice of his deputy chief, Edward M. Davis; the LAPD promoted. After the racially charged Watts riots in Los Angeles in August 1965, the LAPD began considering tactics it could use when faced with urban unrest, rioting, or widespread violence. Daryl Gates, who led the LAPD response to the riots, would write that police at the time didn't face a single mob, but rather "people attacking from all directions." New York University professor Christian Parenti has written that SWAT teams were conceived of as an "urban counterinsurgency bulwark."Another reason for the creation of SWAT teams was the fear of lone or barricaded gunmen who might outperform police in a shootout, as happened in Austin with Charles Whitman.
After the LAPD's establishment of its own SWAT team, many law enforcement agencies across the United States established their own specialized units under various names. Gates explained in his autobiography Chief: My Life in the LAPD that he neither developed SWAT tactics nor the associated and distinctive equipment. While the public image of SWAT first became known through the LAPD because of its proximity to the mass media and the size and professionalism of the Department itself, the first actual SWAT-type operations were conducted north of Los Angeles in the farming community of Delano, California on the border between Kern and Tulare Counties in the San Joaquin Valley. At the time, the United Farm Workers union led by César Chavez was staging numerous protests in Delano in a strike that would last over five years. Though the strike never turned violent, the Delano Police Department responded by forming ad-hoc SWAT-type units involving crowd and riot control, sniper skills and surveillance.
Television news stations and print media carried live and delayed reportage of these events across the United States. Personnel from the LAPD, having seen these broadcasts, contacted Delano and inquired about the program. One officer obtained permission to observe the Delano Police Department's special weapons and tactics units in action, afterwards, he took what he had learned back to Los Angeles, where his knowledge was used and expanded on to form the LAPD's own first SWAT unit. John Nelson was the officer who conceived the idea to form a specially trained and equipped unit in the LAPD, intended to respond to and manage critical situations involving shootings while minimizing police casualties. Inspector Gates approved this idea, he formed a small select group of volunteer officers; this first SWAT unit consisted of fifteen teams of four men each, making a total staff of sixty. These officers were given special status and benefits, were required to attend special monthly training sessions.
The unit served as a security unit for police facilities during civil unrest. The LAPD SWAT units were organized as "D Platoon" in the Metro division. Early police powers and tactics used by SWAT teams were aided by legislation passed in 1967-8 with the help of Republican House representative Donald Santarelli; the legislation was promoted within the context of fears over the Civil Rights Movement, race riots, the Black Panther Party, the
Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies
The Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc. is a credentialing authority, based in the United States, whose primary mission is to accredit public safety agencies, namely law enforcement agencies, training academies, communications centers, campus public safety agencies. The Commission was created in 1979 as an independent accrediting authority by the four major law enforcement membership associations: International Association of Chiefs of Police National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives National Sheriffs' Association Police Executive Research Forum The primary purpose of the Commission is to improve law enforcement service by creating a national body of standards developed by law enforcement professionals. Furthermore, it recognizes professional achievements by establishing and administering an accreditation process through which a law enforcement agency can demonstrate that it meets those standards. CALEA derives its general authority from the four major law enforcement membership associations whose members represent 80% of the law enforcement profession in the United States.
Members to the Commission are appointed by the Executive Directors of these four associations. A majority vote is required for each appointment. Commissioners are appointed to a term of three years; the Commission is composed of 21 members: 11 members are selected from law enforcement 10 members are selected from the public and private sectors. The Law Enforcement Accreditation Program was the first credentialing program established by CALEA after its founding, it was developed to address what was seen as a need to enhance law enforcement as a profession and to improve law enforcement service delivery. That mission continues today through a tiered law enforcement accreditation program. Participating agencies may enroll in either CALEA Law Enforcement Accreditation or CALEA Advanced Law Enforcement Accreditation, without regard to agency size. Agencies may apply for and be awarded Accreditation with Excellence by the Commission as an indication of superlative performance within these accreditation programs.
Additionally, these programs are open to all types of law enforcement agencies, on an international basis. And, these programs provide specific standards to support law enforcement agencies functioning in the college/university environment, they provide a process to systematically conduct an internal review and assessment of the agencies’ policies and procedures, make adjustments wherever necessary to meet a body of internationally accepted standards. Since the first CALEA Accreditation Award was granted in 1984, the program has become the primary method for an agency to voluntarily demonstrate their commitment to excellence in law enforcement; the standards upon which the Law Enforcement Accreditation Program is based reflect the current thinking and experience of law enforcement practitioners and researchers. Major law enforcement associations, leading educational and training institutions, governmental agencies, as well as law enforcement executives internationally, acknowledge CALEA's Standards for Law Enforcement Agencies© and its Accreditation Programs as benchmarks for professional law enforcement agencies.
CALEA Accreditation requires an agency to develop a comprehensive, well-thought-out, uniform set of written directives. This is one of the most successful methods for reaching administrative and operational goals, while providing direction to personnel. CALEA Accreditation standards provide the necessary reports and analyses a CEO needs to make fact-based, informed management decisions. CALEA Accreditation requires a preparedness program be put in place—so an agency is ready to address natural or man-made unusual occurrences. CALEA Accreditation is a means for developing or improving upon an agency's relationship with the community. CALEA Accreditation strengthens an agency's accountability, both within the agency and the community, through a continuum of standards that define authority and responsibilities. Being CALEA Accredited can limit an agency's liability and risk exposure because it demonstrates that internationally recognized standards for law enforcement have been met, as verified by a team of independent outside CALEA-trained assessors.
CALEA Accreditation facilitates an agency's pursuit of professional excellence. The California Highway Patrol is the largest law enforcement agency within the United States to obtain CALEA Accreditation; the CALEA Public Safety Communications Accreditation Program provides a communications center, or the communications unit of a public safety agency, with a process to systemically review and internally assess its operations and procedures. Since the first CALEA Communication Accreditation Award was granted in 1999, the program has become the primary method for a communications agency to voluntarily demonstrate its commitment to excellence; the standards upon which the Public Safety Communications Accreditation Program is based reflect the current thinking and experience of public safety communications executives and accreditation experts. APCO International, the leading communications membership association, was a partner in the development of CALEA's Standards for Public Safety Communications Agencies© and its Accreditation Program.
This relationship continues today as APCO recognizes the achievements of CALEA Accredited Public Safety Communications agencies and supports accreditation. CALEA Accreditation requires the communications center or unit to develop a comprehensive, well thought out uniform set of written directives; this is one of the most successful methods for reaching administrative and operational goals, while prov
DeKalb County, Georgia
DeKalb County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 691,893, its county seat is Decatur. DeKalb County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it contains 10% of the city of Atlanta. It is Georgia's most diverse county. DeKalb is a suburban county, is the second-most-affluent county with an African-American majority in the United States, behind Prince George's County, Maryland, in suburban Washington, D. C. In 2009, DeKalb earned the Atlanta Regional Commission's "Green Communities" designation for its efforts in conserving energy and fuel. In recent years, some communities in North DeKalb have incorporated, following a trend in other suburban areas around Metro Atlanta. Dunwoody and Brookhaven are now the largest cities within the county. DeKalb County, formed in 1822 from Henry and Fayette counties, took its name from Baron Johann de Kalb, a Bavarian-born former officer in the French Army, who fought for the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War.
The oldest existing house in the county is the 1831 Goodwin House along Peachtree Road in Brookhaven. In 1853, Fulton County formed from the western half of DeKalb, divided along a straight and due north/south line down the middle; until this time, the growing city of Atlanta had been inside DeKalb. Atlanta grew because the city of Decatur did not want to become the railroad terminus in the 1830s, thus a spot at the Thrasherville encampment in western DeKalb was picked to become Terminus and Marthasville, before becoming Atlanta a few years after its founding. North and southwest Fulton came from two other counties: Milton and southeast Campbell, respectively. DeKalb once extended further north to the Chattahoochee River, but this strip was given to Milton, is now the panhandle of Sandy Springs. During the Civil War, much of the Battle of Atlanta took place in DeKalb; until the 1960s, DeKalb was a agricultural county, but as the sprawl of the metropolitan Atlanta region expanded, DeKalb became urbanized.
Finished in 1969, the eastern half of the Interstate 285 beltway, called "the Perimeter", ringed the northeastern and southern edges of the county, placing most of it "inside the Perimeter" along with nearly all of Atlanta. Interstate 675 and Georgia 400 were planned to connect inside the Perimeter, along with the Stone Mountain Freeway connecting with the Downtown Connector near Moreland Avenue, destroying many neighborhoods in western DeKalb, but community opposition in the early 1970s spared them this fate of urbanization, although part of the proposed Stone Mountain Tollway became the Freedom Parkway. Only Interstate 20 and Interstate 85 were built through the county. DeKalb became one of only two counties to approve MARTA rapid transit in the 1970s. In April 2018, more than 350 bus drivers for DeKalb County School District went on strike over low pay and poor working conditions, resulting in seven bus drivers being fired. In recent years, along with many other counties in the Atlanta area, DeKalb County has voted Democratic in presidential elections, while in the past it was more of a swing county, voting Democratic and Republican an equal number of times from 1960 until 1988.
In the wake of the United States elections, 2018, it no longer has any Republican representatives in the state legislature or United States House of Representatives, for the first time since the breakdown of the old Solid South. The current Chief Executive Officer of DeKalb County is Michael Thurmond, he took office on January 1, 2017. Current County Commissioners as of January 2019: Unincorporated DeKalb County is policed by the DeKalb County Police Department, the DeKalb Sheriff's Office, responsible for serving criminal warrants and securing the courts and county jail, the DeKalb Marshal's Office, which serves civil processes issued through state court, such as evictions. Fire services are provided throughout the county by Rescue. DeKalb County Fire and Rescue provided emergency medical services throughout the county; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is based in the Druid Hills CDP in an unincorporated area in the county. The Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Field Office is located in Chamblee.
The Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice has its headquarters near Decatur. The Georgia Bureau of Investigation has its headquarters near Decatur, in an unincorporated area; the Metro State Prison of the Georgia Department of Corrections was located in an unincorporated area in DeKalb County. Female death row inmates resided in the Metro State Prison; the prison was closed in 2011. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 271 square miles, of which 268 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. The county is crossed by the South River and numerous creeks, including Nancy Creek, Snapfinger Creek and two forks of Peachtree Creek. Peachtree Creek and Nancy Creek drain into the Chattahoochee River and to the Gulf of Mexico. South River drains into the Ocmulgee River and into the Atl
Decatur is a city in, the county seat of, DeKalb County, Georgia, part of the Atlanta metropolitan area. With a population of 20,148 in the 2013 census, the municipality is sometimes assumed to be larger since multiple ZIP Codes in unincorporated DeKalb County bear the Decatur name; the city is served by three MARTA rail stations. The city is located 5 miles northeast of downtown Atlanta and shares its western border with Atlanta. Decatur was established at the intersection of two Native American trails: the Sandtown, which led east from the Chattahoochee River at Utoy Creek, the Shallowford, which follows today's Clairmont Road, crossed near Roswell, it was named for United States Navy Commodore Stephen Decatur. Shallowford Road, which led to the Shallow Ford, has been renamed Clairmont Avenue because it does not go to, from or past any place called Clairmont. Covington Road is now Sycamore Street because it leads to Covington and has no Sycamores on it. Nelson's Ferry Road, named after the local family which ran the ferry at the Chattahoochee end of the road, has been named Ponce de Leon after a family prominent, before Castro, in Havana, Cuba.
During the American Civil War, Decatur became a strategic site in Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. In July 1864, Major-General James McPherson occupied the town to cut off the Confederates' supply line from Augusta. On July 22, during the Battle of Atlanta, Confederate cavalry under Major-General Joseph Wheeler attacked McPherson's supply wagons and the Union troops left to defend the wagons. A historical marker at the old courthouse marks the site of this skirmish. We attacked Decatur on the 22d and took the town driving out a Brigade of Infantry and a good deal of Dismounted Cavalry. Our Brigade took the town, tho' it was supported on both flanks by a Brigade of Cavalry dismounted; the fight lasted about two hours and was hot for a while. The Yankees had the hills and houses on us and fought well for a time. Our dash was made to distract attention. We killed and wounded about one hundred and fifty. Our loss about seventy wounded. In the last half of the twentieth century the metropolitan area of Atlanta expanded into unincorporated DeKalb County surrounding two sides of the town of Decatur.
Concurrently many well-to-do and middle class white Americans fled the area to more distant suburbs. The 1960s and 1970s witnessed dramatic drops in property values. However, more the city has regained economic vigor thanks to several long-term downtown development plans that have come to fruition, making Decatur a trendy small mixed-use district with easy transit to downtown Atlanta. Over the past twenty years, it has gained a local and national reputation as a progressive city with a high level of citizen involvement that retains a small town feel despite its proximity to Atlanta. Decatur is located at 33°46′17″N 84°17′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.2 square miles, all land. The Eastern Continental Divide bisects the city along the CSX trackage right of way. US 78 SR 155 US 278 Avondale MARTA Station Decatur MARTA Station East Lake MARTA Station As of the 2010 census, there were 19,335 people, 8,599 occupied housing units, 4,215 families residing in the city.
The population density was 4,603.6 people per square mile. There were 9,335 housing units at an average density of 2,222.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.5% White, 20.2% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.2% of the population. There were 2,541 households which had children under the age of 18 living with them, 3,336 were a Husband-Wife family living together, 984 of households had a female householder with no husband present, 4,063 did not fit into either of the two mentioned categories. 3,263 of all households were made up of individuals of those, 1,814 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 19, 5.2% from 20 to 24, 32.9% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. There are 44 males for every 56 females; the median income for a household in the city was $73,602. Males had a median income of $73,089 versus $58,580 for females; the per capita income for the city was $42,926. About 12.20% of families and 14.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.2% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. Education levels for Decatur are above average for the Atlanta area, with 56% of residents having obtained a bachelor's degree or higher, 27% having obtained a graduate degree or higher; the Decatur City School District, which serves the city limits, holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of a pre-K early childhood learning center, five elementary schools, a fourth and fifth grade academy, a middle school, a high school. The Decatur City School District was the highest performing school district in Georgia on the SATs for the 2014-2015 school year; the DeKalb County School District, which serves unincorporated areas in DeKalb County around Decatur, operates the William Bradley Bryant Center in an unincorporated area near Decatur.
Decatur High School Carl G. Renfroe Middle School The 4/5 Academy at Fifth Avenue Glenwood Elementary Clairemont Elementa
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Dallas Police Department
The Dallas Police Department, established in 1881, is the principal law enforcement agency serving the city of Dallas, Texas. The department is headed by a chief of police, appointed by the city manager who, in turn, is hired by the Dallas City Council; the city manager is not an elected official. Primary responsibility for calls for police service are seven operations divisions based on geographical subdivisions of the city; each operations division is commanded by a deputy chief of police. The divisions are designated Central, Southeast, South Central, Southwest and North Central and operate from facilities which are referred to as substations; each operations division's geographical area is further subdivided into sectors which are composed of beats, each of, patrolled by a uniformed officer or officers in a marked squad car. Calls for service are received through the city's 9-1-1 system, answered by a city-operated emergency communications center; each substation has an investigative unit with detectives who are assigned cases of burglary and theft which are committed within the area covered by their division.
Other crimes are investigated by specialized investigative units including the Child Abuse Squad, Family Violence Squad, Narcotics Division, CAPERS Robbery and Homicide Units, Forgery Squad and a Computer Crimes Team. A specialized Tactical Division includes a SWAT Operations Unit, Mounted Unit, Canine Unit, Helicopter Unit and an Explosive Ordnance Squad; the SWAT Operations Unit was featured on a reality series for the A&E Network in 2006 entitled "Dallas SWAT". Officers are armed with a SIG-Sauer P226 in 9mm with some in.357 SIG as their sidearm, but some officers do carry Glock pistols. The first Chief of Police, J. C. Arnold, was elected in 1881. Prior to that, an elected Town Marshal and deputies had guarded Dallas since 1856. Arnold held the position for 17 years. By 1898, 34 officers patrolled the city on horseback. In 1907, the department acquired two motorcycles. Officer Rick Stone was reported by the Dallas Morning News in 2003 to be the most decorated officer in city history. Officer Stone's awards included the Police Medal of Valor, Police Commendation Award, Police Commendation Award with Star, Life Saving Award, Certificate of Merit, Distinguished Service Award and multiple lesser medals, unit awards and over a hundred citizen and supervisor commendations.
Additionally, Rick Stone was a Parade Magazine/International Association Chiefs of Police "Officer of the Year" nominee and he was twice nominated as the Dallas Police Department's "Officer of the Year". In May 2003, Officer Stone's contributions to the history of the department were chosen to be included in a series of bronze plaques, created by New York artist Greg Lefevre, that were installed at the entrance to the newly constructed Dallas Police Headquarters building. According to The Officer Down Memorial Page, between 1892 and 2016, 84 members of the Dallas Police Department died in the line of duty; the best-known instance was the murder of Officer J. D. Tippit by Lee Harvey Oswald 40 minutes after Oswald shot President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. Other notable deaths include the murder of Officer Robert W. Wood on November 28, 1976, examined in Errol Morris' documentary, The Thin Blue Line. Additionally, Senior Corporal Victor Lozada, a motorcycle officer in the Traffic Division, was killed on February 22, 2008, while serving as part of an escort to Senator Hillary Clinton's motorcade near downtown Dallas for a presidential campaign event.
Most on January 6, 2009, Senior Corporal Norman Smith, an 18-year veteran, was shot and killed while attempting to serve an arrest warrant. The 2016 shooting of Dallas police officers is the deadliest single incident for law enforcement officers in the US since the September 11, 2001, attacks. On July 7, 2016, Micah Xavier Johnson ambushed and fired upon a group of Dallas Police Department and one Dallas Area Rapid Transit officers, killing five officers and injuring nine others. Two civilians were wounded; the shooting happened at the end of a protest against the police killings of Alton Sterling in Baton Rouge and Philando Castile in Falcon Heights, Minnesota. The event has been subsequently known as the Dallas Police Ambush. Early in the morning on July 24, 1973, Dallas police officers Darrell Cain and Roy Arnold were investigating a vending machine, burglarized of eight dollars. Two children, twelve-year-old Santos and thirteen-year-old David Rodriguez were taken from their home and brought to the scene of the crime.
In an attempt to frighten twelve-year-old Santos Rodriguez into confessing, Officer Darrell L. Cain, after thinking he had emptied his service revolver of all its bullets, fired it at the boy; the second time he pulled the trigger, the gun discharged killing Santos Rodriguez, still handcuffed. Cain was sentenced to five years in prison, he served half of it. The City of Dallas apologized to the Rodriguez family forty years later. On March 18, 2009, NFL player Ryan Moats's mother-in-law, Jonetta Collinsworth, died from breast cancer. Moats, his wife Tamisha and other family members rushed to Baylor Regional Medical Center in Plano, when they were informed that she was close to death. After driving through a red light, Moats was stopped by police officer Robert Powell who delayed him for more than 10 minutes outside the hospital's emergency room, allowing the rest of the family to leave after Moats's ordeal was corrob